Gender and Behaviour - Volume 10, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 10, Issue 1, 2012
Author A.A. OlowuSource: Gender and Behaviour 10 (2012)More Less
With this Volume Ten Number One, 2012 we have maintained our younger journal; Gender & Behaviour for a decade. The Twenty articles that make this issue are from every corner of the world, all aimed at illuminating the gender and behaviour studies terrain. In December 2012, we shall publish the Volume 10, Number 2 with our DECADE INDEX of Gender & Behaviour.
The relationship between gender, cumulative adversities and mental health of employees in workplace settings in Gauteng Province, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4319 –4343 (2012)More Less
This study investigated whether (1) males and females will differ on cumulative adversities (CAs) and exposure to violence during childhood (hypothesis one) and (2) whether CAs and exposure to violence will predict poor mental health report (hypothesis two). CAs were measured in three forms (family adversities (CAFam), personal adversities (CAPerAdv) and childhood adversities (CAChildAdv). Exposure to violence was either indirect (CEDV1) or direct (CEDV2). Mental health was measured with GHQ-28. Five hundred participants were randomly selected from three hospital complexes in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data was collected using a questionnaire with three sections. Age of employees ranged between 18-65 years. Males were 251 (50.2%) and females were 249 (49.8%). Mean age of employees was 33.8 years (SD = 11.0). Results of the study showed significant differences between males and females on two of the CA measurements: Family adversities (CA FamAdv), t = (498) = 3.64, p < .0001 and Personal adversity (CAPerAdv), t = (498) = 2.37, p < .01. Males had higher mean scores than females on Family adversities (X-bar 4.87 versus X-bar 3.73) and personal adversities (X-bar 3.11 versus X-bar 2.52). In addition, there was also a significant main effect for direct exposure to violence (CEDV2), t = (498) = 3.00, p < .003 with males scoring higher than females (X-bar 16.9 versus X-bar 14.5). There were no significant results for Cumulative Childhood adversity (CA.ChildAdv), indirect exposure (CEDV1) and the four subscales of mental health-somatic complaints, anxiety, social dysfunctions and depression and gender.
Results also show that family, personal, childhood adversities, indirect and direct exposure to violence in childhood jointly predicted poor mental health, R2 = 0.35, F (5, 440) = 47.49, p < .0001 explaining 59% of the total variance on poor mental health. Only personal adversities, (b = .35, t (445) = 7.56, p < .01), direct exposure (CEDV2) (b = .37, t (445 = 6.25, p < .01) and indirect exposure (CEDV1) (b = -.123, t (445) = -2.18, p < .05) significantly predicted poor mental health outcomes. Gender did not predict poor mental health outcome and therefore was excluded in the model. Recommendations were made in light of the findings of the study including a regular psychological evaluation of workers in wellness programmes.
Author Dejo OlowuSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4344 –4357 (2012)More Less
This article reflects on the gendered burdens of AIDS-care within the family, and some of the difficulties in redressing them. It demonstrates the need for research-driven initiatives towards quantifying the gendered inequities in the burden of care, using Lesotho as case study. The article accentuates the gender aspects of AIDS burden of care, pointing to familiar problems: the difficulties of making women visible; prioritising their needs; and tackling the disadvantages and inequities which women systematically suffer. These problems underscore the importance of mainstreaming women in AIDS-related research in all ramifications. Such research will help to make women visible, highlight their needs, and bring into the frame of analysing shadowy realms of AIDS on households. While the findings of this study are essentially situated in the Lesotho context, their far-reaching implications for the Southern African region and indeed the African continent are adequately highlighted.
Author John O. EkoreSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4358 –4369 (2012)More Less
The investigation of gender differences in perception of sexual harassment among students was necessitated by the need to address interpersonal violence as a psychosocial problem. Though it has attracted much attention by universities in developed countries, it is not the case in Nigeria where the level of awareness among students and staff is low while the problem exists.
The survey utilized a 12-item sexual harassment scale designed for the research. Data collection involved a sample of 420 respondents (both male and females) who are students in various faculties in the University of Ibadan.
