Gender and Behaviour - Volume 8, Issue 1, 2010
Volume 8, Issue 1, 2010
Author A.A. OlowuSource: Gender and Behaviour 8 (2010)More Less
We have continued our battle against the following; symbolic annihilation of women by the media, unequal opportunities throughout the education system, the sexual division of labour and sexist ideology of the workplace. We positively support the sanctioning of violence against women and the commoditization of female sexuality.
Difficulties encountered by black women entrepreneurs in accessing training from the Small Enterprise Development Agency in South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2590 –2602 (2010)More Less
The long period of colonialism and apartheid, imposed oppression and exploitation on women especially black African women, meant that they could not own property in their own rights or enter into a contract. The dawn of democracy brought about changes in the role played by women. They have emerged significantly and influence the policy spheres as well as their role of representation in the political spectrum. The article examines to what extent do potential entrepreneurs access training information on starting and growing their business offered by the Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA) in Gauteng. It is argued that SEDA aims to provide training to potential entrepreneurs with an aim of empowering them to utilise business opportunities provided through government policies. The data of the survey are analyzed using the quantitative approach. The findings indicate that SEDA provides only limited training in assisting potential entrepreneurs to start and grow their businesses.
Women's land rights and the challenge of patriachy : lessons from Ozalla community, Edo State, NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2603 –2617 (2010)More Less
Every community of people has its cultural and economic life rooted in the soil it occupies. The term land may take on a physical as well as a spiritual meaning. Land is a major production resource and lack of control over this important resource has constituted a limiting factor to women's productivity in rural Nigeria. It is not customary for women to own land as this is a male dominated society where patriarchy is practiced. Women's access to land depends on marriage and they retain access to land as long as they remain in their husband's household. Surprisingly, women rarely speak and hardly perceive the inequalities in the division of labour in agriculture because they are culturally legitimized. Yet lack of accessibility to land has created increased poverty, frustration, constant disputes and enmity between men and women. The situation has also become overwhelming, bearing in mind the fact that a greater population of women and children, the vulnerable in society reside and find their livelihood in the rural areas. Also, women contribute more in terms of food production for the family. Ironically, women suffer more due to land deprivation and discriminatory cultural practices just as their contribution to the sustenance and persistence of rural agriculture is neglected due to male bias. This paper therefore examines women's land rights and the challenge of patriarchy in Ozalla community, in a bid to guarantee gender equity and social justice by reducing the level of discrimination and ensuring that women have rights to fertile agricultural land so as to arrest to an appreciable extent the food crisis in the country by improving their production output and ensuring higher incomes.
Author Karl PeltzerSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2618 –2628 (2010)More Less
Using data from the World Health Survey (WHS) carried out in South Africa in 2003, the aim of this study is to establish chronic diseases risk factors and access to preventive exams for cervical and breast cancer among South African women. The sample included in this analysis included 1236 women 18 years and above. Results indicate that the most prevalent risk factors were never having had mammography (83.3%), not having had a pap smear examination in the past 3 years (82.9%), <5 units per day fruit and vegetable intake (69.5%), overweight or obese (62.5%), and 33.4% were physically inactivity (<>150 min/week). Younger age, higher educational levels, being married or cohabiting and access to piped water were significantly associated with preventive exam for cervical cancer and mammography. This study found clustering among risk factors. There is a need to develop health promotion programmes directed at the female population.
Breastfeeding and emotions of infants of working mothers in Adekunle Ajasin university, Akungba - Akoko in Ondo StateAuthor B.O. AjidahunSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2629 –2637 (2010)More Less
The study examined breast feeding and emotions of infants of working mothers in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba Akoko in Ondo State. A total number of 150 mothers randomly selected from different unit of the University were used as research subjects. The subjects were exposed to Maternal Employment Questionnaire (MEQ) consisting of fifteen items. Three hypotheses were postulated. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics. Results showed that breastfeeding, emotional development and the quality of the day care were significantly related to maternal employment.
