Gender and Behaviour - Volume 8, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 8, Issue 2, 2010
Factors influencing pregnancy desires among HIV positive women in Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2960 –2975 (2010)More Less
Fertility issues for HIV-positive women are becoming increasingly important. The study investigated the pregnancy desires of HIV positive women of Gert Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that have participated in Prevention of Mother to child Transmission of HIV programme. A cross sectional survey was conducted. 47 public health facilities in Gert Sibande District of Mpumalanga, South Africa were used to conduct interviews between September 2008 and March 2009. 815 HIV infected mothers at postnatal care, with babies aged 3-6 months. Women in the current study had poor knowledge about HIV transmission from mother to child. We found that only 16.6% had a desire to have children. In multivariable regression analysis the desire to have children was associated with having fewer children, had discussed family planning, current partner knew his HIV status and unknown HIV status of their infant. The main family methods currently used was injection (54.8%), followed by condom (33.9%), the pill (22%) and female condom (14.6%). Women with HIV who desire to have children face risks that need special consideration. Family planning for HIV infected women should be promoted and improved in postnatal care.
Perceptions of barriers to the advancement of women in management and leadership positions in South AfricaAuthor Ge Chiloane-TsokaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2976 –2995 (2010)More Less
Despite having a South African Constitution that entrenches equal rights, discriminatory practices, structural inequalities, cultural factors, prejudices and traditional patriarchal society are still alive and well in the South African business environment. This article attempts to discuss the reasons why women are not readily promoted in the private and public sectors, as well as other spheres. The study pivots around a number of barriers placed against the advancement of women in leadership positions in the Gauteng, South Africa. The methodology includes a review of literature, interviews, observations, attitudes and perceptions of those sampled. The findings showed that there are many traditional stereotypes that still exist about women in leadership positions. The study concluded that women play a crucial role in leadership positions.
Gender and leadership style as socio-demographic indicators of job satisfaction in Akwa Ibom State Civil ServiceSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 2996 –3016 (2010)More Less
The influence of Gender and Leadership Style on job satisfaction was investigated using two hundred (200) Civil Servants made up of 100 (males) and 100 (females) randomly selected from the population of civil servants in various Ministries of Akwa Ibom State Civil Service. The mean age of the participants was 37.53 years. The participants were randomized into two treatment conditions of Gender (Male and Female) and Leadership style (Democratic and Autocratic styles). Two instruments used were, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) scale. The design of the study was a 2 x 2 randomized factorial design. Results of ANOVA showed a no statistically significant difference on the level of job satisfaction between males and females [F(1,196) = 0.02; pns]. Females were not markedly different from males in their satisfaction on the job. On the other hand there was a statistically significant difference between employees under the democratic style of leadership and their autocratic style of leadership counterparts. (F(1,196), = 10.65, P<.01). The democratic style of leadership employees were more satisfied with their jobs than the autocratic style of leadership employees. There was no significant interaction effect. The results of the analysis were discussed in line with previous and relevant findings. The practical implications of the findings and their limitations were also discussed.
Author Kehinde O. AyenibiowoSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3017 –3035 (2010)More Less
This research is an attempt to investigate the incidence of violence among university students using University of Lagos as a case study. A questionnaire on different kinds of violence was administered to 446 students of the university. In addition, four focus group discussion sessions were conducted to assess the types of violence that occur in different settings on the campus. Most of the respondents were aged 21-25 years. The results show that verbal violence was more rampant than the other types of violence. However physical violence was recorded more among students in the first year than the higher levels. The findings show the need for proper orientation and guidance on social interaction for new students of tertiary institutions.
