Gender and Behaviour - Volume 5, Issue 2, 2007
Volume 5, Issue 2, 2007
Author George TayoSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1229 –1239 (2007)More Less
Sociological research on paid domestic work has increased substantially in recent years. Domestic employment has also continued to be common in developing countries and some of today's most advanced societies are witnessing a resurgence rather than a decline in such employment. In spite of several policies on child right and widespread prohibition of child slavery by various nations to discourage the perpetuation of the illegal acts, domestic employment still thrives in various societies. While the girl child account for the greater proportion of domestic workers globally, career women are found to be massively involved in the employment of domestic workers in order to sustain their own participation in paid employment. It is expedient to state that the issue of domestic work is a modern phenomenon. In a traditional family setting, the woman ran the home in terms of domestic chores and child care but in contemporary times due to job mobility and the changing economy as ushered in by industrialization, the woman has also become a partaker in breadwinning thereby necessitating the need for the employment of domestic worker. (It will not be out of place to state that 'the domestic worker is a necessary evil' because of the various activities they engage in.) This paper sets out therefore to answer the following questions: who benefits in the long run? What is the future of the domestic worker in the home? Are career women not guilty of excess delegation of their duties? What danger does this pose for the offspring in the home and the larger society? And what is the way out of this dilemma.
Gender and developmental differences in attitudes toward science between secondary school year one students and year three studentsAuthor Fiifi MensahSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1240 –1247 (2007)More Less
This study aimed at investigating gender differences in attitudes toward science. It also attempted to study developmental differences in attitudes toward science between Junior Secondary School Year One (JSS1) and Junior Secondary School Year Three (JSS3) students. A stratified random sample (N=596) was obtained and studied using school and students' variables as independent ones, the attitudes to science as the dependent variable. T-test was employed in data analysis at .05 level of significance. The results reflected clearly that female students in both JSS1 and JSS3 expressed positive attitudes toward science. However, it was very clear that male students in both JSS1 and JSS3 expressed higher positive attitudes toward science than females. Regarding whether there were developmental differences in attitudes toward science between JSS1 and JSS3 students, the finding indicated no significant differences. The fact that the females expressed positive attitudes toward science is an indication that when classroom environments are made conducive to both boys and girls, and girls are frequently exposed to women role models, more girls will take up to study science at the higher levels.
Author Mary Basil NwokeSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1248 –1259 (2007)More Less
The study investigated the influence of home type, age and gender on the antisocial behaviour of secondary school students. Participants were 1000 secondary school male and female secondary schools students sampled from ten schools in Abuja. Participants were junior secondary three (JSS.111, age 13-15) and senior secondary three (SSS.111 age 16-18 years), 100 participants were sampled from each school, 50 (JSS111) and 50 (SS111). 25 boys and 25 girls from each class. An instrument developed by Nwoke (1998) called Influence of the home on students' school performance (IHSSP) was used. The design was 3x2x2 factorial. The major statistic used was the ANOVA. Results showed that home had significant effect on the antisocial behaviour of secondary school students. (F2, 98)= 18.81 P<.001. Age was also significant on the antisocial behaviour of secondary school students F (1, 98) = 10.41 P<.001. Home x age interaction was significant. F (2,98) = 8.72 P<.001. Home x gender interaction was significant. F(2,98) = 6.43 P<.005. Home x age x gender interaction was significant. F (2, 98) = 9.21 P<. 002
Poverty, sexual practices and vulnerability of female sex workers to HIV / AIDS pandemic in Lagos metropolis, NigeriaAuthor John Lekan OyefaraSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1260 –1278 (2007)More Less
The objectives of this study were to know those factors that made women to join sex industry and effects of these factors on the practice of safe sex by female sex workers in Lagos metropolis within the context of HIV / AIDS pandemic. To achieve these objectives, quantitative and qualitative research methods were adopted. In the quantitative method, 320 female sex workers were sampled in a cross-sectional survey, while 20 in-depth interviews were conducted among the respondents in the qualitative method. Findings of the study showed that female sex workers in the metropolis were young ladies in their early twenties because the mean age of respondents was 23.8 years. Data on family socio-economic background revealed that 74.4% of the respondents were from poor family, while 85.6% of them grew up from one or two-room apartment. 35.0% of the respondents stated that poverty made them to join sex industry. It is instructive to know that all the respondents had knowledge about the existence of HIV / AIDS and 81.9% of them identified sexual intercourse as major route of HIV transmission. There is significant relationship between poverty, educational level, ever contraction of STIs, charging of higher price for "flesh to flesh" sexual contact and consistent use of condom by sex workers at P<0.01. Specifically, only 24.7% of the respondents were using condom regularly in each of the sexual acts. Poverty is a major factor that pushed young women into prostitution and this same factor hindered them from practising safe sex. Thus, programmes that will reduce poverty level should be developed in order to reduce rapid transmission of HIV infection in the country.
