Gender and Behaviour - Volume 12, Issue 3, 2014
Volume 12, Issue 3, 2014
Author Erhabor S. IdemudiaSource: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp II –V (2014)More Less
This special issue of Gender & Behaviour was nurtured and processed in 2013 immediately after the Faculty Strategic meeting in an attempt to booster research publication and build a research culture in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS). It is coordinated and produced under the umbrella of the Faculty Niche Area 'Population and Health-RNA-PH'. The RNA-PH has three sub-programmes which conform to the priority areas of Household and Population Dynamics, Poverty and HIV/AIDS and Quality of life and Health.
Author A.A. OlowuSource: Gender and Behaviour 12 (2014)More Less
It is important to start this editorial by stating that this special issue was sponsored by the Faculty of Human and social Sciences of the North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), South Africa. It is also important to state that the journal, Gender and Behaviour came about as "metamorphosis" of the Women Behavioural Issue of the University of Ibadan, Department of Psychology (The Network of Psychological Studies of Women Issues). This is also the first time we are publishing a special edition; whereas, we have done so five times with our senior journal - Ife PsychologIA.
Psycho-socio-emotional well-being of workers in a high-stress occupation : are men and women really so different?Source: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5824 –5838 (2014)More Less
Correctional work is stressful, and the job of correctional officers, in particular, has been rated as one of the most stressful of all occupations. Closely connected to the level of work related-stress is the psycho-socio-emotional well-being of individuals in high-stress occupations. This study investigated gender differences in psychological well-being and socio-emotional needs among men 146 (65.8%) aged 25 to 64 years with a mean of 39.02 years (SD = 8.38) and women 76 (34.2%) aged 22 to 61 years with a mean of 38.78 years (SD = 7.80) correctional personnel in Nigeria. The t test for independent sample results reveal no significant gender differences on most aspects of psycho-socio-emotional well-being autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, self-acceptance, as well as needs for support and affiliation. The findings imply that gender differences in psycho-socio-emotional well-being are decreasing over time. Therefore, in designing future policies and interventions for dealing with psycho-socio-emotional well-being of employees, managers and other stakeholders should not be concerned with gender differences but to focus on improving the psycho-socio-emotional well-being of all employees.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5839 –5856 (2014)More Less
The paper examines the association between HIV testing and the current use of modern family planning method in Uganda. Cross-sectional data on 5,243 sexually active and non-ammenorrheic women and 1,569 sexually experienced men, obtained from the 2,011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The results show that although HIV testing was high (80.7% of women and 61.4% of men), use of modern family planning method was low (27.7% of women and 16% of men) and varies by HIV testing status. More women (30%) than men (19.1%) who have ever tested for HIV were using a modern method of family planning (p= .0001). The unadjusted results show that women and men who have ever tested for HIV were 1.88 (p= .0001) and 1.87 (p= .0001) times respectively significantly more likely to be currently using a modern family planning method. However, the adjusted effect of HIV testing on current use of modern family planning method reduced to 1.30 (p .001) times for women and 1.37 (p>0.05) times for men after controlling for the effects of other explanatory variables. We conclude that despite the high rates of HIV testing, current use of modern family planning method is low for both genders in this population. This suggests a high risk of sexual and MTCT of HIV. We recommend the integration of family planning in HIV testing to increase uptake of modern family planning.
Examining the roles of gender and personal dispositions in attitudes toward knowledge sharing of senior administratorsSource: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5857 –5867 (2014)More Less
The study examined the association between gender, self-efficacy, extroversion and attitudes toward knowledge sharing among 157 male and 135 female senior administrators in a Nigerian university. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was used to collect data on self-efficacy, extroversion and attitudes toward knowledge sharing. The results show that there was a significant main influence of self-efficacy p < .001, extroversion p < .041 and gender p < .033 on attitudes toward knowledge sharing. The results imply that these factors are associated with attitudes toward knowledge sharing of senior administrators. Development workshops to improve social skills, belief about capabilities and management trainings on how to be a team player will prove helpful to human resource practitioners interested in developing more favourable attitudes toward knowledge sharing among male and female senior administrators.
