n Southern African Forestry Journal - Post establishment survival of Pinus patula in Mpumalanga, one year after planting : scientific paper
|Article Title||Post establishment survival of Pinus patula in Mpumalanga, one year after planting : scientific paper|
|© Publisher:||South African Institute of Forestry (SAIF)|
|Journal||Southern African Forestry Journal|
|Publication Date||Nov 2005|
|Pages||3 - 11|
|Keyword(s)||Fusarium circinatum, Pathogens, Pests, Pine establishment, Pinus patula, Pitch canker and Seedling survival|
Recent evidence indicated that the pathogen <I>Fusarium circinatum</I> might be contributing significantly to post-planting mortality. Consequently, sixteen experimental sample plots, widely distributed over many localities in Mpumalanga, were established over two growing seasons to quantify the extent of pest and pathogen related in-field mortality. Survival in all treatments was extremely low. There was large variation in response to treatments and survival in the different trials. A single application of fungicide at planting improved survival by 13% on average, while a single application of fungicide and insecticide at planting improved survival by 29% on average. Most of the mortality occurred between 30 and 140 days after planting. Visual inspection of the dead plants indicated that White grubs and <I>Hylastes angustatus</I> caused most of the insect-related mortality. Pathogen isolation from a sub-sample of dying plants indicated that 49% of dying plants were pathogen-free, while <I> F. circinatum</I> was the prevailing fungus, isolated from 42% of the dying plants. It is estimated (95% confidence level) that <I>F. circinatum</I> was responsible for an 18.5% to 31.5% decline in survival in the monitored compartments, planted between November 2002 and March 2004 in Mpumalanga.
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