Gender and Behaviour - Volume 10, Issue 2, 2012
Volume 10, Issue 2, 2012
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4627 –4644 (2012)More Less
Condom use is one of the effective means of HIV prevention among sexually active people. Even though HIV incidence has slightly decreased among the youth in South Africa, many young people still expose themselves to sexual risk behaviours. The aim of the study was to investigate factors that are associated with condom use and exposure to loveLife programmes among young people aged 18 to 24 years in South Africa. A cross-sectional population-based household survey in selected provinces in South Africa was conducted using a multi-stage disproportionate stratified cluster sampling approach. The sample (N=2138) used in the analysis for this paper only includes sexually active youth (18-24 years). Among the sexually active youth surveyed it was found that 78.9% reported using a condom at their last sexual intercourse; this was significantly higher among men (85.4%) than women (72.0%). In multivariate analysis, condom use among males was significantly associated with having not agreed with the statement - "It is acceptable to have sex with my sex partner even though my partner does not want to", having partner risk reduction self-efficacy, having talked with their partner about condoms in past 12 months, having had two or more sexual partners in the past year and loveLife programme exposure. Among females, condom use was significantly associated with partner risk reduction self-efficacy, and having talked with their partner about condoms in the past 12 months. The findings indicate higher condom use at last sex among young men when compared to women in South Africa. Condom use with non-regular partners is generally high and even higher among men compared to women. However, condom use with transactional partners is very low. Of concern are young mens' reported risk behaviours in having multiple partners. loveLife programme exposure has had a positive effect on condom use among young men. Therefore strategies are needed to improve regular condom use among youth with regular and transactional partners and reinforcing regular condom use with non-regular partners.
Author M.E. HoqueSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4645 –4656 (2012)More Less
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the sexual behaviours of 346 undergraduate students at Botswana University, using self-administered questionnaires. Presently, about two-thirds of the students reported, being sexually active. The majority used contraceptives, especially condoms. A large number of students were engaged in risky, sexual behaviours, such as having multiple sexual partners, inconsistent, contraceptives use, and intergenerational sex. It is necessary to modify the social and educational activities, to improve the understanding of the consequences of STI's and HIV and how risks could be minimized.
Exclusive breastfeeding in the contexts of socio-cultural challenges and mothers' health in rural and mixed urban areas of Ijebu, South Western Nigeria.Author Sunday Olusola Aluko-ArowoloSource: Gender and Behaviour 10 (2012)More Less
Optimal duration to breastfeed the new born baby is one of the crucial public health issues that the World Health Organization (WHO) keeps constant in its campaign for all round healthcare delivery for mother and child. To be sure, there is consensus on the need for exclusive breast feeding for the baby. This is believed to enhance the child social development and biological growth. However, at what social and economic cost to the mother? The study investigates challenges being faced by the mothers, which are sometime inconsistent to their socio-economic pursuits, growth and material well being. Other objectives include understanding of the pathways to mothers' healthcare consumption, such as post-partum lactation amenorrhea during the period of breastfeeding. Other challenges include lack of support/encouragement from employers (for those in the formal employment) and husbands' contribution to sustain the practice.
The study adopted qualitative approach to probe the extent of EBF among the mothers between the ages of 15 and 49 years and their husbands of ages between 18 and 60 in Ijebu-Yoruba South Western Nigeria, involving the mixed urban (i.e. informal and informal sectors) and the rural societies. The methods of data collection were Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and in-depth (IDI) interviews. There were eight (8) FGDs for mothers and the husbands and 10 in-depth interviews for mothers, father, health givers and opinions leaders. The data were analysed through content and descriptive method. Data revealed significant, but inverse relationship between the extent of breastfeeding and nutritional support for the mothers. There are also incongruous relationship between the mother's job and the extent of breastfeeding. Furthermore, it was revealed that, there was correlation between the health of the mother and the child and the extent of breastfeeding. Fourthly, mothers are believed to lose their prime and kinky body frame to sagging and unattractive frame, which makes their husbands to look elsewhere for other attractive women.
It is therefore suggested that government, international agencies and concerned non-governmental organization (NGOs) should intensify effort to open up rural and mixed urban settlements to Human Development Amenities (HAD) and bring about a strong intervention to Labour Law to bring about adequate period for maternity leave.
Analysis of the factors influencing the technical efficiency of women rubber tappers in the rubber belt of NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4678 –4686 (2012)More Less
The study analyzed the relationship between technical efficiency of women rubber tappers in Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City. A total of 60 women were selected through purposive and random sampling techniques and served with a structured interview schedule. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. Results of the analysis indicated that women tappers had a mean age of 33 years, have large family sizes, experienced and tapped a mean of 326 trees/ha with a mean annual output of 2,723 kg of dry rubber. Production function analysis further revealed that 91.40 % of the variations in technical efficiency were explained by the variations in socio - economic variables. Output, family size, education, man days of labour, total trees tapped and wage had positive and significant effect on the technical efficiency of women tappers. It is however recommended that increasing wage, access to quality education will enhance their production efficiency.
