oa ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa - Right to clean and safe water under the Kenyan Constitution 2010 : feature

Volume 14, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1684-260X



Water is essential for the survival of all human beings. However, in Kenya access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is limited: an estimated 41% of the population relies on unprotected wells, springs or informal water providers (WHO & UNICEF, Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water, 2010) while 69% do not have access to safe and hygienic toilets or latrines. Types of water uses vary, based on the individual customs of communities: while all communities need water for drinking, cooking, hygiene, agriculture and livestock, some communities also use it for religious ceremonies. The importance of water and its primacy for many cultures has prompted debates on recognising the right to water as a self-standing and independent human right.

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