Gender and Behaviour - Volume 9, Issue 1, 2011
Volume 9, Issue 1, 2011
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3419 –3434 (2011)More Less
Software piracy has defied punitive measures, posing threats to jobs of millions of employees and the computer industry. The study proposed an attitudinal approach to the wide-reaching problem and examines the variance explained by gender and opportunity recognition in attitude to piracy of software products. It utilized a correlational design in a survey of two hundred and forty students in an institution of higher learning located in southwestern Nigeria. Results indicate that opportunity recognition and attitudes toward software piracy have a significant positive relationship (β = .18, p < .01). Opportunity recognition accounted for 3.5 percent (p = < .01) of the variance in attitudes toward software piracy, indicating that it favourably disposes an individual to software piracy. Contrary to hypothesis, gender was not significantly related to attitudes toward software piracy (β = .06, n.s.). Practical implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3436 –3442 (2011)More Less
The present study deals with male's attitude towards contraceptive use behavior and fatalism in Peshawar city, Pakistan. Pakhtoon mostly inhabits Peshawar city, which has its own culture, highly strict in terms of women emancipation and considered women freedom as a sin and culturally asking for severe punishment even in some cases death for the offenders. A sample size of 613 married male respondents (15-49 years old) was interviewed through cluster sampling procedure from five randomly selected bazaars out of total fifteen. Likert and Semantic Differential Scales were used in devising independent and dependent variables while constructing interview schedule. At first stage univariate analysis and then bivariate analysis were carried out to reach into logical outcome. Both dependent variable (Contraceptive Use Behavior) and independent variable (Fatalism) were indexed and reliability analysis was carried out through Cronbach's alpha test. The reliability coefficients were found lying between .7 to .8. Both dependent and independent variables were indexed and cross-tabulated for conducting bi-variate analysis. Gamma, Chi-square and Fisher Exact Test was used to determine the strength, direction and level of association between dependent and independent variables. Majority of the respondents had a clear vision of family planning and found to be moderately consistent of contraceptive use behavior. Moreover, respondents negated that fate prescribes the final number of children, a childless woman is a handicapped person, a sonless woman is a sign of misfortune, more children ensure perpetuation of family; bring husband and wife closer and sign of prestige. Results based on indexation of variables showed a low intensity of fatalistic behavior amongst the respondents of the study area. Efforts are needed on part of the policy makers to properly portray the complexities involved in the bareness of a woman by recognizing more rights for women than just producing children. Moreover, Peshawar city needs to be declared as model to other parts of the country, which is still in the grip of fatalism.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3443 –3465 (2011)More Less
Domestic abuse is a kind of violence common in South Africa which for most part focuses on women. Children and adolescents who witness these abuses are hardly the focus of domestic abuse research. Hence the need to understand the relationship between gender, exposure to domestic violence and identity development of adolescents.
Based on a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire with three sections A, B and C was used to collect data from 109 randomly selected adolescent young men and girls from the University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus), Limpopo Province in South Africa. Age of participants ranged from 15-20 years with a mean age of 18.7 years (SD = .946). The child exposure to domestic violence scale (CEDV) was used to dichotomize exposed and non exposed groups while gender was defined as male / female.
Two hypotheses were stated within a 2-way factorial ANOVA. Results showed a significant main effect for group exposure, (F (1,109) =9.395, P<.02). In other words, the non-exposed adolescents' group (M = 123.13, SD =19.8) achieved a high overall identity development than those exposed to family violence (M = 112.59, SD = 17.5). Gender (hypothesis 2) and the interaction of Gender and Exposure were not significant. However, mean scores of participants show that non-exposed males had higher changes in identity development (M =118.3, SD = 18.7) than females (M = 115.4, SD =19.4) but the difference did not reach an acceptable level of significance.
