Gender and Behaviour - Volume 9, Issue 2, 2011
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2011
Perceived HIV stigmatization, HIV/AIDS cognition and personality as correlates of HIV self-disclosure among people living with HIV in Ibadan, NigeriaAuthor Adebayo O. AdejumoSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3854 –3869 (2011)More Less
The relationship between perceived HIV stigmatization, HIV/AIDS cognition, personality and HIV self-disclosure (HSD) was investigated. The influence of age and gender on these was also examined. PLWHA (N421) in Ibadan, Nigeria participated in the cross-sectional study. A positive relationship of extraversion (r=-.738, df=421, P<.05), HIV cognition (r=-.621, df=421, P<.05), neuroticism (r=-.212, df=421, P<.05) and agreeableness personality traits (r=-.155, df=421, P<.05) with HSD was observed. A 2x2x2x2 factorial analysis showed that old females, with low perceived stigmatisation, but with good HIV cognition (n=23, x̄ =18.2, SD=3.8) were most likely to disclose their status. Perceived stigmatisation, HIV cognition, and personality jointly predicted HSD (R2=.52; F (3,418) =.7.66 P <.05). Negative HIV cognition, perceived stigmatization, openness and conscientious personality traits are major barriers to HSD. Non disclosure remains an enormous barrier to the fight against HIV and AIDS. Policies and actions should therefore focus on these issues in HIV prevention, care and support.
HIV knowledge, risk perception and risk behaviour among male ex-offenders in Mpumalanga, South AfricaSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3870 –3885 (2011)More Less
The aim of this study is to investigate HIV knowledge, beliefs and HIV risk behaviours among ex-offenders in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A sample of 85 male ex-offenders conveniently selected from an ex-offenders organization were interviewed with a structured and open-ended questionnaire. Results indicate good overall HIV knowledge but also significant misconceptions such as 45.9% believed that many sexual partners are needed to get HIV, 31.8% that there is a cure for AIDS and 25.9% believed that a pregnant woman cannot give HIV to their baby. The personal risk of getting HIV was rated as relatively low, with 8.2% already HIV infected. Almost all ex-offenders (91.2%) had been sexually active in the past 12 months. Various HIV risk behaviours were found, almost one in 5 had multiple sex partners, one in ten commercial sex and almost half lacked condom use and 56.5% had never had an HIV test. Linear regression analyses between HIV risk variables and HIV risk behaviour index controlled by demographic variables found no significant predictors. The study revealed that ex-offenders have high rates of unprotected sex, and limited exposure to effective HIV education and prevention interventions. Community organizations dealing with ex-offenders need to improve HIV training for officers working with ex-offenders so that they can impart this knowledge to ex-offenders and make HIV risk reduction programmes more available to ex-offenders.
Attitudes toward rape among Nigerian young adults : the role of gender, parental family structure and religiositySource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3886 –3896 (2011)More Less
Previous studies that examined the influence of demographic factors on attitudes towards rape yielded mixed results in various settings. This study built on these studies by investigating the influence of gender, parental family structure and religiosity on attitudes toward rape among young adults in Nigeria. The Attitudes Toward Rape and the Behavioural Religiosity scales were responded to by 320 young adults (128 males, 192 females) in Ibadan. Three hypotheses were tested with the independent group t-test. Attitudes of young adults toward rape was found to be different based on gender and parental family structure; male young adults had more positive attitudes toward rape than their female counterparts (t = 2.02, df = 318, p < .05); youth from polygamous family reported positive attitudes toward rape than those from monogamous family (t = -2.44, df = 310, p < .05). This study suggests that gender-based sexuality education can play an important role in providing information and prevention regarding rape; and that young adults from polygamous family should be the target populations for such programmes in Nigeria.
Influence of type of school on self-perception of mathematical ability and achievement among girls in secondary school in HarareSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3897 –3915 (2011)More Less
The study explored the influence of type of school on fourth-year secondary school girls' self-perception of ability and achievement in Mathematics. The study sample comprised of 90 girls from one girls-only school and one co-educational school in Harare district, who were selected using stratified random sampling techniques. Girls' perception of their ability in mathematics was measured using a self-administered questionnaire with both open- and closed-ended questions Mathematics achievement was assessed using document analysis of the two schools' national examination results over an eleven year period. The findings indicate that the self-perception of mathematical ability of girls in the single-sex school is higher than those in co-educational school. However, there is no significant difference in the achievement of ordinary level girls in mathematics attending either the single-sex or the co-educational school (x2 = 0.4368 p < 0.05).
