n Gender and Behaviour - Sex and age differences in social withdrawal of pre-service teachers in a Nigerian university

Volume 12, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 1596-9231



This study examined sex and age differences in social withdrawal among 240 (135 males and 105 females) pre-service teachers in a Nigerian university. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on social withdrawal and some demographic factors. Respondents were systematically randomly selected for the study. Demographic characteristics revealed 170 (70.8%) Christians, 47 (19.6%) Muslims and 22 (9.2%) traditionalists. Participants' ages ranged between 15-30 years, with a mean age of 20 years. Data collected was analysed with version 17 of SPSS software using t-test and 2x3 ANOVA. The results show participants were generally high on social withdrawal and there was neither a significant independent sex difference, nor interactive influence of sex and age on social withdrawal (p > .05). However, there was a significant influence of age on social withdrawal (p = .018), as participants within the ages of 21-25 years were shown to be higher on social withdrawal. It was concluded that social withdrawal is an observable psychological manifestation among pre-service teachers and if not attended to, these pre-service teachers may become negative role models to their students who may end up becoming unsociable, unassertive and maladjusted individuals who may not be able to make meaningful, positive contribution in the society in which they live.

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