These findings have significant practical implications for domestic violence and children witnessing this violence and the health and psychological outcomes for adolescent development and adult life. The study also suggests the need for more research in this direction and a need for culturally relevant programmes to help adolescents and children in abusive homes and in addition help families deal with myths that have cultural relevance to factors maintaining battering.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3466 –3478 (2011)More Less
A cross sectional descriptive study was done of 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health center in Ile-Ife. The objective of this study was to determine, among a sample of women attending a primary health center in Ile-Ife, the socio-demographic factors associated with intimate partner violence.
Respondents were aged 18-37 years; the majority of them (73.8%) were aged 21-30 years (mean age was 24.9 ± 4.09). Three quarters (73.5%) were married in a monogamous setting and well over half (60.1%) were employed. The prevalence of intimate partner violence in the previous twelve months was 36.7%. Significant socio-demographic correlates of intimate partner violence were the age of the respondents (younger), marital status (single and separated), marriage type (polygamous), employment (being employed), level of education (secondary school education) and having children. Also, Respondent's and partner's use of alcohol were significantly associated with intimate partner violence.
Adaptation of an HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction intervention for recently circumcised South African menSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3479 –3494 (2011)More Less
South Africa urgently needs HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction interventions for recently circumcised men for use in clinic and community settings. A theory-based HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction counselling intervention has recently been adapted for use in a South African traditional and medical circumcision setting. The 3 hours behavioural disinhibition risk reduction counselling was grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behaviour change, adapted through interdisciplinary collaborative workshops and feasibility study. This paper reports the process of adapting the behavioural disinhibition risk reduction counselling intervention into a medical and traditional male circumcision setting. The processes used for adapting the HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction counselling for South African men provides a potential model for translating behavioural intervention into clinical and community settings in South African cultural contexts. Several lessons learned from this process may help guide future efforts to translate behavioural medicine HIV prevention technologies into the male circumcision contexts.
Author Remi OpayemiSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3495 –3512 (2011)More Less
The increasing rate of spread of HIV, especially among the age range of 14 and 21 is becoming disturbing to the nongovernmental organizations and world governments in general. Therefore, this study was to determine the significant relationship among self esteem and religiosity, on premarital sex. Using convenience sampling, the participants were students from Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye Ogun State. There were 247 participants, which were made up of 126 (51.0%) males and 121 (49.9%) females, with a mean age of 26years (SD=6.12) The participants filled out a demographic questionnaire and three surveys: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Religiosity Scale, and the premarital sex scale. No significant interaction was found between religiosity and self-esteem. [F (1, 243) = 2.26, P>.05] The result also revealed the significantly influence of religiosity on premarital sex. [t (245) = -3.32, P<.05]. However, there was a significant interaction effect on religiosity and gender. [F(1,243) = 10.48, <.05]. The study concluded that the type of secondary school attended would also influence ones engagement in premarital sex. [t (245) = 3.06, P<.05]. The result therefore implicate the need for religious heads to encourage their followers to engage in religious activates and also the state and at local level should make policies that would encourage people to engage in their religious believes. The university should have a standard church and mosque on school campus.
Knowledge attitude and practice of breast cancer examination among women attending a health facility in Gaborone, BotswanaSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3513 –3527 (2011)More Less
Screening for early detection and diagnosis of diseases and health conditions is an important public health principle. Breast cancer examination is whereby a woman will examine the breast by Breast Self Examination (BSE), Clinical Breast Examination (CBE), and Mammogram. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of breast cancer examination. An interviewer administered questionnaire was administered to 375 women attending a health facility in Gaborone, Botswana. Results indicate low knowledge of breast cancer examination, e.g. only 34.1% knew about the commonest presentation of breast cancer (painless breast lump). Although participants had a positive attitude towards breast cancer examination, only few (23.5%) of those who practiced breast self examination (63.5%) (BSE), practiced monthly as required. Similarly, only 22.7% had visited a doctor for clinical breast examination (CBE) in the past year, and 1.6% of the respondents had done mammogram in the past 2 years. There was no association between socio-demographic characteristics with the knowledge attitude and practice of breast cancer examination. The results of this study reflect an urgent need for increasing breast cancer education for these women.