Therapeutic value of adjustment practices and copining with grand children for menopausal women in NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3916 –3925 (2011)More Less
Menopause is one of the stages of human development and is full of encounters, tasks and challenges; it could be different from the encounter of the preceding stages of life. This study examined the therapeutic value of adjustment practices toward menopause and evaluates the effectiveness of health education on coping methods among menopausal Nigeria women.
Women aged 40 years and above who had stopped menstruating for twelve consecutive months prospectively studied in Nigeria across geo-political zone over a three years period (February 2007 to March 2010).
The mean ages of study and control groups were 57.2±1.2 and 58.2±1.9 years, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in the study respondents' adjustment practices towards menopause from 56 (31.5%) to 150 (86.7%) post-intervention (p value = 0.000001). At both pre- and post-intervention studies, menopausal women with post-secondary education ranked first in their adjustment practices towards menopause.
A significant percentage of the respondents in the study group are better adjusted to menopause after health education intervention on coping methods as compared with control group. At pre-interventions all other respondents had poor adjustment practices except for those with post-secondary education who had mean score above 40.0. This showed the impact of health education intervention on the sample population. This corroborated Giwa-Osaige's findings that women generally irrespective of educational status had poor reproductive health seeking behaviors. However, health education intervention on coping and adjustment practices had a significant impact on menopausal women.
In conclusion; the respondents had poor adjustment practices towards menopause with mixed feelings about religious obligation and cohabitation. Menopausal women in Nigeria expressed significant good adjustment practice after serial adjustment intervention. Whereas there was more adjustment needs for the control group.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3926 –3940 (2011)More Less
The present study was conducted in District Jail, Peshawar, Pakistan by selecting 84 offenders involved in Women Trafficking, through snow ball sampling techniques for measuring the respondent's knowledge on women trafficking with the psychological aspect, leading to women trafficking. Majority of the respondents i.e. (79.8%) considered little effects of social stigmatization followed by forced marriage for money (73.8%), feigned love (69.0%) and identifying normative behavior (61.9%) as the major causes of women trafficking in the study area. Moreover, a moderate but negative relation was determined between force marriage for money (Υ =-0.418), early age group women fall prey to women trafficking (Υ =-0.40) and a positive relationship between little effects of stigmatization (Υ =0.310) with knowledge on women trafficking. In addition, a significant but negative relationship was also ascertained between forced marriage for money (p<0.05) with knowledge on women trafficking. The study concluded that the respondents had a clear vision of fatal consequences of women trafficking to the society, with no societal endorsement to love marriages rather adherence to the traditional arranged marriages, marriages for money was although in practice etc. the people faith in early marriage as pro religion. A comprehensive campaign on print and electronic media to propagate women trafficking as a curse to the society, strict punishment through legislative bodies approval, revisiting the religious concept of early marriages and cultural perspectives based on normative behavior while focusing on assimilation through academic research were forwarded as policy recommendations in light of the study.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3941 –3960 (2011)More Less
This study examined the influence of parenting styles, gender and religiousity on the attitude of students towards examination malpractices. One hundred and ninety-eight participants were used which comprises of 100 males and 98 females of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko in Ondo state. Parental care scale developed by Baumrid (1971), Religiousity affiliation scale developed by Omoluabi (1995) and Attitude towards examination cheating scale developed by Alarape and Onakoya (2003) were used to gather data from the students. The results showed that a very high positive significant correlation was found between parenting styles and religiousity (r(187=0.308, p<0.01). Also between parenting style and examination malpractices, a significant negative relationship was found (r(187)=-0.146, p< .05). A significant negative relationship also existed between religiousity and examination malpractices (r(187)=-0.028, p<0.01). The ANOVA confirmed the influence of parenting style on the attitude of students toward examination malpractices (F(1,186)=2.431, p<0.05). It also confirmed that high religious students did not engage in examination malpractice F(1,186)=10.517, p<0.01). But there was no joint significant influence of the three independent variables on the dependent variable (F (1,186) =0.761, p>0.05).