Author Philip C. MefohSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3036 –3047 (2010)More Less
The objective of this study was to determine whether interference generates differential recall for men and women. Seventy-two (72) college students (36 men and 36 women; Mean age = 22.06 and 21.64 years respectively) studied lists of paired associate words and later completed a recall task. The result showed that interference generates differential recall for men and women, with women showing superior recall ability under the interference conditions. The result was interpreted in terms of showing support for the lateralization hypothesis. The second objective was to determine whether the ability to retrieve information from memory was worst under the proactive interference or retroactive interference conditions. Gender was collapsed over the two interference conditions and an AB - AD design was used to create interference in the experimental conditions. The result indicated that memory was worst under the proactive interference condition. The finding suggests that learned later disrupted recall of information that was studied previously more than vice versa. The paper concludes by providing some skills on how students can be more strategic about controlling their attentional capacities to reduce interference.
Psychological empowerment and development of entrepreneurship among women : implications for sustainable economic development in NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3048 –3068 (2010)More Less
The problem of sustainable economic development in Africa has continued to attract the interest of economic analysts, political commentators and other social scientists. Successive governments in Nigeria and as well the rest of African have adopted several strategies to engender growth and development, but it seems that most of these attempts have not achieved the desired results. Most of the previous development efforts in Africa, including Nigeria, have focused on the political and economic-related issues with little or no reference to psychological factors in development. This paper therefore examines the role of psychological empowerment in development of entrepreneurship among women. It is acknowledged that one major problem of underdevelopment in Nigeria is the issue of unemployment, especially among willing and employable Nigerians. Women have also been seen as very relevant in current development efforts in developing countries and their contributions in wealth creation have been amply documented. It is argued here that women can generate the needed employment and wealth on their own but it may be necessary to empower them psychologically to become successful entrepreneurs. The paper also links entrepreneurship with wealth creation and pointed out the implications of entrepreneurship in sustainable economic development.
Author Rosemond BooheneSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3069 –3088 (2010)More Less
Researchers have suggested that the type of women and men who become entrepreneurs are psychologically distinguishable from each other. Thus the main aim of this study was to examine how these differences are manifested in the personal values systems of male and female owner-managers in Ghana. Six hundred men and women owner-managers rated a modified version of the Rokeach (1973) value survey. The results of the study revealed that female owner-managers gave significantly greater weight than males to power, ambition, social recognition aggressiveness. In contrast, male owner-managers gave greater weight than females to the values of risk taking, personal development, innovation, broadmindedness, capability, courageousness and imagination. The findings thus lend credence to the suggestion that gender differences arise from institutionalised social structures that influence the personal values of small business owners. It is therefore recommended that the socialisation processes both boys and girls go through in Ghana are made gender-neutral.
Author Yusuf FeliciaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3089 –3101 (2010)More Less
The study examined the role of libraries and information in curbing the practice of female genital mutilation. Specific objectives of the study include: to examine the concept and origin of female genital mutilation, highlight various types and consequences of female genital mutilation, state the justification for the practice, investigate if there are existing legislations against this practice and to identify roles of the library and information in curbing female genital mutilation. Popularizing the danger of female genital mutilation, partnering with NGOs, media campaign, organizing workshops & seminars, briefing & debriefing and mounting billboards were identified as some of the roles libraries and information can play in eradicating this injustice against women. The paper concluded by charging NGOs, human rights organizations, government at all levels and other stakeholders to rise up to this challenge and ensure total eradication of female genital mutilation.
