Gender and Behaviour - Volume 3, Issue 1, 2005
Volume 3, Issue 1, 2005
Examining gender differences in intuitive decision making in the workplace : an exploratory investigationSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 252 –268 (2005)More Less
Intuitive decision making is increasingly being viewed as a viable managerial decision tool in today's complex and competitive landscape. However, a general lack of consensus in the literature exists as to what intuition is, along with various unfounded generalizations about who uses it (e.g., women or men). Therefore, in this paper, we present results from an exploratory investigation that attempted to elucidate perceived gender differences in intuitive decision making in the workplace. Based upon interviews of 51 experienced professionals, we report: 1) how this sample of male and female practitioners defined intuition, and 2) our results regarding gender differences in the use of intuitive decision making. In terms of the latter, we highlight participant insights regarding: women's use of intuition in work versus non-work settings, reasons women may negate intuition in workplace decision making, and reasons men may invoke their intuition at work. Finally, based upon the results of the present study, implications for both research and practice are discussed.
Author Mussawar ShahSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 269 –280 (2005)More Less
Son preference is one of the oldest issues in most of the societies with special reference to sons being getting preferential treatment over daughters in South Asia and developing countries. Women usually didn't get proper regard in their husbands' families until and unless they had a son in most of the societies. Numerous factors affecting son preference were socio-economic setup of the society, cultural beliefs, literacy, lesser opportunities for women jobs, cultural restrictions on women, family size, males' dominance and their validity as earning heads of the households and intact/shared relations with the family as compared to daughters who would otherwise leave their families soon after getting married. Daughter's birth in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan was considered as an economic liability because of the dowry system and the higher incurring cost on their weddings. Son preference was found to be stronger in areas where daughters were more expensive to marry owing to the dowry system. Cultural preference for sons was evident from that fact that in Hindu's traditions, only sons could pray for and release the souls of their dead parents and only males could perform birth, death and marriage rituals. Although, son preference was stronger, some 98% of the women in Bangladesh wanted to have at least one daughter realizing the importance of women in a house for household activities and perpetuation of generation. A common perception of son's preference on daughter was the ascribed ability of sons; to contribute more to family income, provide adequate support to parents in old age; carry on family name and impose minimal financial burdens on their parents. Women's employment problems and male inheritance also favored son preference in Taiwan. Excessive infant mortality in females was due to discrimination against females in the allocation of food and health care within the household. Aside from male's attitude towards son preference, women their-self in most of the south Asian countries preferred sons to daughters. In addition, women were having few opportunities to generate income and invest household resources in female children as compared to males, thereby further widening the chances for son preference. Preferential son treatment may lead to larger family size and higher fertility if there is increased incidence of female births. Emphasis on women education and employment, giving them due status in the society and creating awareness among the people to treat son and daughter alike would be better options to eliminate frustration, reduce fertility rate and limit family size.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 281 –295 (2005)More Less
The study portrays the influence of gender preference on contraceptive use behavior in Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 613 married male respondents (15-49 years old) in five different bazaars were selected out of total fifteen bazaars through cluster sampling procedure. Both dependent (contraceptive use behavior) and independent (gender preference) variables were devised while using semantic and likert scales respectively. Dependent variable was indexed and gamma statistics was adopted for carrying out bi-variate and multi variate analysis. Majority of the respondents was found moderately consistent of contraceptive use behavior and had a clear concept of family planning. Most of the respondents belonged to joint family system; however, raising a girl was negatively and significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by nuclear family system and illiterate respondents. Social and cultural raising of a girl was positively and significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by literate respondents. Certain recommendations like, equal status for daughters to avoid uncontrolled family size, redress of family system with respect to girls raising portraying a girl an economic asset in the form of paid job and convincing of all income group for discouragement of preferential gender treatments for policy implementations.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 296 –313 (2005)More Less
The purpose of this study is to examine an innovative program for domestic violence (The Domestic Violence and Self-Sufficiency [DV & SS] Program at the University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio). More specifically, the study evaluates the importance and appropriateness of the services this program offers enrolled and prospective student-parent welfare recipients at the university. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted on the data collected by graduate student interns in social work. The study found that program services were appropriate and valued by a community partner who doubled the funding for staffing and added $25, 000 in tuition assistance money. The study also found that women students not eligible for welfare receipt needed program services, and those students using welfare had barriers interconnected with domestic violence issues. Several recommendations are made that will enable caseworkers / counselors working in universities and in the larger community improve the services they provide domestic violence victims.
