Gender and Behaviour - Volume 7, Issue 2, 2009
Volume 7, Issue 2, 2009
Source: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2326 –2344 (2009)More Less
Infertility is a health as well as a social problem judging from the perspective of the individual concerned, health care providers and the society at large. Clinically, infertility refers to failure of a couple to establish pregnancy after one year of having unprotected and adequate sexual intercourse. Infertility is deeply associated with socio-cultural factors, thus, beyond the clinical definition, infertility may have varying cultural definitions. It does not always refer to an inability to give birth to a child. Inability to have the desired number of children, not having sons or not being pregnant soon after the commencement of sexual activity constitutes infertility within some cultures. Typically, in Nigeria, a fulfilled marriage is expected to be characterized by a homestead bustling with children. In the light of this normative prescription, failure of married persons to produce children is perceived as deviant particularly in the African context where children are presumably the major reason for marriage. The consequences of infertility include psychological, social and physical suffering. Of special interest in the context of this paper is that the woman is often made to bear the brunt of infertility even when the problem cannot be traced to any reproductive malfunctioning on her part. This in itself is Gender Based Violence (GBV). In the course of this paper, GBV will be examined exclusively from the perspective of infertility as it pertains to the acts of violence frequently suffered by women in infertile relationships. To this effect; some case studies will be examined to elucidate the consequences of infertility as a risk factor for GBV as well proffer solutions on the way forward.
Gender and human security : reflections on the vulnerability of women to HIV / AIDS scourge in NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2345 –2366 (2009)More Less
This paper examines the relationship between gender, human security and HIV / AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. It explores this by critically examining the factors that promote the susceptibility and vulnerability of women/girls to contracting HIV / AIDS infection in Nigeria. It argues that in a patriarchal society such as Nigeria, gender is the prop on which vulnerability to HIV / AIDS and threats to human security rest. It further examines how cultural, political, socio-economic, and governance variables interplay to create and exacerbate the vulnerability of women/girls to contracting HIV / AIDS. Although the prevalence of the disease has declined since 2003, the paper observed that HIV / AIDS in Nigeria has disproportionately affected women. To better respond to the scourge of HIV / AIDS in Nigeria, the paper calls for the refocusing of campaign efforts on the rural areas; appropriate funding of the health sector; empowerment of women through proactive legislations; and greater representation of women in governance institutions to ensure that the formulation of public policies as well as the management of public resources is attuned towards greater responsiveness to the peculiar needs and challenges of women.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2367 –2381 (2009)More Less
Gender stereotyped beliefs continue to influence behaviour and attitudes of people towards choice of vocations in many parts Africa and elsewhere. In Ghana, auto-work is an example of a profession that have been culturally perceived as a male preserve (e.g. auto-sprayers, auto-welders, auto-electricians, vulcanizers). However, in recent times women appear to make a breakthrough into the hitherto male profession. It is for this reason that the researchers examined the factors that contribute towards the choice of auto-work by male and female auto-artisans. It is also to find out the appropriateness of the choice of auto-work to their sex. Data was obtained from 350 auto-artisans in three major workshops in Ghana, namely: Siwudu (Cape Coast), Kokompe (Takoradi) and Suame (Kumasi). The study identified some factors that could possibly explain why there were differences between male and female auto-artisans in their choice of work. The results also indicated that Male and female auto-artisans discriminate in the choice of auto-work. Finally, there is a significant and strong relationship between sex and choice of auto-work of auto-artisans.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2382 –2393 (2009)More Less
What is ecofeminism? According to Reuther, (1997) - "Ecofeminism" represents the union of the radical ecology movement, or what has been called 'deep ecology' and feminism. The word - "ecology" emerges from the biological science of natural systems. It examines how they become disrupted. These natural communities function to sustain a healthy web of life and how they become disrupted causing death to plant and animal life. Human intervention is obviously one of the main causes of such disruption. Thus sprang ecology as a field of study that combined socio-economic and biology to examine how the human use of nature is causing the pollution of the soil, air, water, as well as threatening the destruction of the natural base of life on which the human communities systems of plants and animals are depend upon.
Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about male circumcision and HIV by traditional and medical providers of male circumcision and traditionally and medically circumcised men in Mpumalanga, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2394 –2429 (2009)More Less
The aims of this study in Mpumalanga, South Africa, are to assess (1) the current behavioural risk reduction messages and HIV / AIDS education provided by medical and traditional providers of male circumcision to men undergoing medical and traditional circumcision and (2) the risk-related behavioural beliefs regarding circumcision, HIV / AIDS risks, condoms and gender attitudes among men who have undergone elective medical circumcision and men who have been circumcised in traditional initiation schools in the past 18 months. The sample included 13 male traditional providers and 13 male medical providers of male circumcision, and 15 traditionally and 15 medically recently circumcised men, all of an Ndebele cultural background. Qualitative analysis identified seven themes : (1) HIV / AIDS denial among men, (2) social influence of male circumcision including community norms and peer pressure, manhood initiation, perceived attitudes of women and traditional versus medical circumcision, (3) male circumcision is protective from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI), (4) HIV and other risk from male (in particular traditional) circumcision, (5) male circumcision lowers sexual inhibition (abstinence, multiple partners, inconsistent condom use, increase in sexual desire and pleasure), (6) HIV / STI education and counselling and male circumcision, and (7) promotion of male circumcision. The implications of these findings for the development of effective male circumcision HIV / AIDS prevention programmes are discussed.
Gender factor in computer anxiety, knowledge and utilization among senior secondary school students in Ogun State, NigeriaAuthor R.A. OlatoyeSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2430 –2442 (2009)More Less
The study investigated the influence of computer anxiety and knowledge on computer utilization among senior secondary school students in Ogun state, Nigeria. A sample of four hundred students randomly selected from twenty secondary schools participated in the study. Ex-post facto research design method was adopted for the study. Research questions were answered using inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance. Analysis of data revealed that there is significant difference between male and female students with regards to computer utilization (t=5.09, p<0.05). Male students use computers more frequently than their female counterparts. There is no significant difference between male and female students' computer anxiety (t=1.005, p>0.05). There is significant relationship between computer knowledge and computer utilization(r=+0.276, p<0.05). It was recommended that adequate training in the use of computer tools should be stressed in the curriculum of the teacher-trainees and government should make provision for enough computers in schools.
Author Daniela Acquadro MaranSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2443 –2456 (2009)More Less
With the project 'The Image of Excellence', the research team coordinated by Giorgio Soro described and analyzed how a work group can achieve excellence. The focus was on the interaction between a guest conductor and the hundred or so professional musicians who make up a Major Symphony Orchestra (MSO). From our research data it emerges that on the podium of Italian MSOs women are absent. As the literature indicates, the difficulties that have always surrounded women who choose the conducting professions and can even now be an obstacle to their careers are largely due to the lack of a network of mentors and the violation of gender norms. We scrutinized the biographies of 81 women conductors in order to identify the shared elements which characterize their training and careers. The hypothesis was confirmed, and new items emerged from results: the absence of women from the podium seem to be a lost opportunity, the development of those skills that women have acquired culturally and socially could encourage a phenomenic presence that will lay the foundations for a context that is increasing likely to produce excellence, a goal shared by the artistic organization and the men and women who are involved in it.
"Yesterday you were divorced. Today I am a widow" : an appraisal of widowhood practices and the effects on the psyche of widows in AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2457 –2468 (2009)More Less
Widowhood is a reality for as long as people are born and people die. Widows are found in every community but in Africa, the experience of the widow is such that women dread to be widows. In Africa, widows go through a lot of hardship that stems from the society, the husband's family and from tradition. This paper tries to look at the nature of the woman, see how this subscribes to the treatment she receives in society especially in her time of grief and loss. This paper will focus on the plight of widows in some communities in Africa and how gender and its attendant problems impede on the woman's social standing and general development in society. In looking at the issue of widowhood in Africa, the reference point will be Mariama Ba's novel, So Long a Letter where the paper will be addressing how the African woman handles widowhood and how the African society sees the widow. From study, it is observed that the term - "Widowhood" has not really attracted much criticism in African Literature. In this sense, this paper will be examining some feminist theories in an attempt to adequately appraise this situation.
