n Southern African Forestry Journal - Exotic pine forestry in the Southern Hemisphere : a brief history of establishment and quarantine practices : review paper

Volume 2001, Issue 192
  • ISSN : 0038-2167



Afforestation with exotic softwoods commenced in the Southern Hemisphere at the end of the 19th century. Initially the areas under afforestation were small, but today, exotic plantation species are the basis of huge forestry industries, forming a crucial component of the economies of many countries. Early plantations were relatively free of pests and diseases. However, as the industry expanded, so did pest and disease problems. Initially, quarantine regulations were non-existent or poorly enforced, but in the later part of the 20th century rigorous quarantine regulations were implemented. More recently, the opening of global markets and the increase in trade has increased the risk of introducing new pests and pathogens. The potential losses to the forestry industry are immeasurable and vigilance is required from importers, exporters and even tree breeders moving germplasm, to prevent the spread of pathogens around the world. This review considers the history of softwood forestry and quarantine in some of the most important producers of forest products in the Southern Hemisphere, namely South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

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