Gender and Behaviour - Volume 5, Issue 1, 2007
Volume 5, Issue 1, 2007
Author Vanitas PatwardhanSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1007 –1021 (2007)More Less
The study aimed at examining adjustment of girls in relation to menstruation and in two types of schools. Using incidental sampling method, sample of 100 ninth grade girls from girls' school and from coeducation school was included. Data were collected with the help of three instruments, namely, Personal Information Schedule, Adjustment Inventory and Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ). In general, the girls were properly adjusted and exhibited fairly positive attitude towards menstruation. It was found that attitude towards menstruation and health adjustment were highly correlated; where as, the correlations of attitude towards menstruation and the other four areas of adjustment- home and family, personal and emotional, social, and educational- are not significant. Girls from two types of schools showed similar attitude towards menstruation. They also exhibited similar adjustment, except in home and family adjustment. Girls from coeducation school excelled in home and family adjustment. Adjustment of 16 girls was unsatisfactory in either one or more areas of adjustment. These girls showed maladjustment mainly in the areas of education and health. They held fairly positive attitude towards menstruation. Out of them, 13 reached menarche and 3 were at premenarche stage. Their interviews having very unsatisfactory health adjustment, complained about stomach ache during menstruation suggesting need for medical help.
Author Ikechukwu Nwakaeze-OguguaSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1022 –1041 (2007)More Less
Feminism seems to have spread its tentacles too wide, and consequently has spiralled a lot of misunderstandings. Power remains the central issue it seeks to not only address, but to limit in some cases, and to get or expand in other cases; moreso, with regards to the feminine world. This paper attempts to examine the issue of power in gender discourse, feminism as an ideology and see its influence on African culture as viewed from its ontological, epistemological, etc dimensions.
Author Margaret Joke KoyenikanSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1042 –1052 (2007)More Less
In view of the pivotal role women play in household food production, income generation, nutrition and health synergy which are crucial to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the study examined women's perception of the potentials in home gardening. The study involved 145 women (mean age = 44.5 years) randomly selected from urban, peri-urban and rural communities in southern zone of Edo State. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and presented descriptively. Results revealed ninetyseven (66%) of the women in the study owned home gardens ranging from less than 0.05m2 potted vegetables and spice / medicinal plants to about 200m2 of undeveloped plot or "no man's land" for the cultivation of cereals legumes, roots and tubers, fruit trees and heads of small ruminants and poultry. The major reasons for ownership of the gardens include; the need to increase food production, to improve health and nutrition, income generation, use available space and as a hobby. Reasons given for not owning home gardens include lack of space, water shortage, lack of time, inadequate knowledge of improved practices as well as shortage and high cost of improved inputs. Although women show a strong positive perception of home garden as a potential solution to enhance food security, good health and nutrition, their perceptions that home garden could alleviate poverty and address environmental degradation were rather negative. The major constraints to optimizing home garden potentials include lack of space, shortage of water, dearth of knowledge of improved practices, shortage of improved inputs and pest and disease infestation. It is recommended that amelioration of identified constraints mainy through improved extension delivery on home gardening would contribute to the achievement of the relevant MDGs targets.
Author Samuel Taiwo AkinyeleSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1053 –1071 (2007)More Less
This paper first assesses if women's personality traits of ambition, masculinity, and adaptability are indirectly related to their managerial advancement through training and development and work hours. It then examines if personality traits influence the way in which women use training and development and work hour.
A survey was mailed to 1,346 women working in banks. The result shows that masculinity and adaptability are related to women's advancement through training and development. The results also indicate that personality trait can function as moderators, by showing that ambition weakens the positive effect of training and development on women's managerial advancement, and that masculinity and adaptability strengthen the relationship between work hours and managerial advancement. Implications for women and banks are discussed.
Factors influencing attitudes of women towards the education of female children. A case study of the Cape Coast munucipality of GhanaSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1072 –1081 (2007)More Less
The purpose of the study was to find out whether attitudes of women towards the education of female children was related to the level of a woman's education, her occupational status and her environment.
A total of 300 respondents completed the survey instrument that was designed foe the study. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient, chi-square at alpa level of .05 and a two-tailed t-test of independence.
The study revealed that the level of education of women influenced their attitudes towards the education of female children. The type of occupation of women also influenced their attitudes towards the education of female children. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the attitudes of rural and urban-based women concerning the education of female children. In conclusion the factors that negatively or positively influenced the attitudes of women towards the education of female children were the level of education, and occupational status. However, the environment in which women resided neither positively or negatively influenced their attitude towards the education of female children. It was recommended that for the attitude of women towards the education of girls to be positive, there was the need to encourage poor parents by giving them attractive packages like financial and material incentives. The cost of education should be re-evaluated by the various District Assemblies and unnecessary levies removed to enable mothers afford the cost of schooling
Author Ravinder RenaSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1082 –1088 (2007)More Less
The political maturity of the African masses may to some extent be traced to economic and social patterns of traditional times. Under communalism, for example, all land and means of production belonged to the community, there was people's ownership and labor was the need and habit of all. Humanity lived in communalism for at least 90 per cent of the time it has been on earth. During communalism women played a leading role in the society. There was a division of labor where the men hunted and women gathered in order to provide food for the collective (Africa Women Forum).