Gender differences in the developmental trajectories, risk factors and outcomes of antisocial behaviorsAuthor Gerald JordanSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3528 –3542 (2011)More Less
The purpose of this review was to synthesize relevant research concerning gender differences in risk factors, developmental trajectories and outcomes of antisocial behaviors. Regarding risk factors, research suggests that genetic factors predict female antisocial behavior more so than male antisocial behavior. Research suggests that neonatal insults were found to be better predictors of male antisocial behaviors relative to females. Research also suggests that neurocognitive differences (e.g., ADHD) were more predictive of antisocial behaviors in males than in females. Social factors (i.e., family-related and peer related) were found to predict behavior differently in males and females, depending on the variable in question. With regards to developmental trajectories, the reviewed research suggests that both males and females adhere to similar paths, but differ mostly as a matter of quantity of behaviors along those paths. Finally, it was shown that males on antisocial behavior trajectories faired more poorly than females, but this effect was trajectory dependent.
Author Tunde Charles IruonagbeSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3543 –3565 (2011)More Less
There has been an increasing need to consider gender equity as a key element of development, especially in terms of the status of men and women. It has also become imperative to recognize women's needs and contributions to society, most importantly in the sphere of agricultural and food security. Women's role in food security cannot be over emphasized because about 80% of women in rural Nigeria are engaged in food crops production. This discrimination especially in terms of access to and ownership of land for agricultural purposes has generated ceaseless cases of quarrels, violence and enmity between siblings and family relations. Inspite of the enormous availability of land for agricultural purposes, food security still remains a challenge. Due to its patriarchal nature anchored on gerontocratic rule, statutory law in Ozalla community and across most rural communities in Nigeria is subservient to customary law which reinforces the discrimination and perpetual subjugation suffered by the women. This paper therefore examines the challenges faced by women in their quest to guarantee food security. A combination of methods both quantitative and qualitative was employed in the study. This involved data generated from 789 respondents for the survey research, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.
The effectiveness of local business service centres in disseminating information to woman entrepreneurs in Gauteng, South AfricaAuthor Evelyn G. Chiloane-TsokaSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3566 –3579 (2011)More Less
The commitment of government to eradicate poverty amongst women and to promote gender balance is a priority to empower women. The Small Business Act No. 106 of 1996 as amended now by National Small Business Amendment Act of 2003, was introduced in order to enable a conducive, environment for small, medium and micro-enterprise. This article focuses on an investigation of the effectiveness of the Local Business Service Centre that aimed at disseminating information about government policies and programmes to empower women aspiring to start and grow businesses. Three hundred black women entrepreneurs in Tshwane formed the sample, and the response rate was 86 %. The results indicated that black women entrepreneurs are not aware of services provided by LBSC about government policies and programmes. It is recommended that the City of Tshwane should extend its outreach effort and create awareness about LBSC to townships where a majority of women entrepreneurs are based.
Author Farid PazhoohiSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3580 –3591 (2011)More Less
Women with lower waist-to-hip ratio are considered more attractive to the men. It is suggested that attractiveness is related to the sexual dimorphism of body fat distribution in gluteofemoral region. It is hypothesized that women with lower waist-to-hip ratio provide better energy for pregnancy and lactation; therefore in the course of evolution men have preferred the lower ratio of waist-to-hip for women. Unfortunately, effect of sexual dimorphism of pelvis as a contributing factor on hip size is neglected in previous studies. This paper hypothesizes that pelvis as the most prominent sexually dimorphic trait as well as subcutaneous accumulated fat, exerts an important effect on the attractiveness of women with lower waist-to-hip ratio. It also hypothesizes that attractiveness of waist-to-hip ratio is related to men's ability of gender identification. Possible evolutionary explanations for effect of gender discrimination on female attractiveness are discussed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3595 –3611 (2011)More Less
Gender relevance in national planning and development cannot be overemphasized. In Nigeria, women are responsible for about 50% of the labour force in Agriculture and over 70% of the nation's food supply, yet their contributions to the economy are rarely acknowledged. Studies indicate that there is need for governments at national level to make efforts to systematically review how women benefit from public sector expenditure and adjust budgets to ensure equality of access especially in rural areas. This paper therefore attempts to examine policy issues and options needed to adapt a comprehensive easy accounting system for gender budgeting framework to measure implementation of national budgets for national development agenda. Being a perspective paper, various approaches of mainstreaming gender issues, where they exist; into national development programmes were reviewed. In order to properly direct national resources to the achievement of equity and gender specific programme in the country, the process of 'engendering budget' or gender mainstreaming was employed. Preliminary findings indicate that despite the involvement of Nigeria in four international conventions, Nigeria is yet to adequately mainstream issues of gender into her national budgeting framework. It was also observed that challenges of adapting an easy accounting framework is more of a political will of those in government and the implementing agencies involved. The paper concludes that further studies need to be initiated and advocacy groups have to enlighten policy makers of the relevance of allowing easy to measure accounting framework to track implementation and / or lapses of yearly budgetary provisions viewed with gender perspective.