Gender, religiosity and self-esteem as predictors of sexual attitudes of students in a Nigerian tertiary institutionAuthor A.O. LawalSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2638 –2648 (2010)More Less
Several studies on sexual attitudes among students in Nigeria have focused on university students; leaving out other categories of students in tertiary institutions. This study therefore investigated gender, religiosity and self esteem as predictors of sexual attitudes among polytechnic students in Nigeria. Using a cross sectional survey design, five hundred (500) students (212 males and 288 females) were purposively selected for the study. Questionnaire comprises of demographic information, self esteem scale and sexual attitudes scale was used for data collection. The participants' ages range from 15 to 35 years (x̄ = 22.28, SD = 3.17). Results showed that religiosity independently and significantly predicted sexual attitudes (β = .16; P<.05). All the predictor variables jointly predicted sexual attitudes F (9,436) = 2.12, P<.05 with 40% variation in dependent variable. There was no gender difference in sexual attitudes of students (t= -1.14; df = 498; P>.05). Self-esteem did not significantly influence sexual attitudes of students (t = 0.37; df = 498; P>.05. The finding suggests continuous religious inculcation in the mind of the Nigerian students in the tertiary institutions and their frequent involvement in religious activities to promote conservative sexual attitudes and help reduce sexual risk behavior in the population.
Benefits of family-responsible management in the Nigerian environment - a comparison of two breweriesAuthor C.E. EpieSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2649 –2665 (2010)More Less
This research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to study organizations in the Nigerian environment. A brewery with a family-responsible culture expressed in work-life policies is compared with a competing brewery in which the work-family interface is disregarded, examining gender differences. Results indicate that a family-responsible culture with relevant policies, even in an employer-dominated market, is associated with a healthier, more committed work force with lower turnover. In the brewery with a family-responsible culture, women reported less time-based and stress-based work-family conflict and a lower level of turnover intentions than their male counterparts, suggesting that a supportive work culture means a much more substantial relief for women than for men. Men in the family-responsible brewery experienced significantly higher wellbeing than their counterparts in the other brewery.
Author C.O. OgboguSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2666 –2676 (2010)More Less
The concentration of female university staff at lower levels of the university labour force is compounded by their gender attributes. This paper therefore sought to identify and examine the gender variables which mostly affect women's job performance in the Nigerian university system. This was done with a view to create awareness on the need to break the "glass ceiling" which currently exists in the Nigerian University labour force. Questionnaires were administered on 730 females grouped into academic, administrative and technical staff using the purposive sampling method. Twelve randomly selected Federal universities from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria were used for the study. The study revealed that child rearing practices, domestic responsibilities and marriage are the gender factors which mostly impact on the job performance of females. Female's sexuality which includes menstrual cycle, menopause and the mythic emotionality associated with women and which is used as grounds for control and exclusion do not impact on their job. The study concluded that changes in policy and academic culture are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.
Gender analysis of participatory need assessment of Emeroke community of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria : implications for agricultural extension interventionsAuthor M.J. KoyenikanSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2677 –2689 (2010)More Less
This study was designed to gender-analyze the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) that was facilitated at Emeroke community in Akwa Ibom State and examine the implications of the findings for agricultural extension interventions. The exercise revealed that there were about 200 households in the community and the average number of persons per household was ten. About 50%, 26% and 24% of the total households (THHs) were food insecured/core poor, medium food insecured/poor and food secured/non poor respectively. Female headed households (FHHs) constituted about 25% of the total households and about 48% of the food insecured category. The findings further showed that there was gender division of labour. The major occupations of the men and women were fishing and fish processing respectively. The community had a 24-hour daily activity profile due to night fishing in the high seas by the men while women were busy throughout the day. There were poor access and control of fishing and farming technologies, inputs, credit and extension services which was worse for the women. The agriculture related problem prioritized by men was lack of fishing inputs while the women indicated inefficient fish processing methods. It was recommended that extension interventions in the community should facilitate formation of commodity associations to ensure effective resource mobilization and delivery of technologies and inputs. Targeting women, promotion of aquaculture, intensification of cropping and diversification into livestock through Fadama activities will improve productivity and ensure sustainable development.