Author C. EwhrudjakporSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2468 –2484 (2009)More Less
This study aimed at assessing the impact of knowledge of information technology on gender discrimination in the Nigeria's civil service work, 1200 civil servants with varied demographic characteristics randomly selected from 6 states capitals across the country participated in this study. The mean age for males and females was 49 years and 42 years respectively. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit data. However, it was 1152 questionnaires that were eligible to be statistically analyzed. The results showed that knowledge of information technology has effect on gendering in the civil service work. It was recommended that females should acquire more knowledge of information technology. This shall empower women to bridge the traditional distance between sexes in work places.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2485 –2503 (2009)More Less
This study examined the gender disparities that exist in the use of Information and Communication Technology among Nigerian in-service teachers. Five hundred and sixty five (565) in-service teachers (319 = 56.46% males and 246 = 43.53% females) who enrolled in the sandwich programme in a Nigerian university constituted the sample for the study. The Mean Age and Standard Deviation of the sample were 36.6 and 8.72 respectively. The instrument used for this study was the self-designed ICT Literacy Scale (ILS) with a coefficient of 0.91. Mean and Standard Deviation, t-test, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient were utilized for the data analysis. The findings revealed that there gender is a determining factor of in-service teachers' overall ICT literacy level, as well as their skill levels in different ICT-oriented tasks. Study outcomes further indicated no significant relationship between gender, in-service teachers' ICT literacy level and their monthly income; while a relationship between gender, ICT literacy level and subject discipline was significantly established among in-service teachers. It was recommended amongst other things that technology concepts should be infused into the curriculum of all subjects for teachers to teach and students to learn in order to motivate female teachers' interest and involvement in Information and Communication Technology use.
Author Julie AkpotorSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2504 –2516 (2009)More Less
Promotion of gender equality and women empowerment is goal number three of the Millennium Development Goal. While most of the Millennium Development Goals face a deadline of 2015, the gender parity target was set to be achieved a full ten years earlier - an acknowledgement that equal access to education is the foundation for all other development goals. Recent statistics show that for every 100 boys out of school, there are still 117 girls in the same situation. Despite the enlightenment of emancipation of women from restrictions and protections and their entry into equality with their men counterparts, women are still regarded as the inferior sex, relegated by culture and traditions as the centre of home and family life. The paper reveals that irrespective of the Millennium Development goal of gender parity and women empowerment, statistics reveal that there still exist much of gender inequality in the African societies placing the male folks at advantage over the women folks exarcebated by culture, religion and believes which undercuts women's rights politically, economically and socially. It is therefore our view that until equal numbers of girls and boys are in school, it will be impossible to build the knowledge necessary to eradicate poverty and hunger, combat disease and ensure environmental sustainability. To this we recommend the deliberate formulation of practicable policies to enchance the position of the women in our societies. Such as the government genuinely empower the position and situation of women in our societies like economic opportunities, political empowerment, educational encouragement and health / well-being opportunities.
Lived experiences of women victims of domestic violence in rural areas of Vhembe District : Limpopo Province, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2517 –2540 (2009)More Less
The high rate of domestic violence has become an issue of concern in South African families today. In most instances women and children die due to domestic violence and cases go unreported because of fear, lack of facilities such as: crisis intervention centers, hot lines as well as refugee places (shelters).
The overall aim of this research was to explore and describe the lived experiences of victims who are exposed to domestic violence. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used for this study. In-depth phenomenological interviews were conducted with 38 women who shared their experiences of staying with abusive partners.
Open coding method was used to analyse the data. Findings from the study revealed that women endure painful experiences in their relationships varying from physical to emotional pain. Findings further revealed that women also perpetuate the situation of domestic violence in their response to the pain. Findings from the study contributed to the development of a programme of support to women experiencing domestic violence, this is not included in this article.
Author Erhabor Sunday IdemudiaiSource: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2541 –2556 (2009)More Less
The aim of this paper is to describe how Africans in Germany perceived their living conditions and how this affect psychological distress among them. This paper is based on the core assumption that culture contact is inherently stressful and that induced stress due to negative living conditions can be related to psychopathology.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 7, pp 2557 –2577 (2009)More Less
This research article describes the portrayal of women given by the three Urdu weekly magazines of Pakistan, the 'Akhbar-e-Jahan' the 'Mashriq' and the 'Nawa-e-waqt' for three months period. The findings reveal that all the three weeklies devoted significant space to women pictorial portrayal mostly showed them with different products like modern dress, long hair and short hair style as object of appeal - model, actress, singer, and dancer - by all pages particularly by their titles and central fold pages, as compared to their picture spaces to the same showed them in achieved roles (teacher, doctor, social & health worker, politician, administrator and businesswoman) and traditional roles (mother, housewife, sister, and daughter). T-test statistics explore significant difference between pictorial space wise coverage by 'Akhbar-e-Jahan', 'Mashriq' and 'Nawa-e-waqt'. While the same test shows little but no significant difference between the picture spaces coverage to women by weekly 'Mashriq' and weekly 'Nawa-e-waqt.' It is interesting to mention that all the three magazines specific focus remained on portraying young and beautiful girls as model or sex object.