Findings revealed a high perception of sexual harassment on all the items, and females were higher than the males on all the sexual harassment items (t=2.57, df=418, p<.05). This confirmed the predicted hypothesis that male and females differ in their perception of what constitute sexual harassment in the university. The need to establish a center to handle sensitization of the university community about the contents and consequences of sexual harassment on one hand, and its prevention and control on the other was recommended.
Pregnancy duration and choice of ante-natal and delivery care in selected rural and mixed urban areas of Ijebu, South Western NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4370 –4385 (2012)More Less
Pregnancy duration and choice of care for maternal health are crucial primary health issues that the World Health Organization (WHO) keeps constant in the campaign for all round healthcare delivery for mother and child. To be sure, there is consensus on the need for optimal care for the mother and baby; this is believed to enhance the mother and child social development and biological growth and to reduce maternal and infant mortality and morbidity which are prevalent in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan Africa countries.
The study thus, investigates challenges being faced by the mothers, which are sometime inconsistent to their socio-economic pursuits, growth and maternal well being. Other objectives include understanding of inhibitions and determinants to pregnant healthcare consumptions contribution in terms of culture, income, occupation etc.
Methodologically, sample size of 152 respondents was selected for interview through purposeful random sampling among the pregnant and nursing mothers between the age of 15 to 49 years in Ijebu-Yoruba south western Nigeria involving mixed urban (i.e. informal and informal sectors) and the rural societies. The methods of data collection were survey method and in-depth (IDI) interviews. 10 in-depth interviews for mothers, fathers, health givers and opinions leaders were conducted. The data were analyzed through simple statistical method and content analysis for IDI. Data revealed strong significant but inverse relationship between the socio-cultural factors and choice of health care also incongruous relationship between the pregnant woman and nursing mother's residence and healthcare consumption.
The results amongst other things saw culture of patriarch, income, occupation and where one reside acting as determinants for when commences care and the choice of healthcare centre. The ethnographic result also confirmed this much that men are the key to their wives choice of care during pregnancy this is because majority of them still pay the medical bill. It is therefore suggested that government, international agencies and concerned non-governmental organization (NGOs) should intensify effort to open up rural and mixed urban settlements to Human Development Amenities (HDA) and bring about a strong intervention to bring about adequate maternal healthcare delivery.
Socio-economic perspectives of male sexual challenges and inter-spousal communication in a mono-cultural settingAuthor Emmanuel Olagunju AmooSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4386 –4400 (2012)More Less
The study examined the socio-economic context of husband's sexual deficiency on husband-wife communication among the Yoruba in the southwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study adopted a structured face-to-face interview among 145 couples in the ratio of 50:50 among couples with husbands that have sexual challenges and the control group. Four focus group discussions were also held among the wives and segregated by age (15-34 and 35-54 years). The mean age of the population is 40 years (husbands = 42 years and wives = 38 years). The study shows that income and employment status are significantly related to couple's communication at p-value less than 0.05. It also revealed that education and frequency of intercourse are vital predictors of inter-spousal communication notwithstanding the sexual condition of the husband (p-value of 0.000 each). The author therefore recommended that marriage counsellors, social workers and other health official should target massive public awareness on male sexual diseases and equitable employment for all men who have sexual health challenges in order to stimulate mutual harmonious communication between husband and wife and enhance effective management of crisis at home fronts.
Author Pholoho MorojeleSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4401 –4417 (2012)More Less
This paper discusses girls' performances of gender amid insidious patriarchal ideologies in three rural co-educational primary schools in Lesotho. It draws on a doctoral study on constructions of gender in the context of the country's policy of Free Primary Education. Social constructionism framed the study; qualitative data was drawn from grade 7 learners and teachers in the form of informal discussions and participant observations. The analysis shows dynamics of gender inequalities within the schools, and how girls exercised agency by performing gender in ways that defied and navigated demeaning patriarchal tendencies. Girls' innovative performances of gender provide a basis on which education reforms aimed to address gender inequality in schools could begin.
