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- Volume 17, Issue 1, 2005
Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa - Volume 17, Issue 1, 2005
Volume 17, Issue 1, 2005
Author P.A. ScottSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17 (2005)More Less
This issue of esa includes four interesting and diverse papers all highly relevant to the application of ergonomics in developing areas, most of which are faced with the challenge of addressing basic physical problems, while at the same time they are making every effort to keep pace with the exponential advancement of technology. The papers are a good example of the broad scope of ergonomics and the practical use of ergonomics in physically taxing and cognitively challenging situations which are juxtaposed in so many industrially developing nations today.
Ergonomic study on workers using grinding tools in organized sector and proposed design to eliminate physical trauma during work : research articleSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 2 –12 (2005)More Less
A grinding machine is a very common tool in both organized and informal sectors, and it is evident that workmen using this tool often develop various musculoskeletal disorders. This is due to two major facts; primarily the stress of bearing the tool weight in their hands, and to a certain extent as the result of vibrations, depending upon the type of grinder, and secondarily due to the awkward working posture adopted by the workers. These features together aggravate the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorder. The intention of this paper was to propose a design or a setup (Zig), which will eliminate the risk of development of these disorders. An effort was made to provide a better working tool, or a better work layout depending on the demands and feedback from the workmen. The Zig, along with the grinder, has to be considered as a complete tool, and depending on the infrastructure and the demands of the job the specifications of the Zig design can be altered. We hope that the design is effective, and its implementation in the required situation should give fruitful results.
HCI accessibility guidelines and illiteracy : developing a model of illiteracy and engagement with technology : research articleSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 13 –24 (2005)More Less
This paper argues that there has not been any consistent consideration or any coherency in the notion of illiteracy and poor educational attainment in the HCI literature and the resultant accessibility guidelines. This paper firstly highlights the importance of illiteracy as an accessibility problem for computer-based products and applications, next it sets out to show the initial stages of the development of a model of illiteracy in the domain of information and computer technology. The implications for this model in providing a framework for facilitating accessibility guidelines for illiterate users and for assisting with accessibility design alternatives are discussed. This paper illustrates the enormous challenges and complexities associated with attempts to develop a theoretical model applicable to interface design recommendations for illiterate users.
Source: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 25 –40 (2005)More Less
Functional strength is understood as the exertion of muscle strength by an individual in order to carry out functional tasks such as driving a delivery truck that requires the pushing of the gear lever and foot pedals or in the lifting and stacking of boxes. Manual handling of heavy objects requires just such functional strength. It is not an isolated muscle action, but a synergistic action that is the result of both characteristics of the individual and the environment in which they are working. A review of the literature relating to the influences on human functional strength exertion was conducted with the focus on aspects of functional strength for manual handling which could be applied within an ergonomics context. The aim was to understand the challenge in collecting and presenting human strength data which can be best applied by ergonomists and engineers alike to improve the human interface of products, vehicles or machines. The characteristics of the individual such as anthropometric dimensions, aerobic capacity and fitness levels are known to contribute to the ability to exert strength and carry out manual handling tasks which are required in many jobs. The influences such as the environmental stressors, hand coupling and working in restricted spaces have also been discussed. The determination of manual handling capability of an individual or population by a functional test that relates specifically to the ergonomic components of the job remains the most applicable form of data collection.
Source: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 41 –49 (2005)More Less
Acknowledging the specificity of assessing maximal output, the purpose of this paper was to compare the physiological and perceptual responses during a traditional running activity and the common industrial task of lifting; both were taken to maximal effort. The responses of eight male participants were measured during both physical activities separated by at least five days: i) a progressive speed protocol (PSP) involved running on a treadmill at increasing speeds, starting at 10 km.h-1 and increasing by 1 km.h-1 every minute until exhaustion; ii) a progressive frequency protocol (PFP) required participants to lift a load of 20% body mass at increasing lifting frequencies, starting at one lift every 10s and reducing the time between lifts by 1s every minute until exhaustion. Physiological responses were measured using a portable on-line system, the K4b2 (Cosmed®). "Central" perceptual measures were obtained every minute using the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale.
Results : Responses increased progressively with augmented exercise intensity in both protocols; however, oxygen consumption and peak oxygen values were both lower during the lifting protocol compared to the running protocol. In contrast to the oxygen uptake responses, peak RER values were significantly higher during lifting (mean of 1.32) than running (mean of 1.18), while maximal heart rate and perceptual responses revealed no significant difference between the two protocols. These findings caution against using the 'traditional' treadmill protocol to assess the aerobic capacity of manual labourers involved in lifting, as it is evident that the traditional lower body protocol will indicate a higher capacity than the maximum capacity of an upper body activity, which could lead to manual labourers being taxed beyond acceptable limits.