A study of gender differences in the attitude of mathematically gifted and non-gifted senior secondary school students in NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3102 –3116 (2010)More Less
The aim of the study is to investigate the differences in the attitude of boys and girls who are mathematically gifted or mathematically non-gifted in the Nigerian senior secondary schools. The population for the study was made up Senior Secondary Three students (SS3) of a school in Osun State. The study sample was made up of 150 (69 boys and 81 girls) SS3 students who were selected using stratified random sampling techniques with sex serving as the stratum. Three instruments were used in carrying out this study. The first instrument was an adopted RAVEN's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). It was a non-verbal assessment of general intelligence in people, applicable to people aged 5 years and over. The second instrument was a self constructed Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) that covers the first two years of the Senior Secondary School Mathematics Syllabus. The third instrument was an adopted Andy (2007) Attitude Scale (AS) which was an adaptation of Fennema and Sherman (1976) AS. The collected data were analysed using t-test. The result indicated that the difference in the general attitude of male and female is significant. However, when considering the componential factors of the AS, it was discovered that there is a significant difference in the attitude of male and female students towards confidence in mathematics (t = 3.96 p <.05). It was also discovered that the male generally, the mathematically gifted male and average male students when compared with the girls showed a significantly more positive attitude towards confidence in mathematics (t = 3.8 and 2.92 respectively). While the girls generally and the underachiever girls when compared with the boys showed that they have a significantly more different negative feelings towards mathematics (t = -3.06 and -2.47 respectively). Based on these findings it is believed that boys' higher confidence in mathematics can encourage their pursuit of mathematics in their further studies and future career. However, the conclusions in this study are tentative. More research is needed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3117 –3142 (2010)More Less
This paper interrogates the corresponding increase of Nigerian women in corrupt practices within the spell of their marginal appropriation into political and bureaucratic life. It argues that corruption or lack of it does not inhere in gender as a biological trait; rather, it is inherent in the institutional mechanisms that shapes and conditions the ethical dispositions of its players irrespective of their gender. Consequently, we contend that the corrupt nature of Nigeria's bureaucracy and the renteer political system that appropriate women into the bureaucratic and political spheres predispose them to corruption and makes their involvement inevitable.
Author Haliru BalaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3143 –3151 (2010)More Less
This paper investigated the socio-economic status and role of woman in Islam towards gender equality. The data were obtained by contents analysis from secondary source. The results revealed that Islam treats both, man or woman equally in obligation and reward, equally in education, equally subservient to God and obliged to worship Him and obey His commands in their daily life, woman has right to property, freedom of expression, matrimonial rights, equally in spiritual duties, equality in treatment, equality in employment, equality in political sphere. The paper concluded that to achieve gender equality, it seems essential for the states or Nations to make institutional arrangements for all cultures to convey their responses and concerns about the various issues of women to the governments so that it should revise the platform for actions in the light of various responses.
Widowhood practices among the Yorubas of south west Nigeria : are there differences in what women experience due to their status?Source: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3152 –3167 (2010)More Less
This study examined widowhood practices among the Yorubas of South West Nigeria with the aim of investigating whether there are variations in widowhood rites that women experienced based on their social status. The study employed qualitative technique to collect the primary data. A widows Association named "Love fellowship" was used as a platform for selecting the widows involved in this study. Thirty widows were purposively selected such that fifteen (15) of them were not formally educated and not involved in modern industrial labour and the remaining fifteen (15) were formally educated and were involved in modern industrial labour. Data collected were analysis using content analysis and presented thematically. The participants in this study expressed that widowhood practices is observed among the Yorubas in order to protect the woman from being harmed by the spirit of the dead husband, for the woman to prove innocence of the death of her husband and for the husband's family to ascertain if the woman had been pregnant as at the time the husband died so that they can claim responsibility and caring for the woman among reasons. It is interesting to found that though, widowhood practices is still in existence among the Yorubas, there are some factors affecting the intensity and feasibility of practicing it. These factors include the educational level and involvement of a woman in modern industrial labour. For instance, it is extremely difficult to compel a woman who is working in Banking sector and other modern bureaucratic setting to be compelled to stay at home for long period of time other than the short period she is allowed by her boss to morn the death of her husband. It is also not feasible to ask such women to wear black cloth for one year as this contradicts the dictate of her work organization. It can therefore be concluded that although widowhood practices still exists and observed by women of different social status, the intensity differs across these social status and the higher the women status, the lesser the intensity of the rites she observed. It is therefore important to empower women as these will serve as security for them against various forms of violence especially widowhood practices.