Gender analysis of production system and decision making in Fulani Agro-pastoral households in southwestern NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4687 –4711 (2012)More Less
The paper examines gender division of production system of Fulani Agro-pastoralists in three settlements in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, based on gender distribution of activities, roles and resource ownership and acquisition. Data were collected from 29 households comprising 165 respondents. Thirty activities and roles were identified; older men (>50years) performed 34.2 percent of entire activities; men (<50years), 66.8 percent; women, 48.6 percent; boys (<18years), 45.7 percent; and girls, 42.9 percent. Women spent 14.1hrs on agro-pastoral livelihoods compared to men's 13.2hrs. As the role of men is crucial in regulating agro-pastoral activities and gaining access to livelihood resources, the over-bearing of men's role in Fulani livelihoods system overshadowed women's potentials. Efforts at improving gender division of labour in agro-pastoral system will improve social relationship, remove any form of inequality, reduce workload for women, improve living condition and create more time for educational opportunities for children.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4712 –4731 (2012)More Less
The main aim of this study was to investigate the quality of service experienced by female spectators at a sporting event as well as well as to establish if there is a relationship between a core sport product and the product service scape in conjunction to female spectator satisfaction. The study also investigated the perceived value that female spectators receive from the total sport product which forms an integral part of the total market offering to spectators. It is important to establish this relationship as it will have an impact on future attendance of these type of events. In order to achieve the objectives of the study a survey was distributed to female spectators who watched soccer and basketball games on the grounds of a particular university. The respondents were exposed to the services, staff and activities in and around the stadium before, during and after the matches to ascertain total female satisfaction of the sporting event.
Are we not beneficiaries also? Portrayal of gender and land reform in Davie Mutasa's Sekai Minda Tave Nayo.Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4732 –4750 (2012)More Less
At independence Zimbabwe inherited a racially skewed land distribution pattern in favour of whites (Tshuma, 1997). The newly independent state embarked on a land reform programme which mainly focused on racial imbalances at the expense of gender imbalances (Moyo, 2006). Women were disadvantaged in both phases of the land reform programme. The reasons that have largely disadvantaged women stem from patriarchy, customary law and inheritance of colonial institutions and policies that continue to put women on the receiving end. Currently efforts are being made to ensure that women also enjoy the national cake. This paper explores the extent to which post independent Shona writers have become relevant by discussing the crucial aspects of the gendered perspective of the land question in Davie Mutasa's Sekai Minda Tave Nayo. The paper also questions if Shona fiction demonstrates the mismatch between the farmer in Africa, who is a woman and the failure to access crucial resources like land. It will also discuss the possible intervention strategies being proffered by Shona fiction in levelling the playing field between men and women in accessing and owning crucial resources like land. The study will be informed by the Gender and Development (GAD) approach in analysing the gendered perspective of the land reform programme in Zimbabwe. The paper therefore is an analysis of post independence Shona fiction's treatment of the gendered nature of post 1980 agrarian reforms in Zimbabwe.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4751 –4766 (2012)More Less
This paper examines gender issues in the recruitment and selection of academic staff in a Nigerian university. The recruitment and selection practices of the university are examined with a view to ascertaining whether such practices encourage male dominance. Primary data were obtained through the administration of questionnaires on 163 academic staff, using the stratified sampling technique. Ten staff occupying key administrative positions were purposively selected for interview. Results revealed that although men dominate academia, the recruitment and selection practices did not stress male ideology, rather merit was the yardstick for acceptance. The stressful nature of academia, discrimination, socio-cultural factors, female reproductive roles and lengthy period of training amongst others were disincentives for women's entry into academia. The study concluded that if the university is to be society's instrument for development, it should device means of ridding itself of the vestiges of gender imbalance in its composition of human resources.
Young adults perception of appropriateness of some domestic / home-related activities : implications for gender role acquisitionSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4767 –4791 (2012)More Less
The process of acquisition of appropriate gender role is both developmental and cultural. The study examined perception of appropriate gender role in the family and the actual participation in family work. The participants were 545 freshmen of a Federal university and a State University within Lagos, Nigeria. The participants ages ranges between 15 years to 32 years and mean age of 19.8years. 371 of the participants were of Yoruba origin, 112 are of Igbo origin and the remaining participants were from other ethnic groups. The home activity scale designed for the study was administered to assess their perception of appropriateness of 30 family works and the frequency of performing the task. The result shows that twelve of the family tasks are perceived as appropriate for women while only four are considered as male appropriate only. Thirteen tasks were perceived as appropriate for the two sexes. However, most of the tasks including those considered as appropriate for both sexes are performed frequently by women. The result shows that traditional gender role sill exists in the Nigerian society. It is important to note that most of the family works are performed by the women.
