Gender and Behaviour - Volume 7, Issue 1, 2009
Volume 7, Issue 1, 2009
Author Mary Basil NwokeSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2078 –2086 (2009)More Less
The study investigated the issue of bride price and its implications for women rights in Nigeria. The paper examined the issues of gender-role inequality and discovered that it runs across cultures. There are some gender roles that are exclusively male preserve as well as there are some gender roles that are exclusively female preserve. Historically the issue of bride price is a value system in the marriage institution. The bride price traditionally legalizes marriage. The study highlighted the psychological implications of bride price. But since culture is dynamic not static, any conflicting issue or value in the system that does not allow the growth and development of individuals, such should be reconciled with reason. Since the terminology bride price seems to be misconceived, the paper recommended the restructuring of the term bride price with some terminology options.
Author Hussaini Usman MalamiSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2087 –2094 (2009)More Less
In the northern part of Nigeria, majority of women are working within the four corners of their matrimonial homes. However, some of them are fully integrated in the modern economy. This study identifies the contribution of the two classes of women to the modern Nigerian economy.
Author Yetunde Adebunmi AlukoSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2095 –2324 (2009)More Less
Work-family conflict and integration has been examined quite often in human resource management and industrial/organizational psychology literature. As employees attempt to balance work demands and family responsibilities, organizations will have to decide to what extent they will go to minimize this conflict. This study examined the kinds of work-family conflict experienced by female married professionals with children in both the academia and banking sector, and the coping strategies they had adopted. The academia and banking sector are traditionally known as a "male" field ; hence women are not usually welcomed with open arms.
The approach taken in this study was to conduct indepth interviews with two hundred (200) female professionals in both the academia and banking sector. Six (6) universities (state, federal and private) were selected on one hand, and on the other hand, four (4) banks (both old and new generation) were also selected. The study focused especially on the experiences of academic women at both the junior and senior faculty levels of their careers on one hand, and women bankers at both the middle and top levels of their managerial cadres on the other hand. Several unsettled issues related to the day-today experience of work and family roles were investigated. How multiple role juggling, task demands, personal control, and goal progress affected mood in work and family roles. A ground theory analysis disclosed the centrality of conflicts between work and home roles in participants' account.
Influence of gender and learned helplessness on some mathematics-related cognitive behaviour of Lesotho senior secondary school studentsSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2124 –2137 (2009)More Less
Learned helplessness in mathematics has been identified as a problem that significantly influences students' performance. This study examines the hypotheses that gender and learned helplessness determines significantly the level performance of Lesotho secondary school students in mathematics. Three hundred and ten students from 12 senior secondary schools completed questionnaires assessing their level of learned helplessness as well as ability in mathematics so far. Using a chi-square and two-way ANOVA, results indicated that gender does not significantly determine the level of learned helplessness in mathematics although they both influence students' cognitive behaviour independently ; there was no significant interaction between gender and level of learned helplessness.
Author Ademola Lateef AdisaSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2137 –2152 (2009)More Less
The problem of well-being and non-utilisation of retirees in the socio-economic development of Nigeria generally, is mainly a result of dearth of indigenous research works, especially on gender issues. Retirees have always been assumed to be homogeneous, both in experiences and needs and recommendations from such works have been deficient. This study, therefore, had two objectives : one, to appraise the influence of cultural beliefs and practices in gender relations on well-being of Yoruba retirees in Osun State and two, to provide data which would stimulate further research on the potential use of retirees for developmental purpose instead of remaining as dependants for the rest of life. The study relied on primary data obtained from 954 retirees through the use of semi-structured questionnaire. Findings revealed areas of similarity and divergence of needs among the retirees and the conclusion that is drawn is that the gender-based work policy on expectation of needs is useful only when it promotes equity between males and females.
Author Peter Terfa OrteseSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2153 –2163 (2009)More Less
The paper examined perceptions of sex values among adolescents in a Nigerian University. The paper also reviewed sex values against religious and societal and cultural values such as virginity and fidelity all which go against pre-marital and extra-marital sex. Though adolescents are socialized on these values, their sex values manifested in their sex behaviour seem otherwise. Findings revealed that adolescents perceived sex (premarital or extramarital) as a normal way of life. Adolescents had significant knowledge of the social and religious values of the society on sex. Adolescents had adequate knowledge of health implications arising from sex. It was therefore concluded that adolescents be subjected to intense psychotherapy to change their perception of sex in order to modify their immoral and deviant sex behaviours.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2164 –2174 (2009)More Less
The problem of corruption has become a serious threat to the moral, religious, social, economic and political foundations of Nigeria as a nation. The problem seems to have become a national malady defiling solution in spite of efforts put in place to control it. Many scholars have attested that a large percentage of the population tend more toward corruption. The aim of this case study was to find out the view of the male and female students in the tertiary institutions in Nigeria as it relates to corrupt practices. The study was a survey which employed questionnaire as its major instrument while percentages and t-test were used to analyze the data collected. The findings show that there is no significant difference in the views of the female and male respondents towards corrupt practices. Suggestions were offered on how to solve the problem of corruption in Nigeria.
