Gender and Behaviour - Volume 4, Issue 2, 2006
Volume 4, Issue 2, 2006
Source: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 764 –781 (2006)More Less
Intimate partners' violence (IPV) is a topical reproductive health, rights and gender issue. Data on IPV experiences and associated factors were collected from 224 randomly selected married women and 99 men in Ile-Ife through administered questionnaire. Data was analysed through SPSS: chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to determine association between socio-demographic factors and IPV experiences. Qualitative data was also collected through focus group discussions. Psychological abuse was reported by 61.1% of females, sexual abuse by 19.9%, and physical abuse by 7.3%. Past history of exposure of IPV during childhood years was positively associated with IPV experience (OR=8.13; 95% C.I. 3.69-17.86). Major factors associated with the last episode of IPV experienced included: disagreements over finance, childcare, sex and in-laws; wife's perceived disrespect to spouse; and, late preparation of food by wife. Self-reported effects of IPV by victims included depression (48.8%) and Fear / anxiety (31.0%), and suicidal ideation (11.3%).
Author Anthony Y. NaaekeSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 782 –796 (2006)More Less
Domestic violence is not only a reality in Northwestern Ghana, it is also a threat to development. As the people of Ghana and Northwestern Ghana, particularly, struggle to overcome poverty and economic deprivation, there should be no stone left unturned that stands in the way of development. As this paper will contend, domestic violence is a serious threat to development for a number of reasons and has to be eliminated in order to give all people, especially women, the opportunity to contribute their quota to development in Northwestern Ghana. One way to eliminate domestic violence is to break ties with the fear of some harmful traditions of Dagaaba society by speaking out and seeking the necessary help. This paper will use development communication theory to analyze the phenomenon of domestic violence in Ghana and expound on the thesis that communicating to break the silence about domestic violence is essential for development in Northwestern Ghana.
Author Paul Iyke Nwakaeze-OguguaSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 797 –813 (2006)More Less
Feminism though more pronounced today had been on the lips of some people in the past. The truth is that a lot of misunderstandings have arisen, as the discussants expand the issue or central theme of feminism to suit their age and aspiration. Be it and end it, power remains the central issue in feminism. This paper attempts to examine the issue of power in gender discourse, look critically to see if really the female folk are powerless and the expected goal of equality of the sexes as campaigned by feminists and pro-feminists with the attendant problems raised by this aspiration and movement. This paper pointed out that the powerlessness of the female folk is a myth and calls for a rethinking of the gender issues both with regard its epistemological and methodological dimensions.
Influence of culture, family and individual differences on choice of gender-dominated occupations among female students in tertiary institutionsAuthor Samuel O. SalamiSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 814 –833 (2006)More Less
This study investigated the impact of culture, family and individual differences on the choice of gender-dominated occupations among female students in tertiary institutions. Participants were 340 female students randomly selected from ten tertiary institutions (170 from five schools of Nursing and 170 from Faculties of Engineering and Technology in five universities) in southwestern Nigeria. Measures of attitude towards religion, need achievement, family involvement, socio-economic status and work values were administered on the participants. The data obtained were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The results showed that family involvement was the most significant predictor of career choice in gender-dominated occupations followed by attitude towards religion, age, socio-economic status, work values and achievement motivation in that order. Among the work values, independence was the strongest, predictor of career choice, followed by intellectual, esteem, social service and achievement in that order. Generally, the family, culture and individual differences made significant joint contribution to the prediction of career choice among the female students. The results from this study suggest the need for career counsellors to design programmes that take into account the family, cultural and individual difference factors that could serve as barriers to women as they select occupations.