Personal and psychological factors as determinants of attitude toward multiple role planning among employed women in Southwestern NigeriaAuthor Samuel O. SalamiSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 314 –333 (2005)More Less
This study investigated the predictability of educational qualifications, age, achievement, motivation, career salience and problem solving ability on attitudes toward multiple-role planning (ATMRP) among employed women in Southwestern Nigeria. The participants were 254 employed women randomly selected from five state capitals in the southwestern Nigeria. The women were administered measures of problem-solving ability, attitude toward multiple-role planning, achievement motivation and work-role salience scale. The data collected were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The findings indicated that achievement motivation was the best predictor of ATMRP followed by career salience, problem-solving ability and age in that order. Educational qualifications was the least predictor of ATMRP among the employed women. The results indicate the need for counselling psychologists to design interventions that consider the personal and psychological factors in order to help the women plan for multiple roles.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 334 –347 (2005)More Less
This study examined the perceptions of the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of domestic violence services. It was predicted that there would be differences in the perceptions of domestic violence services between victims using services, victims not using services, and non-victims. In addition, it was expected that the degree of use of services will positively correlate with the perception of services, and past use of services will predict current use of services. Participants included 160 adults from an urban city in a mid-western area of the U.S.A. recruited by contacting individuals based on police reports, residence in shelters, and use of the local library. As predicted, results indicated that there are differences between victims using services, victims not using services, and non-victims; victims not using services had significantly lower perceptions of domestic violence services than the other two groups; and past usage of services predicted current usage. Directions for future research are discussed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 348 –360 (2005)More Less
The study of women in management in the Ghanaian business literature is a fairly neglected area. In relation to Ghana however, there is no study that has sought to explore the nuances that characterise the work of women in marketing. This study investigated the characteristics of successful Ghanaian women in the marketing. Criteria for choosing successful women included the completion of at least a decade of marketing practice and the acquisition of substantial marketing knowledge before or during their marketing careers either through formal degree programmes, diplomas or executive education programmes. Key findings included 90% of the successful women surveyed indicating that had control over their own careers, 50% of the respondents agreeing that others had control over their careers, with another 50% disagreeing. 80% of the successful marketing women had mentors but these mentors were not engaged in the marketing profession themselves. 60% of the mentors for these women were men however. Family takes a central role in the lives of successful marketing women in Ghana and this finding contradicted the findings of White et al (1997), who contend that work takes a central role in the lives of successful women. All the respondents believed that their marketing success could be traced to their high need for achievement and this is consistent with Nath (2000) who observed that professional women in India also possessed individual drive for success. This study was exploratory. Recommendations for future research included the replication of the study for the other professional disciplines in Ghana like accountancy and human resources management. Other studies also need to be carried out among female professionals in Ghana; which studies will focus on middle-level and female junior staff; to begin to understand the challenges they might be facing in their quest to climb up the corporate ladder.