Author E.S. IdemudaiSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2175 –2185 (2009)More Less
This study examines the influence of sex and propinquity on attitudes towards spouse abuse among South Africans. It is hypothesized that females would have a more negative attitude than males and that people with a high degree of contact with the abused (relatives and professionals working with the abused) (high propinquity group) would have a more favourable therefore negative attitude toward spouse-abuser than those with low degree of personal contact (low propinquity group).
Through in-depth interviews using a questionnaire, data were collected from 120 randomly selected participants in Gauteng and Limpopo provinces. Age of participants 18 to 50 years with a mean age of 32.2 (SD=8.27). Spouse-abuse as used in this study is defined "women and men who have been emotionally abused (nagging, sexual and emotion deprivation) and or physically beaten by their spouses with blows, slapped, kicked and have experienced these over three times in a single relationship.
A 2 X 2 ANOVA of data collected from 120 participants reveals that females have a more negative attitude towards spouse abuse than males and the high propinquity participants have a more negative attitude than low propinquity group.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2186 –2196 (2009)More Less
Domestic violence is a pattern of violent behaviour including physical, sexual and psychological attacks as well as economic coercion used against intimate partner. This study is aimed at creating awareness of the dental implications of domestic violence against women in Nigeria, to demonstrate that dental professionals are in the position to recognize such abuse so that early identification, appropriate intervention and long term solutions can be provided. Clinical data were collected on 538 female adult attendants in a private clinic in Benin City for a period 2 ½ years and analysed by Microsoft excel package. A total of 538 female studied for domestic violence, 13 or 2.28% suffered physical assault from their partners. Out of the 13 (thirteen) victims 6 (six) or forty-six percent (46%) were assaulted by their husbands while boyfriends assaulted 7 or fifty - four percent (54%). Higher educational status of the victims correlated positively with early presentation at the clinic. However, it was observed that 11 (eleven) out of the 13 (thirteen) presented first in pharmacy shops for treatment. There was no police report in all of these 13 (thirteen) cases of domestic violence. Although this study is limited, the result, points to the fact that injury from domestic violence in the oral facial region is not uncommon.
Strategies for dealing with problems faced by men participating in a men's empowerment project in Umkhanyakude, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2197 –2211 (2009)More Less
South Africa has amongst the world's highest levels of sexual and domestic violence and an interrelated HIV / AIDS epidemic driven in significant part by gender roles that encourage men to equate manhood with dominance over women, sexual conquest and a range of risky behaviours. Women's greater vulnerability to HIV / AIDS is in part explained by the very high levels of sexual and domestic violence mainly perpetuated by men. The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for dealing with problems faced by men in Umkhanyakude using a participatory and inclusive approach.
Men in Umkhanyakude were invited to a workshop in January 2004 to carefully think through the problems that they face, then to prioritize these problems using a ranking process based on nominal group technique. They then went further to explore strategies of overcoming these problems. Problems identified by men in Umkhanyakude range from socio-economic problems such as unemployment and retrenchments, poverty, marriage and family breakdown and men's inappropriate sexual behaviours. Health problems included premature death and illness, violent death and injury, drugs and alcohol and teenage pregnancy. A cultural and traditional problem identified was faction fighting caused by intolerance.
The four main strategies used in dealing with problems identified by men were 1) using sport as an entry and engagement strategy, 2) providing men's community education through public debates and dialogue, 3) providing training and capacity development and 4) enterprise development Socio-economic problems faced by men in Umkhanyakude require broad social, economic and development strategies to deal with problems that they face.
Role of parents in supporting youth who participate in Abstinence and Be Faithful (AB) interventions in South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2212 –2230 (2009)More Less
Most programs intended to prevent or reduce HIV / AIDS have focused on "safer sex" and the use of condoms, both in South Africa and many other countries affected by the HIV / AIDS epidemic. The use of condoms and other contraceptives have also been central to many campaigns to reduce unwanted pregnancies, particularly among teenage girls. However, some parents, conservatives and religious critics of these programs are concerned that promoting condom use encourages promiscuity.
