n Gender and Behaviour - Gender role transition in Pakhtun culture with respect to contraceptive use and fatalism

Volume 9, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1596-9231



The present study deals with male's attitude towards contraceptive use behavior and fatalism in Peshawar city, Pakistan. Pakhtoon mostly inhabits Peshawar city, which has its own culture, highly strict in terms of women emancipation and considered women freedom as a sin and culturally asking for severe punishment even in some cases death for the offenders. A sample size of 613 married male respondents (15-49 years old) was interviewed through cluster sampling procedure from five randomly selected bazaars out of total fifteen. Likert and Semantic Differential Scales were used in devising independent and dependent variables while constructing interview schedule. At first stage univariate analysis and then bivariate analysis were carried out to reach into logical outcome. Both dependent variable (Contraceptive Use Behavior) and independent variable (Fatalism) were indexed and reliability analysis was carried out through Cronbach's alpha test. The reliability coefficients were found lying between .7 to .8. Both dependent and independent variables were indexed and cross-tabulated for conducting bi-variate analysis. Gamma, Chi-square and Fisher Exact Test was used to determine the strength, direction and level of association between dependent and independent variables. Majority of the respondents had a clear vision of family planning and found to be moderately consistent of contraceptive use behavior. Moreover, respondents negated that fate prescribes the final number of children, a childless woman is a handicapped person, a sonless woman is a sign of misfortune, more children ensure perpetuation of family; bring husband and wife closer and sign of prestige. Results based on indexation of variables showed a low intensity of fatalistic behavior amongst the respondents of the study area. Efforts are needed on part of the policy makers to properly portray the complexities involved in the bareness of a woman by recognizing more rights for women than just producing children. Moreover, Peshawar city needs to be declared as model to other parts of the country, which is still in the grip of fatalism.

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