Gender and preferred content in children's drawing among selected primary school children in Zaria Metropolis, Kaduna StateAuthor Awogbade Mabel OluremiSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3168 –3198 (2010)More Less
This study sought to establish the relationship between gender and preferred Content in children's drawing. A total of 220 pupils stratified into 110 males and 110 females drawn from eleven randomly selected primary schools in Zaria metropolis were used for the study. Four research questions were raised and four null hypotheses were generated. A narrative adopted from Tuman's (1999) study, was validated by experts in the department of Fine Art Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Kaduna state of Nigeria and used as a major tool for data collection. Chi-square (x2), cross tabulation, ANOVA and t-test were used for the analyses related to the null hypotheses. A histogram was also used for the distribution of the scores explaining the scores on formal characteristics used by the subjects in the study by sex. The results revealed that none of the four null hypotheses was retained; all the hypotheses were rejected. However, the results revealed that there were significant differences in the drawing content chosen by boys and girls. It also showed that there were significant differences between the way boys and girls use lines, colour, shape, texture, space and composition; there were inter-relationships in the forms and content of drawings of boys and girls and there were significant differences between the drawings of boys and girls in terms of gender characteristics. The findings revealed that girls exceeded the boys in the use of elements of art. It is recommended that provision be made for tests and activities that would allow pupils to think and ask questions that would lead to discoveries and motivate learners to create drawings outside their gender characteristics.
Author Ismail BalaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3199 –3208 (2010)More Less
Many critics have decried what is often called "the zero presence" of the female voice in Nigerian poetry: Nigerian female writers trail behind their male counterparts for a number of reasons (literary, historical and cultural). This is more pronounced if not more acute in Northern Nigeria, where literature of English expression is slow in evolving, compared to other parts of the country. Poetry of English expression by women from Northern Nigeria is indeed young, and is written in a tradition that is not only new but developing. This paper is a preliminary bibliography of the few collections of poetry in English (or English translation) by women from Northern Nigeria.
Socio-demographic factors influencing HIV/Aids stigmatization and discrimination amongst women in Lagos stateAuthor Moses Ayokunle AkanbiSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3209 –3225 (2010)More Less
The study empirically examines socio-demographic factors influencing HIV/AIDS Stigmatization and Discrimination amongst women in Lagos State. Two hundred and thirty respondents (Female respondents only) who have positive status of HIV/AIDS were interviewed through administration of questionnaires in Lagos State, Nigeria. Frequency tables and regression model were used in the analysis of data collected from the field. The two hypotheses were tested in this study. However, socio-demographic factors which include age and educational attainment indicated a negative influence on HIV/AIDS stigmatization and discrimination amongst sampled women in the study. In addition, the result from Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) clarified that those women who disclose their HIV/AIDS status are gossiped about, verbally harassed and neglected by the Nigerian society. The study presents evidence that once a woman discloses her HIV/AIDS status, she is immediately stigmatized by the society and then discriminated. The paper thus recommends that any form of gossip, verbal harassment and neglect should be stopped against women, who disclosed their HIV/AIDS status to the Nigerian society. Lastly, women with HIV/AIDS positive should apply their educational skills in taking all drugs that will foster their long-living in Nigerian society.
Author Caroline Okumdi MuoghaluSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3226 –3239 (2010)More Less
The issue of maternal mortality has been very topical due to recent focus on sustainable development and because of the fact that maternal mortality is very high in many developing countries. In Nigeria, maternal mortality is very high and one of the highest in the world. There are cultural and social factors that exacerbate the problem in Nigeria. This paper reviews the influence of poverty, lack of education, cultural food taboos and gender relations on maternal mortality in Nigeria. The review was done using existing literatures on the subject. It was found that many women are illiterates and this affects their level of knowledge and exposure and also their level of income and all these impinge on their nutritional status. This situation also affects their ability to exercise their rights as human beings. Moreover, the introduction of user charges in government hospitals made unafordable for many women and make them patronize faith clinics and traditional medical practitioners and in this way, many avoidable deaths occur. The gender relations was also found to be a very important factor in life chances and pregnancy outcomes of women and women's health generally. It was therefore concluded that the high maternal mortality in Nigeria is as a result of these socio cultural factors. These factors and issues should be addressed if Nigeria is truly sincere in curbing the menace of high maternal mortality.