Impact of widowhood cultural practices and locus of control on perceived social support of widows in Anambra, NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 834 –842 (2006)More Less
This study examined the impact of widowhood cultural practices on perceived social support of widows. 185 widows purposively drawn from 16 Local Government Area in Anambra State participated in the study, with ages ranging from 26-90 years. Data collection was through the aid of a questionnaire consisting of widowhood cultural practices scale, the locus of control scale and perceived social support scale. Result indicated that widowhood cultural practices have significant effect on the perception of social support of widows; widows who experienced lenient form of widowhood practice have more positive perception of social support than those who experienced harsh form of practice. It was also found that widows with internal locus of control have more positive perception of social support than those with external locus of control. The length of widowhood and age of widows were also found to affect perception of social support by widows. Thus, it is suggested that a cultural reorientation that enhances acceptance of widows should be encouraged. This would reduce the prevalence of practices that dehumanize widows and reduce them to psychological wrecks. Also, assertiveness training and other psychological buffers should be made available to boost the self-esteem of widows and make them relatively psychologically independent.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 843 –851 (2006)More Less
This exploratory study investigated gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety. A sample of 231 students (138 females and 93 males) from four different schools participated in the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Factor analysis was carried out to test for construct validity. This resulted in three factors namely, Internet identification, Internet anxiety and Internet use. A significant negative relationship was found between Internet identification and Internet anxiety and a significant positive relationship was found between Internet identification and Internet use. Significant gender differences were found only for Internet identification with male students showing stronger identification with the Internet.
Author Ikenga K.E. OraegbunamSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 852 –866 (2006)More Less
Gender issues especially those concerning the place and role of women in societal development are increasingly assuming position of prominence in our world today. Most socio-economic, religio-cultural and political discourses in recent times are agog with issues related to the rights, empowerment, dignity and duties of women vis-á-vis those of their male counter- parts. Questions are often raised on whether or not women can enjoy equal dignity and status with their male partners given the fact that women are equally human beings. This paper examines the socio-religious climate, especially of the African world with a view to delineating the possibility of a paradigm shift in which women would be adequately empowered. It proceeds by demonstrating the reality of the gender problem on ground and enunciating the obstacles that have been militating against the realization of a redress. Finally, the paper concludes with handing over some suggestions that may constitute the panacea to the feminic problem.
Author Grace O. SokoyaSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 867 –880 (2006)More Less
This article emanates from my reflections as an African feminist scholar, based on the dilemma that I was confronted with while interpreting my findings from a research on the complexities of socio-cultural constructions of psychological wellbeing and gender roles in farm-families. From a researcher's reflexivity's perspective, an attempt is made to interrogate the study findings with my personal experiences, as a Yoruba woman and an African feminist scholar. The dilemma arose at the intersections of feminists' theoretical positions, the research findings, and my personal experiences.
Men's leisure and women's multiple role involvement in rural agribusiness : implications for gender sensitive management approachesSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 882 –895 (2006)More Less
The research is premised on the realisation that when farm-family members have adequate psychological wellbeing, they will enjoy good health, experience good interpersonal relations within and outside the family, participate productively in agribusiness, and contribute meaningfully to development. The study set out to gain insight and understanding of the farmers' life experiences; since farm-families are gendered institutions with peculiar needs, problems and aspirations. Although women are revealed as active participants in agribusiness, the study further reveals that the socio-cultural constructions of their gender roles, feminization of domestic roles and men's leisure at the expense of their role accumulation, increasing responsibility for children upkeep and family maintenance, causes gender disparities in effective participation in agribusiness, and thus pose serious threats to the women's psychological wellbeing, and optimum productivity. Findings provide the much-needed information useful for gender analysis and development of gender-sensitive and gender-specific management approaches for the enhancement of the psychological wellbeing in farm-families, effective participation in agribusiness and optimum productivity.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 896 –903 (2006)More Less
Infertility has profound negative consequences especially for women in developing countries. The study evaluated the psychological impact of infertility among women in Benin City, Nigeria.
The study was conducted between October 2004 and April 2006. A total of the 312 women (mean age = 31.27 years, SEM ± 0.32) comprising 156 infertile women and 156 pregnant women participated in the study. The Awaritefe Psychological Index (API) was used to assess level of psychological dysfunction. Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically.
Result shows that infertile women did not differ from fertile women as determined by API total score. Women with primary infertility were significantly different from women with secondary infertility on the API and were more susceptible to psychological dysfunction. Mood disturbance was the most frequent symptom expressed by the infertile women.