Dying along the ladder of stratification : a view of rural - urban dichotomy in malaria treatment among pregnant women in Ondo StateSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4792 –4812 (2012)More Less
Studies on malaria related maternal mortality in Nigeria have focused largely on preventive behaviours and healthcare providers' knowledge of treatment regimen. However, negligible attention has been paid to rural - urban differentials and treatment patterns adopted by care seekers in relevant contexts. This study, therefore, investigated the factors that influenced pregnant women's disposition to malaria treatment in rural and urban areas of Ondo state.
The Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Utilization Model were used as the theoretical framework. The study employed descriptive survey research design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques. Quantitative data were collected from 927 respondents selected through a multistage sampling technique in 10 Local Government Areas of the state. Qualitative data were elicited from six Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) conducted with Modern and Traditional health providers selected from the list of care providers in each LGA. The quantitative data were analysed employing descriptive statistics, chi-square, T-test and Ordinal Regression, while content analysis was used for the qualitative data.
Mild malaria were treated at home while severe cases were referred to formal health care, however moderate difference existed in rural (X=1.52, SD=0.49) and urban (X=1.29, SD=0.45) respondents' choice of treatment options. More urban men than their rural counterparts provided respondents first treatment for malaria. Rural respondents (20.9%) than their urban counterparts (19.7%) reported drug failure in their first treatment regimen.
Malaria treatment was influenced by socioeconomic and demographic factors both at rural and urban areas of the state. Policy and national programmes aimed at reduction in maternal mortality should recognise the cultural milieu given its linkage with the aetiology of disease. Without a deliberate intervention, malaria induced maternal morbidity and mortality will remain high not only in Ondo State but Nigeria in general.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4815 –4831 (2012)More Less
Aim of this research article embodies the measurement of attitude of teaching faculty in Peshawar University to assess cultural impediments with reference to women employment. A sample size of 210 respondents (university male teachers with different cadres) was randomly selected through proportional allocation basis. Chi square (χ2) and Kendall's tau-b statistics were used to determine the level of association and strength and direction of relationship. Majority of the respondents i.e. 199 (94.8%) opined that illiteracy serves as barrier to women employment in Pakhtun society, family income is controlled by male in Pakhtun culture (94.3%), households men mostly decide over the spending of money earned by female (63.3%), female ratio is less as compared to men in Pakhtun society 209 (95.5%) and the utilization of savings is usually determined by male members of the family (64.3%). Moreover, at bivariate level a positive (Tb = .166) with significant relationship (P < 0.05) was discovered between female ratio is less as compared to men amongst Pakhtun with women employment. Similarly, a positive (Tb = .166) with significant relationship (P < 0.05) was discovered between undue religious injunctions serve as barrier to women paid jobs and women employment. Less number of women to men at household composition with fallacies based on poor interpretation of religious injunctions, where women has been misunderstood under the prevalent cultural shadows with little autonomy in society and economy based on strong patriarchal system, was found as major impediments to women participation in job market. Scholarly endeavors are recommended as remedial paths jointly devised by religious and cultural custodians.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4832 –4848 (2012)More Less
It is common knowledge that social capital contributes to poverty reduction and development, especially in rural areas. Despite this fact, there has been little interest throughout the world regarding gender within the social capital debate. This study sought to establish the extent of differences in social capital endowments of women when compared to men in a rural farming community in Guruve District of Zimbabwe. Addressing this question could help unlock the potential benefits of social capital in addressing the problem of poverty from a gendered perspective. Based on the findings of both structured and unstructured interviews of 385 heads of household, it was found that women were significantly more likely to trust and engage in reciprocal arrangements with family members, friends, neighbours, formal institutions in their locality compared to men. This led to the conclusion that partnering with women could potentially lead to more successful implementation of projects in rural areas.
The correlation between cherry picking female consumers and product and price knowledge when buying groceries in Tshwane, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4849 –4863 (2012)More Less
Consumer knowledge and expertise of an industries prices, products and store location add to the ease at which consumers are able to cherry pick, they are informed of discounted prices on products as well as the product assortment of a particular store, through marketing and promotions.
This article will focus on the female consumers and their motive for cherry picking. Consumers who are branded as cherry pickers are price sensitive shoppers with no brand loyalty but this market segment has been found to be potentially attractive for retailers, contrary to the myth that they are a retailers' nemesis. The conducted research established that female South African consumers are able to confidently cherry pick because of their product and price knowledge. The research findings concluded that gender has an influence on the knowledge that the South African grocery consumers have on product prices, the types of stores and product assortment.