Community-perceived state of women empowerment in some rural areas of Limpopo Province, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4418 –4432 (2012)More Less
Active involvement of grassroots community members in finding sustainable solutions to women empowerment is crucial. However, it is necessary to build a common understanding, among local interest groups, of the current state of women empowerment first. This study investigated the perceived state of women empowerment in some rural areas of Makhado Municipality in South Africa. A total of 5 924 people comprising children, youth, women, men and local leaders voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from 41 villages in three Wards through reflection circles in which questionnaires requiring responses on a Likert-type scale were administered. Although the state of women empowerment in terms of access to resources, awareness creation, participation and control was appreciable, considerable challenges still existed. The results of this study underscored the need for mounting capacity enhancement interventions to address the challenges confronting women empowerment in rural areas.
Author Dinah Baah-OdoomSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4433 –4442 (2012)More Less
This study examined male students' social representation of HIV/AIDS and how these representations influence their personal sense of risk and sexual behaviours. The study found a partial support to the social representation hypothesis that blame out-groups and African sexuality, may be sensitive to a broader construct of distancing. Personal moral attitudes about the sexual practices may be associated with safer sex. The results suggested the value of pursuing the investigation of personal moral attitudes as a potential factor in sexual behaviour.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4443 –4469 (2012)More Less
There has been a great deal of research on sexual violence in Nigeria, but very few have examined its effects on people who are indirectly exposed. Using a case study approach, this quantitative and descriptive analysis explored the incidence and consequences of sexual violence, particularly rape, occurring among Nigerian university students' acquaintance. It discusses the concept of vicarious trauma as a form of post-traumatic stress response sometimes experienced by those who are indirectly exposed to traumatic events. It summarizes recent research literature related to this construct and offers suggestions on how to limit or prevent vicarious trauma. It also presents self-care strategies as well as training and organizational considerations that may be beneficial for individuals and organizations to address. Implications for practice and further research are also discussed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4470 –4479 (2012)More Less
Teenage Pregnancy is fast becoming a regular trend today in Nigeria. This is due to the fact that most parents still feel it is absurd to educate their children on sex education. As a result of this most teenagers learn about sex education through their peers, mass media, etc. Due to the low level of knowledge of these teenagers on sex education, the level of teenage pregnancy tends to be on the increase.
The library as an institution therefore has the responsibility to provide information contained in information materials of various format to the target group in order to curb the challenge of teenage pregnancy. The Federal Government, Nigerian Library Association and other stake holders need to collaborate to establish school libraries and public libraries where they are nonexistent and revitalize these libraries where they are existing but not functional. These libraries should also carry out their function thoroughly by collaborating with Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) to organize programs that will serve as a form of orientation to teenagers on teenage pregnancy and how it can be avoided.
Socio-demographic variables as predictors of knowledge, attitude and behaviour of undergraduates in reproductive health and HIV preventionSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4480 –4491 (2012)More Less
Reproductive health problems and HIV and AIDS continue to be a major public health problem affecting mostly the youths. Consequently, various interventions have been used to reach young people with the aim of preventing the spread of HIV. The purpose of this study is to find out the contributions of undergraduate students' demographic variables in facilitating their knowledge of reproductive health including HIV and AIDS issues, change in attitudes and behaviour towards the prevention of HIV. A sample of 1,036 undergraduates, 548 male and 488 female students was involved in the study. The sample was drawn from three old generation federal universities located in the South-west, Nigeria. An instrument which comprised of four Sections was used to collect data for the study. Regression analysis was used to analyse the data collected, and multiple regression analysis of variance (ANOVA). Beta weights and t-test were used to test the level of significance. The six socio-demographic variables (course of study, level, marital status, age, religion, gender) jointly account for 6% of the total variance in undergraduates' knowledge of reproductive health, HIV Prevention Issues, Attitudes and behaviours. Course of study, marital status and age of respondents contributed significantly to undergraduates' knowledge of reproductive health including HIV and AIDS issues, change in attitudes and behaviour towards HIV prevention.