Author Ilevbare FemiSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1279 –1289 (2007)More Less
The study set to investigate the influence of gender differences of consumers on shopping orientations in Ibadan metropolis. The research was a survey research, which adopted Ex-post facto design. A total number of three-hundred and two consumers were drawn as participants through accidental sampling technique for this study. The participants were made up of 180 (59.6%) males and 122(40.4%) females. Their age ranged between 20-42 years with a mean of 27.92 (SD = 31.86).
Three hypotheses were generated and sub-sequently tested using appropriate statistical tools. The outcome of the tested hypothesis revealed that sex differences of consumers was not found to significantly influence their shopping orientations (t (2, 300)) = 84; p > .05). Similarly, consumers ethnic group was not found to significantly influence their shopping orientation (F (3,301) = 2.479; P > .05). Finally, there was a significant joint prediction of age, ethnicity and educational qualification on consumers shopping orientations / decision making (F (3, 298) = 3.864, P < .05), independently, it was revealed that age was joint to significantly predict shopping orientation of consumers (B = -1.31, t = -2.093, P < .05).
The results were discussed adequately with reference to existing bodies of theories and relevant studies. Based on this outcome conclusion were drawn and recommendation were made.
Author Anthony NaaekeSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1290 –1301 (2007)More Less
Inspired by the arguments of J. S. Mill and in solidarity with the quest of women throughout the world, but particularly in Africa, for the recognition of their fundamental human rights, this paper contends that development communication has an invaluable prophetic role to play in liberating the 'mistress' (women) in Africa as an imperative for development in the continent. The struggle for the recognition and respect of human rights of every person must remain a continual struggle, often requiring prophetic voices to call society to its moral responsibilities toward the weak, the voiceless and those who are socially marginalized. This paper identifies the role of development communication and the development communicator as prophetic, where prophet serves as a metaphor to refer to the unending conscience of the society. By identifying some situations of the mistress in Africa, the paper will show the "sufferings, immoralities, evil of all sorts, produced in innumerable cases by the subjection of ...women" and why such situations "are far too terrible to be overlooked" (Mill 85) not only because they are a brutal violation of human rights but also because of their consequences for development in Africa.
Intimate partner violence and HIV risk among women inprimary health care delivery services in Vhembe District, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1302 –1316 (2007)More Less
The aim of the study is to investigate intimate partner violence and HIV risk among women attending primary care health care facilities in Vhembe district, South Africa. The sample included 389 women with a mean age of 28 years (SD=7.1) randomly selected from four primary care facilities. Results indicate high rates of intimate partner violence and HIV risk: 34% of the women reported a history of having an STI in the past 12 months, 17% had consistently (every time) used a condom with their primary partner in the past three months, and 59% reported knowing that their primary partners placed them at risk for HIV transmission. Combining physical or sexual abuse 28.5% of the women reported that this IPV was perpetrated within the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression identified lower educational level, having had more sexual partners in the past 12 months, primary partner with known HIV risk, frequency of binge drinking among the primary partner and having had an STI as predictors for physical or sexual abuse. Among women who reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in the past 12 months only 26.9% had disclosed their abuse status to their health care provider, and yet, 47.1% of the abused women agreed that a health care provider should routinely ask the patient about abuse. Accordingly, programmes for the prevention of intimate partner violence and HIV risk need to target the above identified underlying factors. Health care workers are in a unique position to routinely assess all female patients for abuse and offer effective interventions that can improve their health.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1317 –1339 (2007)More Less
The imbalance against the females vis-á-vis their male counterparts in access to positions has received adequate attention of scholars and public commentators for discourse on gender parity. The outcome of the imbalance is the regrettable loss of contributions of the females to the process and programmes of development. The female folk have consequently taken the challenge to halt the trend by agitating variously for "women empowerment" "women liberation" and women equality". Interestingly, the women have been able to prove the fact of their marginalization to the extent that the issue is no longer their concern only, but also the concern of the males and governments. This work is a reappraisal of the problems and prospects of women in managerial positions in Edo state civil service as at the end of the last millennium specifically 1990-2000. The work adopted the stratified sampling survey method using the pools of officers on grade level 12 and above, who are by law those on managerial cadre, as the population for primary source of data. The secondary source of data was the statistics division of the state ministry of establishments. The work revealed gross under representation of women in managerial positions in the state due to several, factors including poor value placed on female education. It has therefore, made appropriate recommendations among which are deliberate granting of access to women to education and career opportunities.