The influence of socio-economic status and education in grief experienced and coping strategies employed among widowsSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3612 –3623 (2011)More Less
Widowhood is generally associated with trauma, grief and pains yet women undergone more humiliating experiences than their male counterparts. Widows are subjected to discrimination, stigma, lack of rights and systematic violence. This study investigated the influence of education and socio-economic status in the grief experienced and coping strategies employed by widows. Two hundred samples were randomly selected from four local governments in Lagos state. Widows Status Inventory (W.I.S) was used to collect data for the study. The instrument was validated and a reliability co-efficient of 0.70 was obtained. The data obtained were analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics. The results obtained showed significant differences in the grief experienced by widows on the basis of education and socio-economic status. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended that the girl- child should be empowered educationally and economically.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3624 –3641 (2011)More Less
Drawing on the work of Carol Gilligan (1982) and Lawrence Kohlberg (1969) the study sought to examine children's moral reasoning about situations involving conflicts and how they would resolve them. It also explored whether children's choice of moral orientation varied across individual factors such as age and gender. The study was conducted at a primary school in a working class suburb in The province of KwaZulu-Natal. The participants in the study were a group of 72 grade one and two students. They were randomly selected stratified by age (6, 7 and 8 year olds) and gender. The children were required to respond to three scenarios depicting real life moral dilemmas. A key finding was that children's responses across gender and age reflected more of a care than a justice orientation. Across age ranges boys' responses reflected more of a care orientation than a justice orientation which is contrary to Kohlberg's view. Girls' responses reflected a greater care orientation than a justice orientation, as found in studies by Gilligan.
Author Oluwasegun David OnabanjoSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3642 –3655 (2011)More Less
Social order and peaceful co-existence are some of the primary goals in every human society. To have these and other conditions which ensure lives and properties secured, societies ensure moral and ethical uprightness of its members. This is done through various social institutions - Family, Education, and Marriage to mention a few. Among the Yoruba people of south Western Nigeria, parents and other family members are the first teachers of their children, instructing them in the ''proper" ways of life approved by the society. For example, relating with elders and people of same age group, humility, diligence, truthful and accommodating. Culturally among the Yoruba people, Women within the family settings are socialized differently from Men. Women are socialized to be relationship-oriented in marriages, families, communities, provision of love and care for family members, teaching people to live morally upright lives, helping transform oppressive structures and working towards peace and reconciliation. Unlike other study which focused on oppression of women in Yoruba society, this work viewed the significance of women towards the maintenance of order. The paper is divided into six sections: section one examined the place of order in the contemporary society, section two focused on the status of women in Yoruba society, section three explored the concept of morality among the Yoruba people, section four dealt with the centrality of women in the teaching of morality in Yoruba culture. Section five examined the challenges of change on women's roles as moral teachers, lastly, section six gave a conclusion and some recommendations.