Author E.A. PalmuleniSource: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5868 –5884 (2014)More Less
Child Gender Preference (CGP) is a socio-cultural phenomenon in Africa. It has implication on family building process by increasing fertility through short birth intervals, thus putting maternal and child health at risk. We explored regional differential in CGP and Gender Specific Preference (GSP) against the evidence of limited research on gender preference in Nigeria. This cross-sectional design study utilized 2008 NDHS dataset and focused on married women aged 15-49 years (n=20,009) in stable union. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, binary and multinomial logistic regression models (α=.05). The mean age of the women was 31.0 ± 8.7 years, 32.7% have CGP among which 23.7% have son preference. The GSP for son was predominantly high among women in the; South-East (46.0%), rich wealth index (26.8%) and secondary level of education (28.8%). Age, region, residence, education, sex composition of the living children, religion, ethnicity, marriage type, wealth index, current work activity, media exposure and family planning media exposure were significantly associated with CGP and GSP (p<0.05). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the likelihood of CGP was 0.69 (C.I=0.61-0.78; p<0.001), 1.87 (C.I=1.55-2.25; p<0.001), 1.64 (C.I=1.47-1.84; p<0.001) and 0.81 (C.I=0.70-0.93; p<0.01) among women in North-West, South-East, South-South and South-West respectively when compared with their counterparts in North-Central. Similar pattern of odds ratio was observed for GSP for sons and daughters. Regional differences exist in CGP in Nigeria and the majority of women who have CGP have a preference for sons. Campaign to eradicate CGP should be intensified in Nigeria, particularly in the South East.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5885 –5896 (2014)More Less
The study explored the influence of age and gender on the psychological well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS. Using a cross-sectional design, two hundred males and females drawn from Polokwane/Mankweng Hospital complex in Limpopo Province, South Africa, participated in the study. Participants were women 124 (62%) and men 75 (37, 5%) with ages ranging from 20 to 71 years with a mean age of 43.70 (SD = 12.42). Data were collected using a questionnaire that measured the demographic variables and psychological well-being. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. Results revealed a significant influence of age F (4, 198) = 2,361; p < .05 on psychological well-being but there was no significant influence of gender on psychological well-being. The finding of the study concluded that age influence the psychological well-being of PLWHA. It is therefore recommended that social support groups' intervention accommodates different age and gender groups.
Gender and changing patterns of political participation in sub-Saharan Africa : evidence from five waves of the Afrobarometer surveysSource: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5897 –5910 (2014)More Less
We used five waves of the Afrobarometer survey data to examine gender differences in political participation in the selected sub-Saharan Africa countries. The results showed that while the odds of voting have actually declined slightly over the time covered by the surveys, overall women were only about two-thirds as likely to vote as men with the gender gap in voting varying widely across countries and time. Also, the gender gap was narrowing by about 3.7% per survey round, with people in rural areas, more educated people, older people, employed people, people who belonged to a religious group, and people who expressed more interest in public affairs being more likely to vote. With regard to collective action, although it was increasing, the gender gap in collective action remained constant. In most regards, with its effects paralleling those for voting in that collective action was higher in rural areas, among older people, more educated people, people who were more interested in public affairs, poor people and members of religious groups. Results imply that civic education and other mechanisms are needed to encourage more female participation in all aspects of the political process.
Sexual attitudes, marriage attitudes and sexual behaviours of females raised by single mothers and both parents : a comparative studySource: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5911 –5923 (2014)More Less
The study was carried out to explore the role of attitudes towards marriage on the sexual behaviour of female raised by single mothers and those raised by both parents. The study utilised a quantitative approach, with a cross sectional design Data were collected from a purposively sampled group of 300 (150 for females raised by single mothers and those raised by both parents respectively). The ages of participants ranged from 18-24 years. The results revealed a significant mean difference in birth control among females who have been raised by single mothers as compared to those who are raised by both parents (t = -2.765; df =298, p <.01). There was also an indication of a significant mean difference between permissiveness of females raised by single mothers and for those raised by both parents. In conclusion, the results of this study open up an avenue for future studies that can explore other variables such as personality factors, emotional factors which can be as a result of being raised by single mothers.
