Gender and Behaviour - Volume 4, Issue 1, 2006
Volume 4, Issue 1, 2006
Gender differences in the number of students' enrolled into the Faculty of Science, University of Ilorin : implication for technological advancement of the nationAuthor Ameen Oloduowo MubarakSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 493 –507 (2006)More Less
This paper analyzed gender differences in the number of students' enrolment into the faculty of science, university of Ilorin between 1999 / 2000 and 2003 / 2004 academic sessions. Using descriptive statistics to analyze the data available, significant difference was observed in the number of female to male students enrolment with female enrolment being disadvantaged. It therefore emphasized the need for special consideration for female applicants into science-based courses. It was similarly suggested that the Federal Government should make education compulsory and free for girls up to at least secondary school levels. And that Governments at all levels, National University Commission (NUC), Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and University administrators should institute endowments and scholarship awards to encourage more female enrolment into science-based courses.
Female-owned businesses and access to finance : evidence from the Ghanaian non-traditional exports sectorAuthor Joshua AborSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 508 –521 (2006)More Less
This study uses data from a sample of Ghanaian non-traditional exports (NTEs) to determine differences in obtaining formal finance between male and female-owned firms. Findings revealed that there is adverse discrimination in the lending process placing women at a disadvantage. Women are either unfairly denied credit or discouraged in the credit application process with the end result that they are less likely to obtain formal loans. In addition, women do not network as effectively as men. Thus, they do not have the same access to sources of information and capital. Female-owned businesses tend to rely on informal finance sources because of the unwillingness of the formal sector to lend to them. Female-owned clients are also effectively shut out from the formal market due to high collateral requirements and high minimum deposit requirements. There is therefore a high conformity of the results of this study with similar studies in other parts of the world. Recommendations are made in this regard.
Author Kehinde A. AlebiosuSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 522 –533 (2006)More Less
The study is a reflection on the processes of the teaching and learning of science with special attention on gender influence in students' interests in learning organic chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools. Gender studies is gaining wide research attention today and there is increased awareness of activities for eradicating the age long, traditional and stereotyped practices which debar the participation of women in various educational activities in the Nigerian society and even globally.
In the present study, patterns of Nigerian Senior Secondary School male and female students' interests in some topics in organic chemistry were examined. 480 male students and 320 female students were sampled using a questionnaire constructed on a Likert-type scale. There are seven major organic chemistry topics in the secondary school curriculum and students indicated high interest in five topics; hydrocarbons, alkanols & alkanoic acids, soap & detergents and margarine and basic classes of compound in living organisms. Both male and female ratings were high but they differed significantly in their ratings on two topics. Popularization of performance enhancement programmes and activities were suggested for all agents associated with the teaching and learning of science in schools and homes.
Author Jennifer Ah-KionSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 534 –549 (2006)More Less
This study looked at the conceptualisation of body image and its relationship with self-esteem and investigated for gender differences in these two aspects of the self. Two hundred and forty three randomly selected adolescents responded to a structured self-report schedule. Varimax rotated principal component analysis constrained body image to three dimensions, with affective being more significantly correlated with self-esteem than cognitive and behavioural dimensions. Results revealed significant gender differences in both body image and self-esteem, with adolescent girls having lower body image and self-esteem than their male counterparts.
Author Yetunde A. AlukoSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 550 –567 (2006)More Less
Improving and widening access to education for women has been a major goal in most developing countries, like Nigeria, in the past four decades. Impressive progress has been achieved at all levels. However, several issues are examined in this paper. First, how did women fare in the wake of this general expansion of tertiary enrolments? Second, what programmes and policies contributed to enhancing women's enrolment? Third, what are the odds against women's participation in higher education in Nigeria?
This paper concludes that establishing a link between the Programmes / policies offered and the opportunities for women in the labour market was found to be critical.