There is a need for a re-orientation and widespread enlightenment on the need to perceive womanhood in its own right devoid of sentiments of motherhood. In the light of the psychological implication of infertility highlighted in this study, it is recommended that psychology clinics be run parallel to obstetric and gynecology clinics for a comprehensive management of infertility.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 904 –915 (2006)More Less
Women in the Northern Mountains of Pakistan are actively involved in sowing (except maize), weeding / hoeing, thinning, input transportation to the fields (except for wheat) and its application, irrigation, harvesting and grading (in case of potato). Beside these activities, women of the area are also involved in fruit plants management i.e., in weeds removal / hoeing, input transportation and its application, irrigation, picking, grading, drying (apricot, almond, walnut and mulberry), and cracking (walnut and almond). Women often devote more time to these tasks than men do and participate in all operations related to crop production in addition to their normal domestic chores of cooking, taking care of children, elderly and disabled, fetching water and fuel, cleaning and maintaining the house as well as some of its construction. In addition to their active involvement in various farm activities, women of the area also manage the livestock and actively involved in various activities regarding livestock raising.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 916 –926 (2006)More Less
The development in information technologies has increased productivity amongst workers across the globe. This is so because workers now have more access to information, both for research purposes and for effective decision making. By implication, workers get developed and enhanced on their jobs with considerable increase on their salaries and personal emoluments. But, the above picture has not been clearly the case in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. Most workers are still cut off the opportunities provided by the advances in information technology. This category of excluded workers is predominantly women in the civil service in Nigeria, most of who have been unable to get to management positions. This paper elucidates the reasons for the limited access of female workers to information technology in Ondo State civil service and identifies the social forces that have sustained this phenomenon. It argues that the character of public policy and programmes in Nigeria promotes inequality between male and female workers and thus reduces the opportunities for self development and actualization among women. Women hardly get to positions that give them access to basic information technologies like computers and access to internet facilities the Ondo State civil service. The paper concludes that unless this is addressed, women will continue to be excluded and deprived in Nigeria. It therefore suggests that a deliberate and conscious policy of massive inclusion of women in management positions should be put in place as an imperative.
Stereotype endorsement, gender and some home economics-related behaviour among secondary school students in Gaborone, BotswanaSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 927 –952 (2006)More Less
The most lucrative resources for sustainable technological, economic, social and personal development are human resources. Nations are advanced to the extent that they have been able to develop in every area of human potential the resources of every citizen. But in some societies such development is limited by stereotypic biases against certain groups in the society and against some areas of human potential. For example, by stereotyping home economics as female-only subject, males accept the limitations placed on them by the gendering process which inhibits the identification, development and utilization of home economics skills necessary for their personal, social, economic and technological development. To determine the extent and consequences of such endorsement on willingness to study and attitude towards home economics among secondary school students in Gaborone, a survey analytical study involving 402 randomly selected subjects was carried out. The results of appropriate data analyses to test relevant research hypotheses showed a high level endorsement of home economics as a female-only subject among the students and confirmed the speculation that the level of such endorsement has significance influence on students' willingness to study and attitude towards the subject irrespective of gender. These results were discussed and some recommendations made.
Author Mary Amoakoh-ColemanSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 953 –974 (2006)More Less
This study examined knowledge, attitude and practices of sexually transmitted infections including HIV / AIDS among adolescents in Ghana. A convenient sampling of 150 students from five schools in two suburbs within the Greater Accra Metropolis was used. Findings of the study show that adolescents in the sample have a wide gap between knowledge, attitude and practice with regards to STIs and HIV / AIDS though they become sexually active at an early age. There is also a lack of behavioural change which is reinforced by perceptions and misconception regarding STIs and HIV / AIDS. In the light of the findings of study, continuous and sustained multi-dimensional and holistic education is highlighted as important ingredient in the campaign against HIV / AIDS.
Reclaiming our Lives : HIV and AIDS, Women's Land Property Rights and Livelihoods in Southern and East Africa, Kaori Izumi (Ed.) : book reviewAuthor Adeboye Titus AyindeSource: Gender and Behaviour 4, pp 975 –993 (2006)More Less