Gender differences in the expressed problems and adjustment needs of in-school orphans in Nigeria : challenges for higher education and globalizationSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3240 –3252 (2010)More Less
Background: Millions of orphaned children are abandoned and in need of supportive living environments because their biological parents are not able to provide food, shelter and safety.
Objective: To investigate the problems and adjustment needs of in-school orphans in Nigeria.
Method: This is a descriptive survey research. The sample consisted of 300 orphans aged 15 to 18 years purposively sampled from three schools in three senatorial districts of Kogi State. Necessary data was collected by means of a questionnaire tagged "Problems and Adjustment Needs of in-school Orphans Questionnaire" (PANOSOQ). The data collected were analyzed using the t-test statistical method.
Result: The data analysis revealed, among other things, that the problems and adjustment needs of in-school orphans were multifaceted affecting the academic, economic/financial, emotional, psychological and social aspects of their lives. These areas of problems and adjustment needs were arranged in hierarchical order of magnitude. Furthermore, it was found that female in-school orphans expressed having greater problems and adjustment needs than their male counterparts.
Conclusion: On the basis of these findings, the researchers pointed to the fact that the gender differences between males and females, documented by earlier researchers do, in fact, exist. They therefore called attention to the dire need for all stakeholders in the education industry to tackle with dispatch the problem of the dearth of counsellors in Nigeria's primary and secondary schools in order to address this anomaly. Such exercise would help to keep on course the noble goals of higher education and globalization.
Reducing gender inequality in classroom teaching and learning for capacity building of female participation in the nation buildingAuthor O.E. AbdullahiSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3253 –3264 (2010)More Less
The thrust of the paper is that the needs of specific interest and attention in gender sensitivity in classroom teaching and learning should be safeguarded. There should be built Nigeria opportunities for gender equality in the Nigerian education system. This implies that learning resources do need to be guaranteed, especially for female learners. Without a national framework to ensure that gender sensitivity in classroom teaching and learning is reduced or completely eliminated, the issue of female equality in human endeavour would continue to be fragmented, despite the pronounced consensus about the importance of life-long education for female learners for active citizenship. Most important to note, however, is that the effectiveness and success of such framework would be a factor of relative bargaining power of the female folks, to ensure equal and full participation in the national development.
Between a rock and a hard place : backlash towards agentic women aspiring to high ranking jobs in NigeriaAuthor Retta Ebi Akingbade,Source: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3265 –3278 (2010)More Less
A quasi experimental study was conducted to investigate hiring decisions of equally competent men and women aspiring to an executive management position. Participants (N = 300) assessed male and female agentic, communal and androgynous applicants on dimensions of competence, social skills and hireability. Findings in this study did not report any gender differences in perceptions of male and female's competence and social skills however male and female participants perceived agentic male applicants to be more hireable to the executive management position than agentic female applicants. The findings suggest that on a conscious level there is an attempt to be objective in the assessment of women but in hiring decisions an unconscious bias is reflected. Peculiar to this study is the equally poor rating of agentic men's social skills; this suggests that the communal nature of the Nigerian culture influenced participants' perceptions and that communality is important in this culture. Consequently, behaviour that is not gender appropriate, in line with traditional gender roles is especially problematic for women relative to men even when the assessor is a woman. Women who lack communality and behave in a manner that does not conform to culturally prescribed gender roles are likely to face discrimination in hiring situations. The subtle manifestation of prejudicial bias as found in this study can discourage highly skilled women from actualizing their potential by desisting to strive to more challenging positions in the workplace.