Gender differences in adolescent students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV / AIDS in GhanaAuthor Frederick OcanseySource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 568 –588 (2006)More Less
The study examined gender differences in adolescent students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV / AIDS in Ghana. Participants consisted of 216 males and 190 females (N= 406) randomly selected from eight urban public co-educational senior secondary schools. A survey instrument with a reliability co-efficient of r = 0.87 was used in the data collection. The data was analyzed with mean, percentages and Pearson chi-square using SPSS version 10.0. Results revealed that although there is high level of knowledge on HIV / AIDS among students, some level of knowledge deficiencies on HIV / AIDS exist among them. Male students reported higher level of HIV / AIDS knowledge than their female counterparts did. Television emerged as the most prominent source of information for both male and female students. Gender did not predict differences in adolescents' attitude and practices on HIV / AIDS although female students showed greater inclination to discriminate against PLWHAs. Implications of the findings for HIV / AIDS counselling and prevention including the need to intensify HIV / AIDS education, use the TV extensively and to fight discrimination against PLWHAs are discussed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 589 –609 (2006)More Less
Study was carried out on the research recommendations of an earlier study carried out by Hinson et al (2005) on successful women in marketing in Ghana in which a recommendation was made for other gender studies to be carried out among female professionals in Ghana; which studies will focus on middle-level managers and female junior staff; to begin to understand the nuances of the challenges they might be facing in their quest to climb up the corporate ladder. Key findings of this study included 57% of the respondents quite agreed that the accountancy profession in Ghana was a male-dominated one and advanced a multiplicity of reasons for this phenomenon. Out of the 14 respondents, 93% (13 respondents) had practiced as qualified accountants for between 1-9 years whilst only 7% (1 respondent) has practiced accountancy for between 10-19 years. This initial finding gave the indication that whilst the accountancy profession in Ghana itself was over 50 years old, the increase in numbers of female accountants could only be described as a recent phenomenon.
On the issue of internality, 93% of the women accountants surveyed indicated that they were in total agreement with the fact that they had control over their own careers. This finding is consistent with Hinson et al (2005) who conducted a similar study of successful women in marketing in Ghana. Key recommendations for improving the lot of female accountants included more experienced accountants sharing their experiences with younger female accountants and female accountants should really strive to compete their accountancy courses and qualify as professional accountants before they get married. In spite of the fact that the more experienced accountants seemed to be balancing work with family quite well, they were of the opinion that if you became a professional accountant before marriage, the chances of your managing the professional / family balance become remarkably improved.
Author Stella NyanziSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 610 –624 (2006)More Less
Childbearing is important to individuals and society in sub-Saharan Africa. Proven fertility and many children are powerful symbols of continuity and cohesion. Thus the reported high fertility rates, specifically in rural areas where modern family planning methods are unpopular and uncommon.
Sub-Saharan Africa also bears the greatest burden of the HIV / AIDS epidemic. Heterosexual contact with an infected person is the commonest route of transmission in the region. Vertical transmission from mother to child is another apparent transmission mode. Antiretroviral therapy is exclusively unaffordable for many infected Africans. Counsellors discourage infected persons from future childbearing, even though they may still be in the prime of their reproductive years. Positive-living stresses 'a responsible sexual lifestyle for longer life'.
The socio-cultural script for the need for children is in dis-equilibrium with the 'safe reproductive health' messages. This paper discusses the interplay between these two contemporary scripts, particularly examining spaces of negotiation. How does HIV / AIDS colour African reproduction?
Author B.F. AkindojutimiSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 625 –641 (2006)More Less
Abortion is a common and widespread form of fertility regulation the world over. Legal and illegal abortion is very common throughout the developing countries. Since abortions are often not legal in the developing countries, unsafe abortions are an important cause of female mortality. The widespread incidence of abortions further indicates unmet need for family planning services to prevent pregnancy. A list of books and sources is printed at end of this short article.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 642 –658 (2006)More Less
Scholars over the years have engaged in gender discourse that has often time demonstrated the continuous perpetuation of the inferiority of female gender to their male counterpart. In most of such writings, accusing fingers are pointed at men as the perpetrators and the women as the victims. Various studies have shown that while poverty affects a significant proportion of the members of the society, women have been worse hit. The continued exposure of the latter either in the traditional or modern society to deepening poverty has therefore aroused a lot of interest in the discussion of the reality of the 'feminization of poverty'. In examining this, accusing fingers have often been pointed at men as the ones responsible for the higher incidence of poverty among the women.