Author Vanita PatwardhanSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 361 –372 (2005)More Less
While welcoming the twenty first century, literacy is no longer merely a matter of social status, but a functional necessity where most knowledge is communicated through the printed word and where the knowledge is growing fast. In India, despite great expansion in education after 1947, the progress of literacy among women is still slow. Viewing a broad perspective, the literacy programmes should be supplemented with exploration and training in various psychological aspects, such as, intelligence, reasoning, decision making, identity needs, etc. This study aims at exploring rural and urban women's decision-making and reasoning. In all, illiterate women - rural, from villages in Bhor, Velhe, and Haveli Tahsils, Pune District; and urban from Pune city; Maharashtra, India, consisted the sample of this study. Their age range was 20 to 35 years. Standardized performance test of intelligence, Decision Making Questionnaire (DMQ) and Reasoning Questionnaire (RQ) were administered to them. The DMQ denoted their criteria of decision making in day-to-day situations and RQ measured serial thinking. The outcomes of the quantitative analysis of data indicated that the preferences to criteria in decision making, namely, labour involved, time-spent, quality of work, physical and mental health, and social norms are similar in rural and urban illiterate women. A significantly larger number of rural women gave importance to expenditure and personal interest in decision-making. There is no significant difference between the reasoning of rural and urban illiterate women.
Women's labor force participation and introduction of economic reforms in China and Congo-BrazzavilleAuthor Edwige KamitewokoSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 373 –382 (2005)More Less
The goal of this paper was to analyze the relationship between women's labor force participation and socioeconomic changes associated with structural adjustment in China and Congo Brazzaville. We conclude that structural adjustment policies have led to an increase in feminization of the labor force in these two countries. But the high female labour force participation has not ensured gender equality in occupations. Women were found to concentrate in low-paid unskilled types of work.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 383 –395 (2005)More Less
This study aimed at studying the dynamics of domestic violence. This qualitative study explores the experiences of women who have been victims of domestic violence. The data were derived from 6 Focus Group Discussions with 30 victims. The discussion revealed that the principal causes of violence were unequal power relations, sexual abuse and extra-marital affairs, jealousy and isolation, poverty and dependence on partner, alcohol and drugs abuse. The findings reveal that the factors that trigger violence against women are closely intertwined.
Author Iniobong Aniefiok AkpabioSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 396 –405 (2005)More Less
Women play major roles in agricultural production although only an estimated 5 percent actually benefit from mainstream extension activities. The Gender Specific Extension Delivery Service was instituted to remedy this trend. This study was an attempt to document women beneficiaries' perceptions on the effectiveness of the extension outreach mechanism. Findings reveal an overall positive beneficiary perception. Analyses however reveal a number of institutional limitations which require remedial action for increased effectiveness. Recommendations are proffered in this light.
Author Caroline Okumdi MuoghaluSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 406 –422 (2005)More Less
The maternal mortality rate in Nigeria is still very high and as such has been topical.
This problem is partly a result of patriarchy and therefore has been of great interest to many scholars. This study was aimed at creating knowledge on reproductive behaviour of career women and the role of men in such behaviour.
The study was carried out in Ile-Ife and Lagos. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used. Quantitative method was used to get a larger sample and qualitative was used so as to bring out those things that can not be elicited from the questionnaires. The research instruments were in-depth interview schedule and questionnaires. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents. Only 133 respondents completed the questionnaires and 10 respondents were interviewed in-depth. The respondents were selected from 10 different professions-medicine, law, teaching, police, banking, accountancy, nursing, pharmacy and administration.
The findings were that professional women got married and had their first babies slightly later than their illiterate sisters, patronize good hospitals for antenatal care and delivery of their babies and use mainly orthodox family planning methods. It was equally found that men play a major role in the reproductive health behaviour of professional women.
It was concluded that the knowledge perception and attitudes of men towards the reproductive health of women have a lot of implication for women's health, survival and that of their children.
It was therefore recommended that any intervention programme towards change of women's reproductive behaviour should also target men if it is to be successful.
Gender and political disempowerment of women in Rivers State. Case study of Port Harcourt Local Government AreaSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 423 –441 (2005)More Less
The political disempowerment of women has remained dominant in the literature on gender. This paper sets out to evaluate the level of women participation as well as identify the factors which impede the equitable political participation of women in the Port Harcourt City Local Council area. It adopts the theory of Radical Feminism which assumes that political inequalities experienced by women is a reflection of a socio-economic and domestic inequalities arguing that unless the structures which engender inequality are dismantled, women will remain politically disempowered.