This has apparently led to an increase in programs designed to promote abstinence from sex before marriage and faithfulness in relationships as safer and more moral ways to prevent HIV / AIDS and unwanted pregnancies. The question is, what is the role of parents in supporting youth who participate in programs such as the abstinence and faithfulness for youth (ABY), that implemented by Olive Leaf Foundation?
Author Leonard UgwuSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2231 –2246 (2009)More Less
The study investigated the type of stress dual-career couples encounter at home and at their workplace and how they having been coping with stressful situations. A total of one hundred and thirteen (113) dual-career couples working at the University of Nigeria and ministry of health, Nigeria participated in this study. Results showed that dual-career couples who receive no assistance from house-helps reported more role overload than their counterparts who receive no assistance from anybody, X2(1) = 13.3, p < 0.05. Results also showed that dual-career couples who live with aged parent(s) / parent(s)-in-law and their own children reported more role overload than their counterparts are neither living with their children nor with aged parent(s), X2(1) = 24.45, p < 0.05. The major sources of stress for dual-career couples living with their own children and aged parents centred on children-related activities.
Author Olubukola A. OkeSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2248 –2263 (2009)More Less
This study examines the various indicators of a woman's autonomy and fertility among women aged 15-49 years in Ibadan, Oyo state. The study conceptualized autonomy in decision making as either decision made by the woman alone or jointly with her husband. Quantitative data was generated from 500 respondents of varying socioeconomic background using a multistage sampling technique and data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical techniques. The results show that decision making in the home was generally seen to be the prerogative of the men as husbands. Women had greater autonomy in decision-making concerning household expenses. Women with higher level of education (secondary tertiary) were more prone to delay age at marriage, have fewer numbers of children, discuss about family planning with their husband and use contraception, compared to women with lower levels of education and who were not working.
Gender and disability : an intersectional analysis of experiences of ten disabled women in KwaZu-NatalSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2264 –2282 (2009)More Less
The study adopted the intersectional approach in exploring socially constructed stereotypes and prejudices against disabled women, and the influence of these on their self-concept and gender-identity. Ten women between the ages of 22-35 years, drawn from the four major ethnic groups in Kwazulu-Natal province of South-Africa (White, Indian, Coloured, African), participated in the study. Data were collected through in-depth face-to-face interviews. Findings revealed that the disabled woman is marginalized and confronted with triple jeopardy of being female, disabled, and in a developing nation. Social stereotypes, discrimination and prejudices negatively influence her self-concept, her gender identity, and her economic self-sufficiency.
An evaluation of academic stress and coping mechanism among married female students in Nigerian tertiary institutionsSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2283 –2303 (2009)More Less
The study assessed and evaluated academic stress coping mechanisms adopted by married female students in Nigerian tertiary institutions. This was with the aim of exploring the influence of academic stress on married female students' academic performance and their coping strategies used to enhance their academic performances. The quantitative data for this study was collected from 250 stratified and purposively selected married female students from 6 randomly selected faculties in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, through a simple random sampling technique. The quantitative data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Qualitative data collected through In-depth Interviews was analysed using the TextBase Beta. The study revealed that there was no significant relationship (c2val = 17.41, P≤0.0,) between years of marriage and high academic performance among married female students. It was also revealed that age had no significant influence (r-val = (.086), r-cal = (0.19), P ≤ 0.05) on their high academic performance. Finally, this study also showed that there was a significant relationship (rval .000, r-cal = (0.19, P ≤ 0.05) between adjustment strategies adopted and high academic performance among married female students in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. In conclusion, academic activities and pursuit by married female students are stressful period in their academic training. Many married female students experience substantial level of stress as a result of role conflict, which contributes to poor academic performance, academic dishonesty, cynicism, and substance abuse. Also, the various adjustment mechanisms contributed greatly to their high academic performance and achievement.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2304 –2315 (2009)More Less
This study discusses the influences of gender on managerial efficiency of academic librarians in Nigeria. The rationale for the study was to investigate if gender grouping has an influence on the managerial competence of librarians in Nigeria.
The total enumeration sampling technique with a questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 105 respondents and 89 questionnaires were found usable for the data analysis. The questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS. The study revealed that there were more male than female librarians in the libraries used for the study while there were more academically qualified female librarians. Despite this, there were more male heads of unit and those in decision-making positions than their female counterparts. The study discovered that gender was not a factor used in getting to decision-making positions in Nigerian libraries rather qualifications and paper publications were used as determinants for getting into positions.
The paper also provides the justifications for the education of females in Nigeria and that the government should educate parents and guardians on the need to allow their children and wards to take the career of their choice.