n Gender and Behaviour - Female-owned businesses and access to finance : evidence from the Ghanaian non-traditional exports sector

Volume 4, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1596-9231



This study uses data from a sample of Ghanaian non-traditional exports (NTEs) to determine differences in obtaining formal finance between male and female-owned firms. Findings revealed that there is adverse discrimination in the lending process placing women at a disadvantage. Women are either unfairly denied credit or discouraged in the credit application process with the end result that they are less likely to obtain formal loans. In addition, women do not network as effectively as men. Thus, they do not have the same access to sources of information and capital. Female-owned businesses tend to rely on informal finance sources because of the unwillingness of the formal sector to lend to them. Female-owned clients are also effectively shut out from the formal market due to high collateral requirements and high minimum deposit requirements. There is therefore a high conformity of the results of this study with similar studies in other parts of the world. Recommendations are made in this regard.

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