Grassroots communities' perceptions relating to extent of control as a pillar of women empowerment in Makhado municipality of South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4864 –4882 (2012)More Less
Empowerment aims at assisting the disadvantaged members of society to take control of their livelihoods. However, questions still arise as to whether women have full control of their lives given the socio-cultural dynamics that are at play in their communities. The study examined the extent to which 'control' was a factor in the empowerment of women in some rural areas of South Africa. A total of 5 924 participants took part in a village-level confirmatory study in which data were collected through questionnaires. The Categorical Data Modelling technique and the pseudo Duncan multiple range procedure were used for data analysis. Significant Interest Group differences were detected (P < 0.10) among the participants' responses. Also, significant inter-Ward differences were detected for the perception; women are excellent role models for children and youth. Results showed that much still needed to be done in as far as women's control of resources was concerned.
The leadership behaviour of the school principal : an exploratory study in five special schools in Kwazulu-Natal.Source: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4883 –4912 (2012)More Less
This study examined the leadership behaviour of the school principal at five special schools in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. A quantitative survey was conducted involving 50 teachers (11 male; 39 female) across the five schools. The Likert-scale survey questionnaire used in the study comprised 37 items categorised along five dimensions of leadership: collegial relationships; communication of vision and goals; professional and personal growth; shared decision making, and recognition of professional skills and accomplishments. The data was analyzed using multiple statistical procedures, including mean point value, standard deviation, t-test of significance and one-way-analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed that there is limited evidence of the leadership factors and characteristics examined in the study at the five schools. There were interesting differences by gender in responses of teachers on whether the key leadership characteristics were displayed by their school principals. The findings suggest a strong need for re-culturing of the special schools in the direction of participatory and transformative leadership styles and a sharing of power.
Effectiveness of a volunteer-led crafts group intervention amongst mild to moderately depressed Indian women in KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4914 –4925 (2012)More Less
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a volunteer led crafts group intervention (VLCG) as an adjunct to antidepressant medication on mild to moderately depressed women. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent, control group study was conducted in an urban, psychiatric clinic. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale.
At baseline, the mean BDI scores were similar between the VLCG and the Control group (CG). There were no significant differences with the BDI's score after six weeks of VLCG intervention (p=0.291). After 12 weeks of interventions, the BDI scores for the VLCG was reduced, whilst the CG participants had an increase in their levels of depression. VLCG intervention as an adjunct to antidepressant medication was effective in reducing the levels of depression.
Do males and females report similar constructs of rap music? A cross-gender validity study of the rap music attitude and perception scaleSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4926 –4948 (2012)More Less
The popularity and pervasiveness of rap music is one of the most interesting social realities of the 21st century and interpretations of the effects of rap music lyrics have been given considerable attention in the literature in recent years. This study examined the cross-gender validity of a scale designed to measure rap music attitudes and perceptions. Findings suggest that measurement invariance of the modified rap music scale was supported by these data. Also, the criterion-related validity and reliability of the rap music scores were similarly adequate for both males and females. Future directions for research in this area are forwarded.
Author Evelyn G. Chiloane-TsokaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4949 –4973 (2012)More Less
The South African National Policy Framework for Women's Empowerment, Gender Equality and women emancipation by government, present the opportunity for women to make useful of business and political advantages to their benefit. A knowledge gap was identified during literature study regarding factors that affect women in leadership positions. Also barriers inhibiting women's advancement beyond glass ceiling. The policy document on women advancement is a direct attempt by government to influence and direct the course of events in the labour market today, by introducing measures that can promote the success of professional women towards their career path. The methodology used was of a quantitative approach. The findings showed that there are many cultural barriers and recommended some organisational change approach that could be relevant in addressing the current problems faced by management in providing solutions in addressing their diverse workforce, especially women in leadership positions.
Influence of gender and psychological violence on physical violence among employees in Southwestern NigeriaAuthor Bolanle OgungbamilaSource: Gender and Behaviour 10, pp 4974 –4986 (2012)More Less
Physical violence at work has devastating psychological, health, and economic consequences on employees and the organization (Di Martino, 2003; Weiler, 2007). This study investigated the extent to which gender and the victims' level of experienced psychological violence (low, medium, or high) determine the level of physical violence they exhibit. Participants were 703 employees (460 females; 243 males) with a mean age of 33.93 years (SD = 7.64). Results indicated that no significant gender differences existed in victims' tendency to engage in physical violence. However, victims of high psychological violence exhibited the highest level of physical violence compared with victims of either medium or low psychological violence. Finally, gender and psychological violence did not exert a significant joint effect on victims' tendency to engage in physical violence. Research and practical implications of the findings were discussed.