Signifying "otherness" and the politics of exclusion : effects of stigmatization on the psyche of female lepers and beggars in NigeriaAuthor Remi AkujobiSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2690 –2702 (2010)More Less
Every society has its own challenge, headache and aspiration, but how these are handled makes a lot of difference. The approach to issues, the nature of the issues and the outcome of such issues are very crucial to the development and peace of the society. Nigeria as a third world country has come a long way. The country has come full cycle with the good, the bad and the ugly just like any other country of the world. The difference in Nigeria's case may be the nature and approach to problems plaguing this great nation. This paper in this light attempts an appraisal of issues that may have accounted for the underdevelopment of this great nation over the years by looking at the position of female lepers and beggars in this society and what would have been their contributions, economically, socially and politically to the development of the nation. Using the theory of "otherness" signifying exclusion, the paper brings out the plight of these unwanted in society and evaluates what they are worth in this society. The paper also examines the effect of stigmatization on the psyche of these groups of people. The focus is on female beggars in some of the major cities of Nigeria and lepers along Ore-Benin road of Nigeria.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2703 –2723 (2010)More Less
This work contributes to the policy debate on women empowerment through gender budgeting and equally exposes the inherent negative impacts of the current budgeting system, and how it could help facilitate gender equity and open up economic opportunities for women. Gender inequalities thrive in all societies but are more prevalent in developing countries. This is as a result of less attention paid by policy makers to the socio-economic landscape made up by a diversity of vulnerable groups such as women and children. This paper examined perspectives underpinning feminism, processes and approaches to public policy and implementation, and various policy issues reinforcing gender inequality. The work analyzed three policy paradigms as well as gender budgeting analysis using Sen and Nassbaum capability approach. Of the three policies alternatives examined, strategic planning, which this work recommends is a relatively practical paradigm of public policy making, that in many ways, reconciles the differing perspectives of the other two paradigms. Through the use of Sen and Nussbaum's capability, the work acknowledges that the current system of budgeting at the federal level has continued to create gender disparity, thereby conscripting economic space for women; and consequently putting them at a disadvantage in every sector of economic and productive life. The result has been abject poverty in the various communities. The study was also able to identify the critical issues affecting gender inequalities in Nigeria, which permeates all the levels of government. It ended with policy recommendations to redress this anomaly.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2724 –2734 (2010)More Less
The study investigated the effects of incentive and gender on computer skill acquisition. The participants comprised of 40 (20 males and 20 females) Diploma II students of International Management and Finance Institute, (IMFI) Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The participants were selected through a simple random sampling. Two hypotheses were postulated and tested in the study. The design was a 2 X 2 factorial design and a 2-way ANOVA was used to analyse the data collected. Result revealed that the first hypothesis which states that there will be a statistically significant effect of incentive on computer skill acquisition was accepted. The second hypothesis which states that there will be a statistically significant effect of gender on computer skill acquisition was also accepted. Among other things the findings were discussed and suggestions made for further study.
Author A.A. AderintoSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2735 –2761 (2010)More Less
The special circumstances in which girl-children (i.e. child labour and residency in overcrowded housing units) find themselves in urban Nigeria expose them to possible risks of physical, psychological and sexual abuse, which in turn increase their vulnerability to early pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. The importance of sexual abuse of the girl-child in urban Nigeria as a subject of enquiry can not be over-emphasised. While opinion is undivided on the socio-medical and psychological consequence of child sexual abuse, there are nevertheless, divergent explanations for the changing sexual mores in Africa. This study thus provides an analysis of the scope and determinants of child sexual abuse in Nigeria. The study was qualitative utilising Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and In-depth interviews (IDIs) to collect information from young girls and key-informants in Ibadan. It involved respondents from the three major socio-cultural groups namely Yoruba, Hausa and Igbo. Findings show that the concept of sexual abuse as understood by the respondents encapsulated many other behaviour other than sexual intercourse between an old male and a young girl, and that it is very wide in scope. Urban poverty was found to be the major determinant of sexual abuse. Although, no case of HIV/AIDS arising from sexual abuse was found, however, some victims complained of health problems such as sexually transmitted infections.
Analysis of the contribution of women in the production of hevea planting materials and latex in the rubber belt of NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2762 –2770 (2010)More Less
The involvement of women in areas of direct production (budding and tapping operations) at Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) main station Iyanomo were evaluated by randomly selecting 37 respondents (20 and 17 from budding and tapping) through a questionnaire survey. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and general entropy class of measures. Result of the analysis indicated women were educated and had one form of formal education or the other and is experienced with large family sizes. Majority of the respondents (62.16%) had income above N50, 000.00 Finding also showed that total of 388 trees were tapped with a total of 34,882 kilogramme of dry rubber for tappers and total planting materials of 36,987 seedlings for budders. The computed value of general entropy (GE) was 130.78 indicated that significant differences exist between households in the income distribution. However, there was no significant difference within group income (0.90374 less than 1).
Correlation between parenting styles and sexual attitudes of young people in Nigeria : comparison of two ethnic groupsAuthor E.F. AkinsolaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2771 –2788 (2010)More Less
The relationship between parenting styles and sexual attitudes of young people in Nigeria was assessed in this study. In doing this, 852 secondary school students selected from two ethnic groups and two states (Yoruba- Oyo state, & Efik - Cross River state), with ages ranging between 11 and 24 yrs responded to parenting styles and sexual attitudes questionnaires. It was hypothesized that :
1. Authoritative and the hybrid authoritative/authoritarian parenting styles would be more characteristic of Yoruba Parents than the Efik Parents.
