n Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa - The effects of load and gradient on hand force responses during dynamic pushing and pulling tasks

Volume 20, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1010-2728



The limited attention afforded to push / pull activities and the motion phases (initial,sustained and ending) characteristic of these tasks has prompted a research focus in this area. The present study examined biomechanical responses in the form of hand forces during dynamic submaximal trolley pushing and pulling. Participants pushed / pulled loads of 100, 200 and 300 kg on the level (determining impact of load) or pushed 100 kg along a 12° ramp (uphill and downhill - determining impact of gradient).

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