Evaluating the gender content of the amnesty programme in the Niger Delta of Nigeria : any concern for the socio-economic development of women?Author Lere AmusanSource: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5924 –5935 (2014)More Less
Palliative measures to the crisis in the Niger Delta are worrisome. Issue of gender was not addressed when conceptualising the strategic political and economic stability in the Creek areas. The masculine approach to the problems of militancy is not only lopsided, but also, it is a misconceived adventure by the national government of Nigeria. This is germane when one looks into the contribution of women and girls to the socio-economic development in the oil producing state. The public-private cooperation approach in addressing the insurrection and eventual unperturbed supply of fossil fuel to the international oil market undermine the roles that women played during and after "military cessation of hostility" in the region. Underplaying a holistic approach in addressing the hydra-headed problems in the Niger Delta will eventually give the amnesty programme a relapsing fever. It is the contention of this paper that the narrow explanation of the gender issue of femininity and masculinity fails to capture the complexity of crises in the Niger Delta. The need to include women and girls in the amnesty arrangement will bring about lasting solutions to the crises of resource curse in the region.
Author H.A. ManwaSource: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5936 –5945 (2014)More Less
The glass ceiling phenomenon which militates against female entry into management positions has been of interest to researchers for a long time. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of managers on the existence of the glass ceiling phenomenon in the Zimbabwean hotel industry. Data were collected among women (50%) and men (50%) in management positions in four hotel chains in Zimbabwe. Glass ceiling factors which impede female entry into hotel senior management in Zimbabwe include long working hours, sex discrimination, lack of mentoring/mentors, work-family conflict and relocation problems. The study has confirmed differences in perceptions of some facilitators and obstacles to management positions between male and female managers. In addition to legislation which mandates quotas to ensure women's representation in hotel senior management, societal education to influence changes in perceptions of gender role stereotyping will go a long way towards facilitating women's entry into hotel senior management.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5946 –5956 (2014)More Less
This study examined sex and age differences in social withdrawal among 240 (135 males and 105 females) pre-service teachers in a Nigerian university. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on social withdrawal and some demographic factors. Respondents were systematically randomly selected for the study. Demographic characteristics revealed 170 (70.8%) Christians, 47 (19.6%) Muslims and 22 (9.2%) traditionalists. Participants' ages ranged between 15-30 years, with a mean age of 20 years. Data collected was analysed with version 17 of SPSS software using t-test and 2x3 ANOVA. The results show participants were generally high on social withdrawal and there was neither a significant independent sex difference, nor interactive influence of sex and age on social withdrawal (p > .05). However, there was a significant influence of age on social withdrawal (p = .018), as participants within the ages of 21-25 years were shown to be higher on social withdrawal. It was concluded that social withdrawal is an observable psychological manifestation among pre-service teachers and if not attended to, these pre-service teachers may become negative role models to their students who may end up becoming unsociable, unassertive and maladjusted individuals who may not be able to make meaningful, positive contribution in the society in which they live.
Author B.C. ChikuloSource: Gender and Behaviour 12, pp 5957 –5970 (2014)More Less
Climate change is one of the most pressing global environmental challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. Recently, the World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (World Bank, 2012) placed gender and equality at the centre of development discourse. In addition, the UNDP (2009) document Gender and Climate Change Human Development Report (UNDP 2007) made the critical linkage between gender equality, poverty and climate vulnerability. Consequently, a greater realization has emerged that gender inequality intersects with risk and vulnerability. Women are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change because of socially determined social roles and they have fewer resources to cope due to their reliance on climate-sensitive resources. In addition, energy collection and utilization is the primary responsibility of women, especially in rural communities, where most energy is derived from traditional biomass fuels such as wood, charcoal and agricultural waste. Consequently, women face critical challenges with regard to the use and provision of energy in household. As a result, in many instances, it is women and female children who suffer the most from the shortage of energy due to their traditional roles for collecting fuel. Furthermore, a lack of access to energy mainly affects women in their role as household managers because they are usually responsible for providing energy for the household. Without access to convenient, affordable clean fuels for cooking and heating, women have to spend large amounts of time and physical energy gathering traditional fuels to heat water and cook meals. The time and physical effort expended by women and females in gathering traditional fuels seriously exposes them to health and safety problems. As a result, the introduction of cleaner modern energy services such as electricity is important for the empowerment of women and children. It enables them to participate more fully in the development process. This paper examines the link between climate change, gender and energy and its impact on gender relations in South Africa. The article concludes that although a lot has been achieved in terms of the legislative framework and policy, the challenge facing the South African Government is how to link the objectives of gender and energy with that of climate change mitigation within a sustainable development framework.