Knowledge and attitude of Nigerian female undergraduate students toward STIs / HIV / AIDS Pandemic : University of Lagos exampleSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1340 –1359 (2007)More Less
This study examines the knowledge and attitude of female undergraduate students in Nigeria toward STIs / HIV / AIDS pandemic. Quantitative research technique was adopted to examine this objective using University of Lagos female students as study population. The specific research method adopted in the study is cross-sectional survey and total of 200 female students were randomly sampled during the period of data collection. Results of the study reveal that 75.0 percent of respondents are sexually active and many of them have multiple sexual partners. Consequently, B about 10.5 percent of the sampled female students have contracted at least one form of STIs or the other. There is a significant association between current marital status of the female students and contraction of STIs at P < 0.01. Specifically, 33.3% of separated female students have ever contracted at least one form of STDs compared with 7.5 percent among single female students. In addition, there is a significant association between level of study and contraction of STDs by female students at P < 0.01. In particular, 60.0 percent of extra-years students reported that they have ever contracted STDs compared with 16.7 percent among 100-200 female students. Knowledge of HIV / AIDS pandemic is 100.0 percent and the students were able to mention the three main routes of contracting HIV infection. Responses on the perception of female students about HIV / AIDS show that about 81.0 percent belief that HIV / AIDS is actually in existence, but 19.0 percent stated that it is not real. In addition, 34.0 percent of the respondents argued that HIV / AIDS is curable. Information on practice of safe sex among sexually active students reveals that only 41.0 percent of them are using condom regularly during sexual intercourse. This shows that many of the sexually active undergraduate female students in Nigeria are highly vulnerable to the contraction of STIs / HIV. In conclusion, more effort should be put together to educate students of higher institutions in Nigeria about STIs / HIV / AIDS epidemic. This will remove erroneous belief about the disease and also encourage safe sex among them.
Author Iniobong A. AkpabioSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1360 –1375 (2007)More Less
The study attempted to document beneficiaries' perceptions on Women NGO (WNGOs) activities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study included: an assessment of beneficiaries' perceptions on factors influencing their participation in WNGOs activities, WNGOs contributions to improvements' in beneficiaries' socio-economic activities and constraints affecting beneficiaries' participation in WNGOs activities. A sample size of 120 respondents from 24 Local Women Groups (LWGs), which are affiliated to three active WNGOs in the study area, were utilized for the study. Findings revealed that rural women will participate in the activities of recognized, viable WNGOs, that are managed by a responsive leadership structure and are involved in activities that satisfy their felt needs. WNGOs were revealed to affect beneficiaries' socio-economic statuses through increased income generation, health awareness and acquisition of food processing skills. Constraints affecting beneficiaries' participation in WNGOs activities include: inadequate credit facilities, and poor utilization of credit advances, resulting in poor loan repayment levels. It is believed that WNGOs are capable of more effective inputs into human and community development activities. Recommendations are proffered in this respect.
Author Vanita PatwardhanSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1376 –1387 (2007)More Less
The study aimed at developing a training program for enhancement of women leadership and executing and evaluating its effect. The Enhancement of Women Leadership Program (EWLP) was developed, which consists of five broad dimensions as Nurturing Intelligence, Self Development, Developing Leadership Skills, Social Enterprise and Inculcating Values. The methodology of the program is experiential one and is based on needs of the participants. A tryout was held to tap the effectiveness of EWLP. Two studies were done. In the first study, due to varied reasons, analysis of this data was avoided. In all 58 Indian rural women who enjoyed the leadership were trained in the second study. They were educated and their age ranged from 20 to 62 years. Their SES was lower middle. Personal information schedule, Leadership Trait Questionnaire, Leadership Inventories, Convergent Thinking in Behavioral Units Test and Situational Task were used for pre-test post-test analysis. The effect of EWLP was positive for women, resulting in improvement in leadership as analyzed through situational tasks and the social workers' regular and follow up observations. The analysis of pre-post comparative statistics on paper - pencil tests revealed that though the means are higher on post occasions, they are not significantly different.