This paper is an attempt at contributing to the on-going debate on feminization of poverty. The paper focuses first on the assessment of the poverty profile in Nigeria. This effort is followed by the explanation of the mechanism of ensuring the perpetuation of poverty among the Nigerian women. Special attention is further directed at the formal world of work and lack of level playing ground for male and female. The paper concludes by putting forward some policy considerations that would facilitate the elimination of all gender colourations in the place of work that perpetuates feminization of poverty.
Female genital mutilation : psychological and reproductive health consequences. The case of Kayoro Traditional Area in GhanaAuthor Patience Aseweh AborSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 659 –684 (2006)More Less
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the mental torture due to pain experienced during the circumcision and also the fear of the unknown which includes medical examination which will involve touching of the genitalia as well as sexual intercourse), and the reproductive health consequences ranging from various forms, including immediate complications such as bleeding, sepsis, and to later complications such as child birth complications and even death. Recommendations were made to the public, policy makers and NGOs with the aim of reducing and if possible eradicate the practice.
Gender, socio-economic status and educational levels as determinants of career maturity of Nigerian adolescentsAuthor 'Bola OgunyemiSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 686 –700 (2006)More Less
A descriptive research approach was used to determine the joint and relative effects of gender, socio-economic status and educational level on career maturity of secondary school students.. The study was carried out in four randomly selected secondary schools in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. The subjects for the study were 400 randomly selected students drawn from SSI, II and III the age range of the subjects is between 15 and 20 years with mean age and standard deviation 16.95 and 1.50 respectively, male = 122 and female= 278. Data were collected with a self-report Career Maturity Scale. Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were made on the ways to enhance career development of secondary school students' maturity.
Author Paul Iyke Nwakaeze-OguguaSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 701 –720 (2006)More Less
Igbo-African thought covers a wide range of issues which come in the definition of the Igbo-African personality; yet it is dependent on the Igbo-African ontology. The underlying psycho-philosophical wavelength of any ruling thought process or idea is superiority complex. In Africa as in many other regions of the world, the world is a male's world, hence the male's world-view though microcosmic, constitutes the lenses through which Igbo-African view reality.
A critical look on Igbo-African society brings one face to face with some of our traditional practices which had succeeded in holding our people in captivity and bondage. There is no doubt that traditionalism abound in our society, in exposing this we have decided to look at the Igbo-African in his ontological dimension and get to him and see the nature and the effects of these practices with the aid of our epistemological tools of cognition. The female folk are the most hit by these pathological existential practices of our society. In this paper, some of these practices are highlighted.
Author Olakunle Michael FolamiSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 721 –735 (2006)More Less
The social political and economic consequences of war on women are enormous looking at the stockpile of woes after the dusk of war. Women lose their husbands, children, property and sometimes are abused sexually. The psychological trauma following the dawn of war devastates most women for the rest of their lives. This study examines the concept of peace among women in Ilaje and Ijaw kingdoms. Besides, it critically examines the relationship between peace and development. In-depth interviews were conducted among two hundred (200) women in the two kingdoms. Ten (10) Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted to complement the effort of the researcher. Social closure, usurpation, exclusion, prejudice and discrimination are identified as harbingers of war. This paper concludes that peace can only flourish in the atmosphere of equity, social justice, equality and economic empowerment of people.
Author A. Oyesoji AremuSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 736 –753 (2006)More Less
The impact of some demographic variables (marital status, educational attainment, job status, and age) on job satisfaction of women police was examined. 120 participants (mean age = 32.8) randomly selected from two out of four Area Commands of the Oyo State Police Command participated on the study. The study utilized an instrument, 'Women Police Job Satisfaction Scale' (WPJS) ( x = 0.74). Results from the study indicated that none of the variables examined had any significant impact on job satisfaction of women police. Thus, women police job satisfaction is not predicated on the examined variables. This perhaps is as a result of women police commitment to the police job. The interpretation of this suggests that women police are satisfied with their job.