Predicting marital satisfaction from the attachment styles and gender of a culturally and religiously homogenous populationSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3656 –3679 (2011)More Less
The study investigated the influence of attachment styles and gender on marital satisfaction. One hundred and fifty participants (73 males and 77 females) were randomly selected from members of a Christian organization, Ewet Offot and indigenous residents of Nwaniba Road, Uyo. Two instruments used were the Love (2001) Attachment Style Survey and Hudson (1982) Index of Marital Satisfaction adapted by Anene (1994) for Nigerian use. A 2x2 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for unequal sample sizes was used for data analysis. Two hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis predicted a statistically significant difference in marital satisfaction between participants with secure and insecure attachment styles while the second hypothesis made a similar prediction in respect of gender. The first finding showed a significant difference between participants with secure and insecure attachment styles on marital satisfaction [F(1,146) = 360.21, P<.05], indicating that attachment styles are salient indicators of marital satisfaction. The second finding showed that there was no significant difference between males and females on marital satisfaction [F(1,146) = 2.58, P>.05]. The interaction effect of attachment styles and gender was however found to be significant [F(1,146) = 5.00, P<.05). The significance of the interaction raised further concerns about the role of gender in the study. Statistical evidence suggests that such interactions signify that any related variable, and in this case gender, has reliable effects on the measured variable. These manifest and latent findings were discussed in line with existing evidence and suggestions made for therapy, intervention and policy.
Accessibility, knowledge and utilization of HIV / AIDS and sexual health information by female indoor sex workers in Ibadan Metropolis of NigeriaAuthor Mercy A. IjirghoSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3680 –3700 (2011)More Less
This study assessed accessibility knowledge and utilization of HIV / AIDS and sexual health information by female indoor sex workers in Ibadan metropolis of Nigeria. One hundred and eighty copies of questionnaires were administered to respondents, fifteen subjects representing a stratum while One hundred and forty-two were retrieved and valid for the study. Descriptive statistical method of analysis was used. Data were coded in simple percentages and presented in tables. Data obtained through the questionnaires, and interviews were discussed in relation to the research questions. T-test and ANOVA were used in testing the hypotheses.
Findings of the study revealed that female indoor sex workers received information on HIV / AIDS and sexual health regularly. Also, their knowledge of the issue is adequate, because majority have full understanding. Findings of the study showed that the female sex workers have a positive perception of HIV / AIDS and sexual health information. Their knowledge and perception of the issue have influenced them to a great extent resulting in respondent's adoption of good sexual health practices.
It was recommended that Parents should talk and educate their children properly about life, be close to them and know the jobs their children are doing. Society should embrace them and show them some love in other to win them and get them out of what it frowns at. Finally, the government of Nigeria should see the importance of the lives these sex workers as her citizens and come up with policies to rehabilitate them in other for to live more fulfilling lives.
Author Madu Bridget NgoziSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3701 –3709 (2011)More Less
The research was based on the impact of gender on academic performance ON Arts-related subjects, a case study of Nasarawa State University, Keffi, using a sample of 160 participants derived from Art-based faculties. A questionnaire was used as the prime instrument to correlate the participant's responses to their academic scores. The study investigated the differences and similarities between males and females in not only gender-based academic performance but also considered gender via other factors such as age. The research used independent t-Test statistics. The result suggested that females performed better than males in arts-related subjects; but recorded that age did not significantly influence academic performance. It is therefore concluded that institutions, lecturers, and parents should encourage males to study harder in arts-related subjects; while equal emphasis should be put in encouraging both younger and older students to perform well in arts-related subjects.
Sexual behaviour and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections among undergraduate students in Durban, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3710 –3728 (2011)More Less
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the sexual behavior and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) amongst 752 undergraduate university students in South Africa, using self-administered questionnaires. More than half (>50%) reported presently being sexually active, the majority used contraceptives and especially used condoms. Almost a third of the sample, had multiple sexual partners, and more than a quarter of them reported to have sex under the influence of alcohol. Students' knowledge regarding STIs was unsatisfactory, indicating the need to modify social and educational activities, to improve the understanding of the consequences of STIs and HIV and minimizing the associated risks.