Effect of peer and self-assessment on male and female students' self-efficacy and self-autonomy in the learning of mathematicsAuthor Alaba Adeyemi AdediwuraSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4492 –4508 (2012)More Less
This study investigated the effect of peer and self assessment on the self-efficacy and students' learner autonomy in the learning of mathematics as well as determining the attitude of male and female students towards the use of peer and self assessment. The population was made of senior secondary three students (SS3) of a state public school in Osun State. A total of 60 SS3 students made up the study sample with sex serving as the stratum. Two questionnaires were used for data collection. The first questionnaire was aimed at collecting information about the students' study habit and math self-efficacy. While the second questionnaire in addition to collecting information about students' study habit, and math self-efficacy, it was also aimed at collecting information about students' attitudes towards peer and self-assessment. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive, Z-test, chi-square and t-test statistics. The result of the study showed that, the use of peer and self-assessment in math lessons enhance students' self-efficacy and promote learner autonomy in learning mathematics. It was discovered that while there is no significant relationship between sex and enhancement of self-efficacy as a result of students' engagement with the use of peer and self-assessment, the enhanced students' leaner autonomy that was noticed in the sampled students is significantly influenced by their sex. Furthermore, the study revealed that the students have positive attitude towards the use of peer and self-assessment and that their attitude towards the use of these assessment strategies is independent of sex. The study concluded therefore that the use of peer and self-assessment should not be made to stress or create negative attitude in the students. Thus, peer and self-assessment activities should be separated from formal assessment in our schools.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4509 –4522 (2012)More Less
The aim of this study was to assess body weight and body image among South African male and female university students. Participants (N=289), 189 women and 100 men, were systematically chosen from non-health sciences courses in a class setting. The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) comprising of 10 subscales was administered and anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were taken. Results indicate that almost one-third (30.5%) of the women and 8.7% of the men were overweight or obese, and 15.2% of the men and 9.6% of the women were underweight, 3.4% of the women and none of the men were obese. A large proportion of the males and of the females had misconceptions about their body weight. Multivariable linear regression identified for women self-classified overweight, negative appearance orientation, positive health evaluation, positive illness orientation and overweight preoccupation as independent predictors for Body Mass Index (BMI), and for men self-classified overweight and overweight preoccupation as independent predictors for BMI. Body image perceptions are important in the management of weight control.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4523 –4532 (2012)More Less
To ascertain the characteristics of sexual anxiety, the Sexual Anxiety Inventory (SAI), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1) were administered to 180 participants, aged 16-31 years.
To also determine the impact of psychotherapy on sexual anxiety, using Rational Emotive Behavior therapy
The participants were constituted into three groups based on their SAI score. Fifteen participants were selected for group therapy while fifteen were a control group.
A t-independent test comparison produced significant differences between the treated and the untreated groups gain scores in the three measures, thereby indicating the efficacy of Rational Emotive Therapy.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4533 –4545 (2012)More Less
Gender disparities in every economic sector are not peculiar to Zimbabwe, but have long been standing anomalies worldwide. It is well documented that the reasons that have largely disadvantaged women stem from patriarchy, customary law and the colonial legacy that continue to short-change women. As a result women's emancipation and empowerment has become the focus of international programmes and conferences for purposes of integrating them into the development process on an equal basis with their male counterparts. Within the past three decades, the United Nations organized World Conferences on Women in Mexico City (in 1975), Copenhagen (in 1980), Nairobi (in 1985) and Beijing, China (in 1995). These moves have been complemented by calls to promote gender sensitivity in the school curriculum. This study therefore attempts to critic the gender responsiveness of the curriculum in Zimbabwe. Focus will be placed on the nature of the content of most textbooks, as well as other relevant teaching and learning materials that are used, to ascertain the gender sensitivity of the curricular. Central to the research would be the need to find out the extent to which prescribed history, literature and other textbooks in general have balanced the capturing of heroes and heroines in their content. Even when talking about nationalist movements in Africa the major question would be: Who are the leaders who receive the lime light among the men and women of fame who dominate the historical events? These and many other related queries will form the bottom line of this research attempt. For purposes of carrying out this research, text analysis of educational curriculum documents were carried out. In-depth interviews were used to compliment the data collected through discourse analysis of the educational curricula.
