Gender and Behaviour - Volume 8, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 8, Issue 2, 2010
Author K. Oppong AsanteSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3279 –3289 (2010)More Less
This study explored sex differences in mathematics performance of students in the final year of high school and changes in these differences over a 3-year period in Ghana. A convenience sample of 182 students, 109 boys and 72 girls in three high schools in Ghana was used. Mathematics performance was assessed using their classroom marks in the first and third year. The results revealed that there was a significant difference between mathematics performance between boys and girls. These findings, consistent with previous Western studies, are discussed and educational implications of the findings suggested.
Gender differences in mathematics achievement : an exploratory study at a primary school in KwaZulu-NatalSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3290 –3313 (2010)More Less
The study examined whether there was a significant gender gap in mathematics achievement, and the nature of the gender gap. It also investigated factors associated with the differential performance of girls and boys in the mathematics class. The site for this study was a rural primary school in KwaZulu-Natal. Quantitative data was drawn from grade 6 mathematics achievement test results conducted in 2008 and 2009. In addition, individual semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews were conducted with 8 students (male = 4; female = 4) from the 2009 cohort of grade 6 students. The findings in the study revealed a gender gap in mathematics achievement in favour of girls. Key factors associated with the gender gap included the issue of boys and masculinities, the dynamics of classroom cultures, and the differential attitudes to learning in respect of boys and girls in the mathematics class.
The traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in two male-dominated professions in NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3314 –3324 (2010)More Less
The study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in male-dominated professions. Their reported traumatic experiences and psychological health were compared with those of women working in female-dominated professions and men in male dominated processions. Samples of 200 women working in male-dominated professions (WMDP), 180 women working in women-dominated profession (WWDP) and 105 men working in male-dominated professions (MMDP) responded to Awaritefe Psychological Index (API) (Form C) and a Traumatic Experience Questionnaire (TEQ). The data-set was analysed electronically through SPSS. The formulated hypotheses were tested by t-Test for independent groups. The reported traumatic experiences of the WMDP are jail breaks, riot by prison inmates, sight of torture, resistance to arrest by criminals, traffic controlling, sexual harassment, social discrimination, role conflict, negative attitude and envy from male colleagues of the same. The WMDP experienced significantly more trauma than both WWDP and MMDP. WMDP manifested significantly higher level of general Psychopathology than WWDP. No significant difference was observed in the levels of general Psychopathology of WMDP and MMDP. Findings were discussed and appropriate recommendations were put forward.
Socio-cultural context of consistent use of condoms among female undergraduate students in Nigeria : insights from university of LagosAuthor John Lekan OyefaraSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3325 –3344 (2010)More Less
This paper examines the sexual behaviour and socio-cultural context of consistent use of condoms (male and female condoms) among female undergraduate students of the University of Lagos, Nigeria. Cross-sectional survey and key informant interview research methods were adopted to elicit information from the respondents. In all, a total of 200 female students were sampled in the survey, while 10 key informant interviews were conducted among the students to compliment the survey data. The theoretical orientation of the paper is the voluntaristic theory of action by Talcott Pearsons. The findings of the study show that 75.0% of the sampled female undergraduate students are sexually active. All the respondents have knowledge of the existence of male condom, while femmidom (female condom), the contraceptive method designed for women use to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies, HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), is unpopular among the study population. Specifically, 63.5% and 5.5% of the sample have ever used male and female condoms respectively. Furthermore, there is erratic usage of male condom during sexual intercourse among the sampled respondents since only 41.0% of them reported consistent use of male condom during every sexual encounter. There are significant relationships between current age, marital status, level of study and consistent use of male condom among the female undergraduate students at P < 0.01. In particular, only 17.6% of female undergraduate students between ages 15-19 years use male condom consistently compared with 43.9% and 16.7% among their counterparts in age group 25-29 years and 35 years and above respectively. In addition, single and 100 level female undergraduate students are more likely to use male condom consistently compared with their counterparts who are married and in 400 level. Consequently, many of the sexually active female undergraduate students in the study location are highly susceptible to STIs including HIV/AIDS.