Author Anagha LavalekarSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1388 –1405 (2007)More Less
The research aims at exploring and comparing the marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence of people between age 25-65. Tools used were namely Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) and Exploring Emotional Abilities (EEA). A fairly representative data of 316 respondents was collected from Maharashtra, India. The analysis indicates a significant gender difference on certain areas of emotional intelligence, namely, openness to criticism, self management and empathy. A significant gender difference is also noted on two areas of marital satisfaction, namely, sexual relations and sharing household responsibilities, which can be traced to the socio-cultural influences. This has helped in understanding the relationship of gender with core traits of one's emotionality, which influence the marital relationship.
Towards greater participation of Nigerian women in democratic governance and development : challenges and prospectsAuthor Kehinde A.A. BolajiSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1406 –1419 (2007)More Less
Nigeria is a patriarchal society characterized by acute discrimination, exclusion, inequality and impunity. These features are also reflected in its politics, especially as they relate to the issue of gender imbalance. This asymmetrical relationship between the sexes in the process of authoritative allocation of public resources has stunted the process of sustainable human development in the country. It is the contention of this paper that the continued marginalisation of women in politics is a reflection of the deceit inherent in governmental programmes aimed at empowering women, which has made it difficult to achieve development through such programmes. In addition, the paper argues that challenges such as political violence, 'monetisation' of politics, harmful traditional practices, division in the ranks and files of women and lack of participatory political culture have weakened the capacity of women to participate more actively in politics. The resultant effects on development, it was discovered, include unrepresentative policies, feminization of poverty, lack of ownership and acceptability of policies. The paper therefore suggests strategies for ensuring greater women participation in Nigerian politics in future in order to bring about a more rapid development for Nigeria.
Author Henry V. OkotieSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1420 –1432 (2007)More Less
The web of gender has caught up with the global vocabulary. Gender has become one of the contemporary vocabularies of globalization such as liberalization, commercialization, liberal democracy etc.
The paper examined the conceptual clarification of gender, conflict and human security in order to expose the semantic and theoretical confusion associated with the subject matter.
The UNDP dimensions to human security were adopted to examine the inadequacies and challenges arising from gender disparity that result into human security dilemmas in Nigeria. The paper also argued that gender and conflict in Nigeria can only be perceived within the pre-conflict situation paradigm. Some examples of this human insecurity were drawn from the Urhobo society in the Niger Delta to buttress the inadequacies of human security in Nigeria; strategies were proffered to tackle these challenges.
The paper concluded that once the strategies are critically looked into and steps are taken to implement them, certain prospects will accrue to gender human security network in Nigeria.
Author S.T. AkinyeleSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1432 –1441 (2007)More Less
This paper tries to determine both male and female church- attendance trends and to study gender effect, that is, differences between males and female regarding church attendance. It also considers churches as non-profit organizations contending with a mounting problem of male disinterest and disengagement. Based on reports originating in the popular press as well as expert opinion, men are falling away from church involvement in record numbers. A Survey study in Lagos - Nigeria determined that 61% of today's church members are women (Murrow 2005). A number of practitioner books, web-sites, and lay-leader seminars have appeared in recent years with the intent of addressing this issue while offering multiple theories to explain this trend. However, empirical evidence and systematic development of male member profiles that would aid in the development of marketing strategies to better target this group are lacking. This paper begins to address this shortcoming by exploring gender differences in general and male characteristics in particular as they pertain to church satisfaction and involvement.
Emotional burden of infertility : a controlled study of women managed at a Nigerian teaching hospitalSource: Gender and Behaviour 5, pp 1442 –1448 (2007)More Less
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between socio-cultural factors and infertility-related stress among a sample of Nigerian women.
The subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a schedule detailing socio-demographic and infertility-related variables were administered on women with infertility and a matched control group.
The rates of significant anxiety symptoms (39.4%) and depressive symptoms (40.4%) among the women with infertility were higher than the corresponding rates of 11.1% and 10.1% in the control group. Their mean anxiety and depression scores were also higher (P<0.001). Low religiosity, friction with husband's family, polygamous relationship and family pressure on husband predicted symptoms among the women with infertility. Public campaign to improve attitude towards women with infertility is advocated. Therapeutic mental health services are important for these women.