2. The young people of Yoruba decent would report more restraint sexual attitudes while those from Efik decent would report more liberal and permissive sexual attitudes.
3. Males would have more liberal and permissive sexual attitudes while females would have more restraint sexual attitudes.
4. There would be positive and significant correlation between the parenting styles and the sexual attitudes of young people in Nigeria.
Results obtained confirmed three of the hypotheses fully and the fourth partially. In addition authoritarian and permissive parenting styles predicted liberal, permissive, promiscuous, and loose attitudes to sexuality issues, while authoritative parenting style predicted restraint attitude.
Author F.F. FashinaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2789 –2805 (2010)More Less
The term gender simply means the classification of people into male and female, but it is more than that. Gender classification includes what society expects from each of the sexes : both biological and social responsibilities. Nature has bestowed upon the female gender certain natural and social expectations which include : child-bearing, household duties, planting, harvesting and processing of agricultural produce. This could be summarized as production and reproduction. Likewise, the male has the major responsibility, as the head of the household, of taking care of the family. It is in this light that this study looks at the religion perspective of gender to the development of Nigeria. The study made use of primary data via the administration of two hundred questionnaires to respondents. The result shows that both the males and females are essential in the development of Nigeria.
Scanty dressing habit and sexual comportment among adolescent girls in metropolitan Lagos : implications for HIV/AIDS incidenceSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2806 –2824 (2010)More Less
The sanctity of proper dressing in sub-Saharan Africa was always adhered to few years back, not until recently when relaxation on dressing habit crept in and is now completely being overturned and conspicuously replaced by obscene habit of half nakedness and nudity. The study examined the effects of the acquiescent of Nigerian society towards the preponderance of scanty dressing, pornography (and the like) on adolescents' sexual behavior and its probable effects on the incidence of HIV/AIDS. 283 adolescents in age group 10-19 years were interviewed in Lagos State of Nigeria. The study revealed that there is a negative relationship between girls' dressing habit and level of sexual comportment. It revealed that those that are scantily dressed are vulnerable to sexual acts and are likely to be more exposed to HIV/AIDS than otherwise. 73.1 percent of respondents considered communication on sexuality with their parents as very poor. About 88.3 percent respondents wear "see-through", transparent trouser/pants, "hips stands" dresses outside their homestead and the motives range from "want to be noticed by big boys", "dress to thrill" to "sex for cash". 62.2 percent have experienced sexual intercourse and 51.9% out of this magnitude have had it within the last three month of the survey. Two-third do not use condom during intercourse while several do not have stable sexual partners. Indulgence in scanty dressing could be curtailed by the provision of adequate sexuality education and respect for Nigerian value of dressing. Responsible sexual comportment is possible by embracing modest dressing lifestyles among others.
Economic empowerment of Nigerian women through proper application of loans and management of capitalAuthor U.M. HussainiSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2825 –2832 (2010)More Less
This paper is an attempt to make a modest contribution on how to finance Nigerian women economic empowerment programme. It also provides certain measures of proper monitoring and channeling those resources in order to achieve the target they are meant for. The writer is of the view that if proper monitoring is done, there is every possibility to achieve the desired goal.
Dual protection, contraceptive use, HIV status and risk among a national sample of South African womenSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2833 –2845 (2010)More Less
The aim of this study was to investigate dual protection, contraceptive use, HIV status risk among a national sample of South African women. The final sample included only female participants (N=4675) who reported to have had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months aged 15 to 49 years. Results indicate that almost one thirds (31.7%) of the participants indicate that they were protected from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections the last time they had sexual intercourse, 18.6% using dual methods compared to the 6.8% who were found to use both barrier and hormonal methods and 13.1% using a condom alone; 40.9% were protected from pregnancy only through the use of a non-barrier contraceptive, while 46% of the participants used no method at all. In multivariate analysis younger age, higher education, African black, not married and high HIV risk perception were associated with dual method use. Dual method use is low in this population and the use of contraceptive methods that offer protection against pregnancy and STIs/HIV is encouraged.
Quality of life among female workers in Edo State : consideration of job-type, age and marital statusSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2846 –2856 (2010)More Less
This study examined the role of age, marital status and job-type on quality of life among female workers in Edo State (N=188). Results from t-test revealed that female teachers reported better quality of life than female police officer, married female workers reported better quality of life than single female workers, while there was no significant difference in the quality of life between young female workers and older female workers. Results of the analysis of variance revealed that the interaction of age, marital status and job-type have a significant influence on quality of life among female workers. The findings revealed that demographic variables have significant effect on quality of life among female teachers and female police officers.