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- Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa
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- Volume 26, Issue 1, 2014
Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa - Volume 26, Issue 1, 2014
Volume 26, Issue 1, 2014
Source: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 26 (2014)More Less
This special edition emerged from the First South African Symposium on Human Factors and Aviation that was held in January this year. The Symposium attracted delegates from seventeen countries and about forty papers were presented by practitioners and academics. This edition includes a few of the papers on various themes, all of which relate to aviation safety. The aviation industry prides itself on being the safest of the transport industries, and constantly strives to maintain this position.
Source: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 26, pp 2 –18 (2014)More Less
This study identified factors associated with runway incursions and loss of separation in air traffic control (ATC) based on safety event reports from the years 2010 to 2012 in an African country. The main objective of ATC is to ensure the safe and orderly movement of aircraft both through airspace and on the ground at aerodromes. Eighty-four safety event reports on loss of separation incidents and runway incursions were analysed from airports across the country concerned. Core factors that were explored included factors that were cited in the reports as causes of the safety events, human factors, external factors and risk factors identified in the reports. Content analysis, cluster analyses and multivariate logistic regressions were used. Results showed that in terms of the causal factors that were stated in the reports, incomplete clearance issues, and radar and visual monitoring failures were strong predictors of loss of separation. Although these errors also predicted runway incursions, they were not strong predictors of this safety event. Of the human factors cluster, only errors in information processing (specifically interpretation and auditory detection errors) were significantly associated with safety events. In addition, physical workplace designs, poor adherence to co-ordination standards and lack of memory cues were associated with safety events.
Critical incident reporting systems : perceived competing social consequences considered by reportersSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 26, pp 19 –30 (2014)More Less
The safe operation of complex socio-technical systems is dependent upon the reporting of safety critical incidents by operators within a system. Through the action of reporting, systems develop the capability as a learning organisation to improve human and organisational performance. The aim of the study is therefore to develop a richer understanding of reporter behaviour that is influenced by the safety management system and the social context within an Air Navigation Service Provider in Africa. A case study methodology was applied with complementing inductive coding and thematic content analysis to explore underlying explanations for underreporting behavior. The findings of the study illustrated the prominence of self-preservation beyond system demands as well as the premium that operators place on context when determining which incidents should be reported. An additional five competing consequences added to the complex dilemma of judging reportable incidents. The key implication of the study is that high risk organisations should acknowledge the existence of the social construction of reporting, while associated adjustments to the reporting system may have benefits to the safety performance of an organisation through increased reporting and greater insight into system deficiencies.
Source: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 26, pp 31 –43 (2014)More Less
Stress presents a serious challenge in air traffic control and requires air traffic controllers to develop coping resources to effectively deal with work-related stress. This study explored the coping resources that air traffic controllers used to cope with work-related stress, and determined if there are statistically significant differences in the coping resources of air traffic control staff from different demographic sub-groups. Air travel has increased and is expected to continue to increase as more people are choosing flying as a convenient and quick mode of transport. With the increase in air traffic, it is expected that air traffic controllers will experience more stress as there will be more aircraft in the sky to separate. A convenience sample of 82 responses out of 100 distributed questionnaires was received. The results showed that air traffic controllers mostly use emotional coping resources to cope with stressful work situations and make less use of cognitive coping resources. There are no statistically significant differences in the coping behaviour of air traffic control staff from different demographic sub-groups. This study only explored how air traffic controllers cope with stress and relied on previous studies on what causes stress in air traffic control.
Source: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 26, pp 44 –63 (2014)More Less
This article reports on the construction of the Automation Attitude Questionnaire (AAQ), which assesses airline pilots' perceptions about operating advanced commercial aircraft. A total of 262 airline pilots from a large South African carrier participated in the validation of the instrument. A five-factor measurement model was established after applying several rounds of exploratory factor analysis. The five factors associated with pilots' perceptions of advanced flight deck automation were labelled understanding, training, trust, workload, and design. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients and the mean inter-item correlation of each factor were highly satisfactory and confirmed the homogeneity and unidimensionality of the five-factor solution for the AAQ.
Good sleep, good health, good performance. It's obvious, or is it? The importance of education programmes in general fatigue managementAuthor Jonathan DavySource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 26, pp 64 –73 (2014)More Less
Obtaining sufficient sleep is critical for effective recovery, performance and the maintenance of health. There is general consensus that sleep loss has become an occupational risk factor that is associated with reduced performance and productivity, increased risk and negative long term health developments. Within the workplace, the practice of shift work and other types of atypical work schedules have been linked to sleep loss. In the context of aviation, an ultra-safe industry, the management of sleep loss and fatigue is critical; this can be achieved through the implementation of Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS), which form part of the overall Safety Management System. These systems provide a multi-layered approach to managing specific risks in an industry such as aviation. A major component of FRMS (that is sometimes neglected) is the inclusion of a scientifically-based educational and awareness programme that provides training and information about how best to manage the effects of atypical work schedules. More specifically, these programmes highlight the associated health and work-related risks, how to practice good sleep hygiene in the contexts of both the work and home environments and mechanisms to recognise and manage fatigue and sleepiness while at work. Despite requiring extensive investments of time and expertise, these education programmes do contribute to empowering the worker to take responsibility for their own 'fitness for duty', which in turn assists in proactively reducing the incidence of fatigue and sleepiness-related events.