Source: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1089 –1102 (2007)More Less
Entrepreneurial activities have been found to be capable of making positive impacts on the economy of a nation and the quality of life of the people (Schumpeter, 1934; Weber, 1904; Adejumo, 2001; & Morris & Lewis, 1991). Studies have established its positive relationship to stimulation of economic growth, employment generation; and empowering of the disadvantaged portion of the population, which include women (Thomas and Mueller, 2000; Reynolds, 1987; Shapero, 1981)
Women in Nigeria : towards improved information accessibility, capacity building and constitutional developmentAuthor Christopher NkikoSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1103 –1108 (2007)More Less
The Nigerian women represent a powerful, creative and credible force that must be empowered to contribute to the constitutional development of the nation. Their involvement would be tantamount to catalyzing and releasing dormant but rich potentials to the benefit of all. The paper examines information as a veritable resource for capacity building necessary for principled participation in any polity. It concludes that awareness, confidence and participation of women in constitutional development of a country are a function of information at their disposal.
Influence of women and family-friendly support services on women's work performance in organizationsAuthor Idowu Kikelomo EvbuomaSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1109 –1128 (2007)More Less
The Study investigated the Influence of Women and Family-friendly Support Services on Work Performance of female employees in work organizations. A descriptive survey design of Ex-post factor was adopted for this study. A total of 860 participants, drawn from services, manufacturing, and distributive organizations made up sample for the study. Data was collected using four validated instruments. These were Women-Friendly Support Inventory (WFSI), Family-Friendly Support Inventory (FFSI), Work Performance Rating Scale 1 and 2 (WPRS 1 and WPRS 2). One way ANOVA was used to analyze data at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that there was significant difference between work performance of participants (P<.05) who enjoyed women and family-friendly support services (X = 101.1) and those who did not (X = 96.3); there was no significant difference (P>.05) in work performance of married participants (X = 99.6) and single participants (X = 99.5) who enjoyed women-friendly support services. Work performance of single and married female workers who benefited from family-friendly support services differed significantly (F(2,845) = 23.1; p < .05).
Source: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1129 –1161 (2007)More Less
This paper examines the implication(s) of globalisation on women in Ghana and Nigeria and suggested policy options. From a qualitative perspective, the paper argued using a comparative approach, that, in spite of the benefits globalisation parades, it has been inherently hostile than pleasant on women in both countries. The policies of deregulation, privatization, devaluation, trade liberalization, monetary restraint, liquidity squeeze and tariff dismantling introduced into both countries as part of the globalisation process led to feminization of employment without corresponding micro benefits for women (female marginalisation).This had consequences for women as the pattern of employment changed from permanent to flexible or casual labour. Thus, women employed under this condition earn low wage, work longer hours, lack job security, deprived of their reproductive rights, and lack union protection. Job loss for women increased due to liberalization of trade which affected women more in the informal sector where they are highly concentrated. Removal of subsidies on goods and services increased prices of commodities and made life difficult for women especially with their unemployed situation. Thus, health care and education fees became unaffordable, leading to decline in health care users. Women lost out with increase in mortality rates, and infections of diseases. Girls had to be withdrawn at the expense of boys from school to assist in domestic chores as well as generate income for the upkeep of the family. This also rendered girls vulnerable to molestation, sexual harassment, rape, pregnancy and STIs. Thus, globalisation increased than reduce women's poverty. The paper concludes by suggesting that the government should increase spending on health and education, encourage women to join unions, organize women in the informal sector, and encourage employers to pay casual workers benefits enjoyed by permanent workers.
Author M.S. Jansen Van RensburgSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1162 –1176 (2007)More Less
In 2006, three types of workshops were conducted in the Mpumalanga and Northern Cape Provinces by LifeLine Southern Africa. The workshops included awareness-raising, skills training and support group training. Structured interviews with participants of the workshops were done. The most important finding was that many support groups were started with high success rates. Incidence of GBV and HIV was high in the population and stigma amongst participants was relatively low. Gender Based Violence (GBV) awareness and knowledge were high. Respondents had high perceived levels of risk. They reported making various behavioural changes to avoid GBV. The respondents were aware of their legal rights pertaining to GBV. HIV / AIDS knowledge levels, attitudes and behavioural changes were acceptable. Introducing condoms to a relationship and negotiating usage seemed to be easy in both normal sexual relationships and sexual intercourse without consent. Communication and decision making skills were well developed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1177 –1187 (2007)More Less
Despite the anthropological relevance of indigenous religious ritual as a notable variable in African gender construction, the subject has not received adequate expression in gender related discourse pertaining to the African situation. The paper notes that messages which are transmitted through indigenous religious ritual are best understood by those who are familiar with the language and environment of the ritual related activities. Hence, gender role relationships as those revealed during the ritual processes in which female members of the community play roles that are not only prominent but also dominant may come to be lost or convey the wrong meanings to outsiders within particular cultural environment. Using the example of the rituals performed in Kubito worship and Asigbo hand woven cloth in Badagry and Owo towns respectively, the paper pinpoints the important role of women who serve as vessels for capturing the essence of indigenous culture through communication. Overall, the paper suggests that further research in the area of gender based indigenous ritual role relationships should be encouraged and sustained in order to create effective avenues for repositioning African Gender scholarship.
Author Adeola A. FaleyeSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1188 –1214 (2007)More Less
The concept of Bàbá in African philosophy and cosmology is complex and varied. It is a long tradition originating from the distant past. The legacy of this long cultural tradition stretches back at least to the beginnings of recorded history, but it is this book, Baba: Men and Fatherhood in South Africa which has remained influential on perceptions of the term "Baba" in the post-colonial era.