Drawing basically on survey methods, using interviews and questionnaires as well as data from the National electoral Commissions, the paper observes that women are grossly under presented in appointive and elective positions in Port Harcourt City Local Government Council Area. It attributes this to factors such as the high cost of political Campaigns, the violent nature of political competition which scare women from participation and some Cultural factors which assigns women, purely domestic roles. It recommends various measures including economic empowerment of women, public enlightenment, and the adoption of policies of affirmative actions.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 442 –452 (2005)More Less
This paper reports on an investigation into sex differences in the acquisition of English as a second language. One hundred and twenty eight (64 female and 64 male) pupils in Grades 8 to 11 from four representative schools in the Polokwane Municipality of the Limpopo Province (South Africa) participated in the study. A quantitative ethnographic design (comprising a questionnaire, and documentary analysis) was used to collect the data. A t-test analysis was used to establish whether there might be significant differences between the mean scores of female and male pupils on their examination results. The results showed no significant difference in performance in English as a second language between boy and girls. It is suggested that inspiration can be drawn from the findings in policy formulation regarding unisex versus single-sex schools, language instruction, especially attention given and approaches used in dealing with both sexes in second language classrooms.
Strategies for improving participation and performance of girls in secondary school science in Nigeria : science teachers' opinionsSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 453 –464 (2005)More Less
This study provides empirical evidence for improvement of participation and performance of girls in secondary school science in Nigeria. A total of 120 science teachers drawn from eight out of the thirteen secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State returned the questionnaires for the study. Data were analysed using simple percentages and t-test. The findings indicate that initiation of awareness programmes on the relevance of science for parents and girls and also making perception and attitudes of teachers vis-á-vis girls in science positive will go a long way in improving girls participation and performance in science. Furthermore, organization of science groups and clubs for girls and adoption of teaching strategies that are attractive to girls by the teachers are favoured by the science teachers for the improvement of girls' participation and performance in science. The opinion of the science teachers is that gender-biased curriculum materials should also be reviewed. However, the science teachers feel that making the standard for promotion of girls from one class to the next class lower than that of the boys will not help in improving girls participation and performance in school science. The study further reveals that there were significant differences between the opinion of male and female science teachers and opinions of experienced and inexperience teachers but there was a significant difference between the opinions of science teachers having degree and NCE certificates. The implications of the revelations are discussed.
Violence against women : the Health Sector Responds, Marijke Velzeboer, Mary Ellsberg, Carmen Clavel Arcas and Claudia Garcia-Moreno : book reviewAuthor Sola Ephraim-OluwanugaSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 465 –466 (2005)More Less
This 131 page book is a well-written report of research and findings concerning gender-based violence as a public health concern. This is in addition to the earlier established concept of regarding it as a human rights abuse. The book was produced as a result of collaborative effort between PAHO, various other agencies and the governments of Norway and Sweden.
Author A.A. AdegokeSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 467 –476 (2005)More Less
The handbook is a 378 pages documents divided into fourteen chapters and organized into five parts. Part one of the book laid the foundation, and it consists of two chapters. In part two, the author took life span approach in looking at how to improve health throughout the life cycle.
Author Mary Kennan HerbertSource: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 477 –478 (2005)More Less
Source: Gender and Behaviour 3, pp 479 –480 (2005)More Less
Elation is extreme happiness and excitement. The management of Ife Center for Psychological Studies/Services and the members of the Editorial board of Gender & Behaviour are highly elated to hear the good news of the appointment of a member of the editorial board of Gender & Behaviour to the high office of Vice-Chancellor of the Covenant University, Canaanland, Ota, Ogun State in Nigeria. Professor Aize I. Obayan is an erudite scholar in Counselling Psychology. She has offered dedicated services to Universities in Nigeria & Britain.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 3 (2005)More Less
On the 30th of October 2004, the editorial board of our journal was sadly depleted by the death of a gem. Dr. Samson Olurotimi Akinyele was a senior lecturer in the department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. He was a star in psychology.He was the very best of all the products of the department of psychology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.He obtained the best of all the first class in the Faculty of Social Sciences in 1985.