Gender and Behaviour - Volume 1, Issue 1, 2003
Volume 1, Issue 1, 2003
Source: Gender and Behaviour 1, pp 1 –15 (2003)More Less
Reproductive Health is usually focused upon women in their reproductive years, but this does not include girls who have not begun procreation nor women who are past the age of reproduction. In this paper, we focus attention upon women in menopause, realizing that they form a significant proportion of the female population and with longer life expectancy, women are more likely to be in the post menopausal stage for a longer period of their lives. The study takes on a bio-psycho-social analytical framework to examine the health status of women in menopause in Nigeria. Recognising the importance of the socio-cultural dimension to the evaluation of one's health status, the study took a cross-cultural research approach, integrating both quantitative and qualitative methods. A number of physical conditions were commonly associated with menopause, including weakness, internal heat, waist pains, 'false pregnancy', general body pain, headache, shrinking of the body, vaginal dryness, sweating, dizziness, restlessness and unhappiness. The perception concerning the degree of severity of these conditions varied by individual, but also by ethnic group. These perceptions were also found to be related to the women's attitudes to ageing in general and menopause, specifically. Nearly one-half of the women did not know about any treatments for these symptoms, but this also varied by ethnic group. It is recommended that there is a need for sensitisation of the general public, including health care providers and enlightenment of female concerning menopause.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 1, pp 16 –33 (2003)More Less
The aim of this study is to explore or elicit the experiences of battered women, their mental health consequences and their attempts to deal with their battering in Namibia.
The sample consisted of 60 battered women who were seen at the Woman and Protection Units. Results indicate that women had experienced financial abuse (81.7), emotional abuse (60), physical abuse (53.3), and sexual abuse (26.6). Three quarters of the women reported various forms of relationship disability and psychological dysfunction, half reported life restrictions and impairment of their health status, and a few abused alcohol, drugs or smoked excessively. As a last resort all respondents approached the Women and Child Protection Unit for help, many kept quiet or went to a priest, a quarter went to legal authorities and only a few to neighbours or psychosocial professionals (social workers). Results are discussed in terms of violence characteristics and contributing factors as well as psychosocial impact of women battering.
Author Henrietta AbaneSource: Gender and Behaviour 1, pp 34 –54 (2003)More Less
This paper presents the findings of a study into marital conflict in Ghana using Cape Coast as a case study. Data from FIDA (Ghana) and the Department of Social Welfare as well as some media reports suggest that marital conflict is on the increase. Primary data for the study were collected through interviewing and a focus group discussion and this was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Marital conflict in the study area was perceived to be related to a wide array of factors which were grouped into five interrelated categories. These are: personal attribute of spouse, domestic family life factors, sociocultural factors, socioeconomic factors and factors of structural inequality. Out of these groups the most important factors identified by respondents included the following: irritating behaviour of spouses such as drinking, gambling and pilfering; maltreatment of children, step children and other relatives; insufficient housekeeping money; interference from in-laws and other kin; and disagreement over roles and responsibilities of spouses. The data indicated that psychological battering was common and employed by both spouses. About a third of females indicated they had been victims of physical abuse yet kept their abusive relationship because they were constrained by a network of social, cultural and economic barriers. Respondents' perception of gender relations in society informed their relationship to the opposite sex and this they carried over into marriage to influence the marital conflict behaviour of spouses.
Author Vanita PatwardhanSource: Gender and Behaviour 1, pp 55 –71 (2003)More Less
The investigation aims at exploring attitude towards women in the war-torn developing country - Eritrea, Africa. There were 382 participants (176 women and 206 men) whose age ranged from 16 to 83 years and educational level ranged from graduation to illiteracy. They attempted two inventories, namely, 'Our Attitude towards Women' (OAW) and 'Our Thoughts and Beliefs' (OTB) measuring attitude towards women and culture in a society respectively. The results suggest that in general, the Eritreans showed favorable attitude towards women. The differences in the attitude along gender, educational level, educational level, national groups, age, and marital status are discussed. The r of -0.082 between OAW and OTB is low indicating meager relationship between attitude towards women and the culture among Eritreans. This finding was confirmed in the analysis of top 10 and bottom 10 participants on OAW. The investigation suggests that improvement should be made in the attitude towards women of males and of low educated subgroups, through intervention programs.
Author B.O. OlleySource: Gender and Behaviour 1, pp 72 –82 (2003)More Less
Biopsychosocial approaches have been advocated in the caring for persons with AIDS. These approaches are based on clinical and empirical observations of the importance of psychosocial factors in the course of HIV disease. Evidence suggests that psychosocial factors have a significant and marked effect on women infected with HIV. In the face of documented empirical evidence of the psychosocial impact of HIV on women, this article briefly reviews the psychoimmunologic course of HIV infection in women and discusses possible treatment regimen options, which may be important to health care workers in meeting the mental health needs of infected women and improving their quality of life.
Relationship between participation of women's associations in community development projects and group behaviours in the rural areas of Osun State, NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 1, pp 83 –93 (2003)More Less
The study investigated the relationship between participation women's associations in community development projects and the selected group behaviors in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria.
Structured interview schedule was employed to elicit quantitative information from 60 randomly selected women's associations (30 formal and 30 informal) from the six rural local government areas, consisting of one local government area from each of the six administrative zones in Osun State of Nigeria.
Descriptive analysis revealed that the participation of the women's associations in the development projects of their communities was average with a mean of about three projects over a period of ten years. Correlation analysis further reveals that there is positive and significant relationship between the decision-making system, and provision of reward for active members and officials; and participation of women's associations in rural community development projects.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 1, pp 94 –114 (2003)More Less
In Nigeria, as elsewhere in the world, the last two decades have witnessed special attention being focused on women and their advancement in all spheres of life. There appears to be consensus in literature that access to and acquisition of formal education has been a major determinant of life chances in the contemporary world. Many studies have established gender differential to formal education, with women at the disadvantaged position, in most countries of the world. It is also noted that employment opportunities is a function of the level and the kind of formal education acquired. Hence, more women than men live below poverty line in most countries as a result of their subordinate roles at the point of employment. It is therefore the submission of this paper that sustainable human development would be unrealizable if approximately half of the human-race - the women-folk - remain ignorant, marginalized and discriminated against.
Available data on school enrolment in Nigeria was obtained to fully explain the subject matter of this paper. The paper establishes the link between the level, kind and quality of formal education received by women, their employment status and poverty. It outlined overall trends in women's participation in the labour force and then focus on the position of women who are working as employees. The experience of women in the world of work and the extent to which their earnings fall below commonly used low pay benchmarks are critically examined. It is the submission of this paper that the proportion of women in poverty will continue to rise if traces of gender discrimination in the educational system, especially in the area of curriculum development, instructional materials, career choices, among others are not immediately addressed. Pragmatic policy options aimed at reversing the poverty trend were highlighted.