Analysis of risk-taking behaviour of female entrepreneurs in the informal sector of Oyo state economy Ogbomosho areaAuthor Oluwatoyin AleseSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3345 –3362 (2010)More Less
Risk-taking is a major component of entrepreneurial activity and this is the reason entrepreneurs bear substantial risk. Entrepreneurship in developing countries and Nigeria reside in the informal sector because of its heterogeneous nature. Women have been involved in entrepreneurship since time immemorial, learning the traditional family trades and services. Economic recession had increased the number of female entrepreneurs but they are usually limited to a narrow range of activities in more precarious types of employment thereby, yielding low growth.The aggravating socio-economic crisis in Nigeria coupled with the precarious situation in which female entrepreneurs carry out their economic activities now require an alternative analytical and policy approaches. Such identified policy options to address this menance is the stimulatory, supporting and sustaining human resource development through the growth of entrepreneurship from the informal sector to the more stable and vibrant formal sector. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design, using a total of one hundred and twenty-eight (128) female entrepreneurs as participants from (4) four purposively selected skills. Risk-Taking Behaviour among Female Entrepreneurs Scale with reliability co-efficient of 0.86 was used to elicit responses from the participants. However, it was complemented with 4 Focus Group Discussion sessions (FGDs) with female entrepreneurs from the 4 selected skills. Anova and multiple regression were used to analyse the data collected. The qualitative data were analysed with content analysis and summaries. The result showed that there is a significant correlation between entrepreneurship and the female entrepreneurs' risk-taking behaviour (r = .421 n = 114, p<0.005). Obviously, a good measure of risk-taking is still imperative in entrepreneurship but this risk-taking behaviour, should meet the growth potential in socio-economic development of the individuals involved and the society at large. The existing practice is labour intensive as it affects female entrepreneurs who are mostly poor and thus invest less in their projects which also affects their business size. In line with the findings above, the study recommends a policy option that embraces financial risk-taking and risk-sharing abilities both on the side of the government and non-governmental authorities promoting entrepreneurship. They should also provide support in the supply of scarce raw materials, marketing of products, modernization and diversification of products, good infrastructural development for industrial extension and product preservation.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3363 –3378 (2010)More Less
Nigeria's participation on issues that related to the position and empowerment of women has been a recurring phenomenon for the past two decades as gleaned from her involvement in national and international conferences on women development since the era of the 1995 Beijing conference. This fact clearly underscores the seriousness of the dilemma women suffer in terms of the promotion of their rights to equal participation and representation in decision making at all levels particularly in the rural society. The paper argued that the context for understanding the position and empowerment of women in rural Nigeria has its primary base on the continued entrenchment and perpetuation of traditional cultures as characteristic of the various stereotypes of women which permeate many ethnic groups in Nigeria. The paper further contend that many women have suffered varied traumatic experiences arising from this categorization which have manifested itself in gender inequality and discrimination that has far reaching implications for the empowerment of rural women in Nigeria. The paper concludes by examining the changes that women's status had undergone in the light of current socio-economic and political development in Nigeria.
Author Hussaini Usman MalamiSource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3379 –3389 (2010)More Less
Women in Northern Nigeria, apart from their universal role of pregnancy, childbearing and childrearing, also engage in various household chores, which made them to act as housemaids, cleaners, daycare centers, teachers and wives, all at the same time. This article explains how all these happens to be a reality, and argue that they were not paid for all these labour, and in fact, all of these were simply taken for granted, not only by their husbands, but even by the modern economic analysis.
The role of insecure and fearful attachment styles in sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive women attending a support group in Ibadan, NigeriaAuthor B.O. OlleySource: Gender and Behaviour 8, pp 3389 –3346 (2010)More Less
The present study investigated the relationship between adult attachment style and unprotected sex among women living with HIV-positive in Ibadan. HIV-positive participants (N = 60) completed questionnaires assessing consistent condom use three months preceding study, multiple sexual partners, adult attachment, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Results revealed that insecure attachment styles (particularly negative attachment representations of self) and fearful attachment were associated with both number of none condom use in the past three months and having multiple sexual partners in the same period. Similarly negative self esteem and depressive symptoms were related to these high risk sexual practices. These relationships remained significant after controlling for self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. These results suggest the inclusion of relational factors such as attachment in HIV prevention.