Gender and Behaviour - Volume 9, Issue 1, 2011
Volume 9, Issue 1, 2011
Author Kingsley Ufuoma OmoyiboSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3729 –3751 (2011)More Less
Corporate globalization is advancing marginalization of African societies in the economic global sphere, a process which transcends gender but that has gender implications. This paper shows that globalization has a compounded effect on women due to certain structural disadvantages in the global and national division of labour and inequalities in assets distribution and power. The concept of Gender encompasses an economic issue as well as a social issue, in fact more so in Africa than in any other regions of the world. Both men and women play substantial economic roles, notably in agriculture and in the informal sector, but they are not evenly distributed across the sectors of the economy. This has given rise to various issues which undermine the social and economic status of the African woman. A situation which calls for adequate attention so as to stimulate some level of economic development as stipulated in this paper.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3752 –3764 (2011)More Less
Some previous investigations argued for and against the fact that stress affects self-esteem of postsecondary students. This study investigated the effects of stress and gender on students' self-esteem. One hundred and fifteen students stratified by level of study, ethnicity, age and gender completed standardized measures of traditional student stress scale and self esteem. The 2x3 (ANOVA) was used to analyse the two independent variables - stress and gender to determine their effect on self-esteem. Results showed neither significant differences on the main effects of stress and gender nor the interaction effect. This however, does not mean that differences in stress levels do not exist among students. Recommendations are given for educational stakeholders to take stress serious and the need for student support services in university settings.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3765 –3781 (2011)More Less
The aim of this paper is to describe whether gender, age, religion, education and personality variables (Psychoticism, Extroversion and Neuroticism) can predict willingness to forgive among a sample of Mafikeng Residents in North West Province, South Africa. Data was collected from two hundred and twenty (220) residents in Mafikeng households consisting of 132 (60%) females and 88 (40%) males. Age in years ranged from 18 to 68 with a mean age of 28.7 (SD) = 11.9. Through a multi-staged sampling of streets and households, participants were reached in Mafikeng municipality area of the North West Province, South Africa. Using hierarchical multiple regression (stepwise method), results showed that the overall model was significant: Adjusted R Square = 089, F (2, 211) = 11.460, P < .001. Of all the variables included in the study (gender, age, Christian, Muslim, Married, Single, Below Matric, Matric, Post Matric, Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism), only Extraversion (β = .27, p = .001) and Post-matric level of education (β = .16, p = .001) explained 8% of the total variance on willingness to forgive. Psychoticism, Neuroticism, gender, age, Christian, Muslim, Married, Single, Below Matric, Matric, were excluded from the model. These findings have significant practical implications for forgiveness as a psychological concept. The authors acknowledges that the study is new and therefore suggests the need for more research in this direction and a need for cultural focus and relevant programmes on forgiveness.
A comparative gender study of the factors affecting motivation of professional and paraprofessional staff of selected private university libraries in Ogun State, NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3782 –3797 (2011)More Less
The purpose of the study is to identify the key factors of motivation for professional and paraprofessional library staff based on their gender and to identify how they rate the various motivational factors. The descriptive survey method was employed and five university libraries were selected for the study. The respondents comprise all professional and paraprofessional staff of the various libraries. 140 copies of questionnaire were distributed and a total of 107 representing 83.2% were duly completed and found usable for this research. Data analysis was done using frequency counts, mean rankings and percentages. Major findings revealed that high salary was ranked as the highest motivational factor by male and female professional and paraprofessional library staff other striking similarities were noticed between male and female library staff as regards the factors that could motivate them. The paper concluded that management of academic libraries should show greater interest in the welfare of the library staff to make them more valuable contributors to the success of the institution.
Deconstructing discourses of gender equality in cross-gender friendships : grade seven boys and girls in an inner-city schoolSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3798 –3816 (2011)More Less
This article presents a study which set out to explore how children understood and experienced gender equality within their cross gender friendship groups. The participants were 28 primary school children between 11 and 14 years (male = 13; female = 15). Data collection methods were individual interviews using situated scenarios and focus groups interviews. The findings revealed that for the most part children actively constructed gender around the concept of 'difference.' The children learned how to position themselves and others according to traditional discourses of femininity and masculinity. Whilst attempts were made to challenge dominant understandings of masculinity and femininity, often these were unsuccessful. The constraints and limitations of a particular discourse ensured the continued existence of the prevailing dominant worldviews and the ensuing unequal relations between girls and boys. The study also revealed that children are continuing to learn the same lessons about gender that work against gender equality.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3817 –3826 (2011)More Less
The use of the internet for research and studies is now a thing of necessity world-wide, and having a positive attitude toward the use of the Internet is a necessary condition for its effective use. Thus, this research aimed at investigating the attitudes of male and female undergraduate students at the Nasarawa State University, Keffi, towards the use of the Internet. A questionnaire which captured the students' demographic data (like sex, faculty), and their attitudes towards the use of internet, was administered to them in a class-room setting.
Results show that most the students had a positive attitude towards the use of the internet; and there was no significant difference between the attitude of males and that of females. It is therefore recommended that parents, teachers, and the university administrators should encourage both male and female students equally to use the internet for their research and studies. More studies, using a wider audience as participants, are encouraged.
Career mothers and health implications of work place stress : role of libraries in stress managementAuthor Julie E. IloghoSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3827 –3841 (2011)More Less
The study examines the health implications of workplace stress on career women with respect to their age and educational qualification. Sixty - nine (69) working women from a Women Fellowship of about 86 located at Agbowo, Ibadan were used for the study. Akinboye's Response to Change Test (RTCT) or Work Stress Inventory was used to collate the data and analyzed. Two hypotheses were tested and rejected. Further analysis shows that an average of 92% of graduate respondents between age (31-50) experienced high stress, implying that there is significant difference in respondents' response to stress experienced on the basis of age and educational qualification. Thus indicating that age and educational qualification can sometimes determine who experience stress or not. The analyses reveal that older career mothers with higher degrees experienced high levels of stress than younger ones. The library is recommended to play a crucial role in managing stress in the workplace, which is mainly to make information materials / resources available to staff and workers.