Personal risk assessment of HIV/ AIDS infections among Nigerian adolescent girls in secondary schoolsAuthor Victor Ayebami TorubeliSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4546 –4562 (2012)More Less
This study investigated personal risk assessment of AIV/AIDS infections among adolescent girls in Nigeria. Four variables (age, knowledge and awareness, Parental status and family type) constituted the personal risk assessment of the adolescent girls. The sample consisted of 2000 adolescent girls using the stage sampling. Their ages ranged between 12 and 19 years (x = 16.5 year). The participants were draw from Bayelsa, Cross River, Akwa lbom and Benue states. A validated instrument, personal Risk Assessment Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Results showed that the four variables which constituted personal risk assessment of adolescent girls jointly and relatively contributed to the personal risk assessment of HIV/AIDS infections among the Nigerian adolescent girls. Implications for the study were highlighted.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4563 –4573 (2012)More Less
The study examined the pattern of sexual behaviour among middle and older adults in Ile-Ife. The study was a cross-sectional survey that collected data from middle and older adults in Ife Central Local Government Area using a multi-stage sampling technique. The sample consisted of 375 adults comprising of 170 middle adults (45.3%) and 205 older adults (54.7%). A standardized psychological instrument (Sexual Behaviour Scale) was used to collect data from the respondents. The results showed that the pattern of sexual behaviour, that is, holding hands 53.2%, hugging 52.1%, kissing 50.9%, fondling 58.0%, caressing 60.1%, vaginal sex 51.5%, use of condom with spouse 72.7% and use of condom with someone other than spouse 90.9%, and transactional sex 61.1% are more prevalent among middle adults than older adults while oral 78.9% and anal sex 100% are more prevalent among older adults than middle adults. Sex, religion, educational level, occupation and marital status do have a significant influence on the sexual behaviour of middle and older adults.
Senior High School female students' interest in physics as a course of study at the university level in GhanaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4574 –4584 (2012)More Less
The study of females' interest in physics is an issue of international concern. Of the sciences, physics is the subject in which the increase in the number of females involved has been particularly low. The term 'interest' may usually refers to preference to engage in some types of activities rather than others. This study investigated whether Ghanaian Senior High School female science students would prefer to study physics at the university or not and the reasons for their choice. Two hundred and one final year female students in four Senior High Schools offering biology, chemistry and physics in the Cape Coast Metropolis of the Central Region of Ghana, participated in the study. Data was obtained with Questionnaire on Female Participation in Physics and Interview Protocol, administered to the female students. The findings from the study suggest that female students do not prefer physics as a course of study at the university level due to limited career opportunities in the subject. An implication from this study is that female enrolment in physics will not improve unless information about career awareness in the subject is made available to students. Serious efforts must be made by physics educators as well as Physics Departments to create awareness of career opportunities in the study of physics.
Epileptic patient may be pardoned... but for AIDS you should know" : HIV/AIDS, stigma, discrimination and biographical disruptionSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4585 –4603 (2012)More Less
Objective : To determine the prevalence of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, and to identify the perceptions of community members towards HIV/AIDS and persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Ghana.
Methods : A cross-sectional survey of 45 PLWHA, 46 family members of the PLWHA, and 184 non-affected community members from three administrative districts in Ghana was conducted.
Results : Descriptive analysis revealed that only 17.8% of PLWHA indicated that their HIV status has strained relationship with family and community members. Almost half (46.7%) of the participants indicated that people in their communities perceive HIV/AIDS as a curse and slightly more than half (53.3%) see the disease as punishment from God. Over (86.7%) of PLWHA believed that community members feel threatened by the presence of the disease. Abandonment by family members/spouse/partners (66.6%), exclusion from social/family functions (51.1%) and spousal fighting or quarrelling (44.4%) were the dominant forms of stigmatization and discrimination experienced by PLWHA.
Conclusions : These findings are useful in guiding the design of interventions programmes in Ghana against HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Such intervention activities should incorporate traditional authority figures and the creation of employment opportunities which could serve as a long term solution to the spread of the disease.