Skill acquisition, capacity building and women economic empowerment : a case study of Women Education Center, Birnin KebbiSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3961 –3978 (2011)More Less
Lack of vocational training has been considered as the bane of the economy of many African countries particularly Nigeria. The indispensable role of women in any development process calls for eradication of gender related barriers and women empowerment at all levels. This study examined the impact of skill acquisition and capacity building on women economic empowerment with reference to the activities of Women Education Center Birnin Kebbi. A sample of 225 respondents was selected from a population of 452 graduates due to time and cost constraints. A descriptive survey was conducted using a structured interview. Two null hypotheses stated were tested using spearman rank correlation coefficient at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that there is a low positive correlation between skill acquisition and women economic empowerment and a high positive correlation between capacity building and women economic empowerment. However, while the relationship between skill acquisition and women economic empowerment was not significant, the relationship between capacity building and women economic empowerment was significant. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should invest more on human capital development particularly on women, increase expenditure on instructional materials and infrastructural facilities at vocational training centers, improve by assisting trainees with capital to start business. Finally, women should be allowed by their guardians to learn functional skills to improve their economic status and avail themselves the opportunity offered by government to get functional skills. This will go a long way in attaining the MDGs.
Author John Lekan OyefaraSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 3979 –4004 (2011)More Less
Adolescent childbearing has received much attention in the past three decades, but the socio-cultural determinants of this phenomenon remain inexplicitly explained in Yoruba society. Therefore, this paper examined the determinants of adolescent fertility using multivariate analysis and Osun State, Nigeria as study location. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to achieve this objective. Two Local Government Areas (LGAs), Osogbo (urban) and Ola-Oluwa (rural), of Osun State were purposively selected based on rural/urban dichotomy. The quantitative method involved cross-sectional survey of 1,000 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). To be eligible, respondent must have at least a child. A multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents. For the qualitative method, 10 In-depth Interviews were conducted with adolescent mothers, their mothers and opinion leaders in the LGAs. Statistical technique used in the analysis of quantitative data was logistic regression, while content analysis technique was used to analyze qualitative data. Findings showed that educational level, parental marital disruption, marital status, and nature of activity which adolescent girls were doing are significant determinants of adolescent fertility in the study location. In conclusion, concerted efforts need to be put together by all the stakeholders (community members, opinion leaders, gatekeepers, governments, private organizations, non-governmental organizations and community based organizations) to improve the existing educational structure in the study location. In addition, appropriate policies and intervention programmes need to be put in place to reduce the incidence of marital disruption and adolescents must be fully engaged in productive social and economic activities.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4005 –4038 (2011)More Less
The paper examined gender, tenure and organisational factors as predictors of various aspects of job involvement. A total of 504 workers comprising 285 (56.5%) males and 219 (43.5%) females sampled from seven departments of some selected public and private organizations in Lagos and Abuja metropolis participated in the study. Factorial structure of Lodahl and Kejner (1965) 20-item job involvement scale was first examined against Yoshimura (1996) multi-dimensional model of job involvement concept. It was hypothesized that Male and female workers in private sector will report higher job involvement compared to their counterparts in the public sector. Also, motional, cognitive and behavioural involvement will be higher among private sector workers whose tenure was above 5 years, as compared to their public sector counterparts. Results of t-test independent test and MANOVA show that there was a statistically significant different in the emotional, cognitive, behavioural and overall job involvement of male and female workers. Also, job involvement was slightly higher among private sector male workers than their public sector counterpart, particularly for workers who have just spent less than 6 years on the job. Empirical findings further show that Interaction between gender and tenure was significant on behavioural job involvement and overall job involvement. The findings underscore the incidence of preference for females in many work organizations in recent times, as well as the importance of job security. The findings were discussed in the light of current findings in industrial-organisational research.
Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university workers to resolving conflict through mediationSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4039 –4051 (2011)More Less
Human beings have innate tendencies to work in groups or relate with objects and people in their environment. The intra and inter relationships with people, at times, generate conflict which negatively affect psychosocial functioning. Conflicts can be resolved through diverse methods of which mediation occupies central position. The attitudinal disposition of an individual towards mediation tends to dictate whether an individual would mediate to resolve conflicts. Consequently, this paper examined the attitudinal disposition of two hundred and fifty-five (males=152 and females=103) universities workers randomly selected from two private universities in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria towards using mediation to resolve conflict. An attitudinal scale tagged "Attitude towards Mediation Scale" (α =0.88) developed by the researchers was used to generate data. Two research hypotheses were posed and tested using t-test statistic. The results indicated that there were no significant gender differences in the participants' attitudinal disposition to using mediation process to resolving conflict (t-cal =2.76; t-cri =1.96; df =253, P>0.05) and in their preference to resolving only conflict within their gender type (t-cal =.273; t-cri =1.96; df =253, P>0.05). It is therefore recommended that university workers should be adequately trained in the procedures of using mediation so as to build their capacity in resolving conflict at home and workplace.
Gender differentials in health status and socio-economic wellbeing of older persons in Lagos State, NigeriaAuthor Olanrewaju Emmanuel AjiboyeSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4052 –4072 (2011)More Less
Although the relationship between socio-economic wellbeing and health status is well-established in Western industrialized countries, but, few studies have examined this association in developing countries particularly among older persons in Lagos State, Nigeria. National and International Organizations have expressed concerns on the older persons worldwide, and suggested measures for improving their health status and overall wellbeing within the framework of sustainable development. However, older persons are not homogenous category. It has been observed that the gender of the individual affects their access and opportunities to the available health services in the society on the one hand and overall socio-economic wellbeing on the other. This study focuses on the differences in the situations and capabilities of the older persons in the society rather than discussing them as homogeneous group. Inequalities experienced in earlier life, for example in access to education, employment, and health care, as well as those based on gender which, have a critical bearing on status and well being in old age were critically examined. Triangulation method was used for the collection of research information. A multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted to select the respondents included in the study. The data collected were analysed using qualitative, quantitative, and percentage analyses. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to code and organise the data collected. Cross-tabulations of social and economic characteristics were done to allow for a general description of the respondents and their household characteristics. Hypotheses testing were done using logistic regression technique to determine the net effect of explanatory factors on the probability that the gender of the older persons would influence their overall socio-economic wellbeing or otherwise. The study found that the life course experiences of individuals is an important determinant of overall wellbeing. The study also found that older men are more likely to enjoy good health status and socio-economic wellbeing than older female. The study therefore conclude that inequality in personal income and socio-economic wellbeing is structured by gender, health status and life course experiences.
Oil, gender and agricultural child labour in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria : implications for sustainable developmentAuthor Joseph-Obi ChiomaSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4072 –4099 (2011)More Less
The Niger Delta region of Nigeria continues to face the problem of agitations, violent conflicts, crimes, rural-urban migration, environmental degradation, militant resistance engendering a frightening state, characterized by violence and criminality in the form of kidnapping, prostitution, escalating unemployment, and vandalization. This paper examines how the activities of oil multinational corporations has compromised agriculture and child labour in the region. This paper is expository and analytical in thrust. It is based on data collected through a survey conducted amongst agricultural child labourers in Rivers State of Nigeria. The sample consisted of 180 respondents drawn from Afara, Kpite-Tai and Tombia, communities all in Rivers State using the purposive sampling technique. A total of 90 parents/guardians were also drawn from the three communities. The study assessed the relationship between oil and gas exploration, gender and the agricultural child labour. The relationship between household size and agricultural child labour and the relationship between health-related hazards and girl-child labour. Data generated from the survey were subjected to statistical analyses using simple percentages to establish primary correlation. It revealed that there is a significant relationship between (a) household size and child labour, and (b) oil and gas exploration and gender and child labour. This paper, was also viewed through the lens of Marxian Feminist Theory. Finally, some recommendations were made, top of which the existing poverty alleviation programmes in the country should be targeted at the girls' and women first.
Loss of learning space within a legally inclusive education system : institutional responsiveness to mainstreaming of pregnant learners in formal educationSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4100 –4124 (2011)More Less
This study investigated how education stakeholders in South Africa and Zimbabwe responded to the policy of mainstreaming pregnant learners in formal schools. The study sample consisted of pregnant and former pregnant learners, mainstream learners, parents, teachers and community representatives on school governing boards. The major findings were that: sociocultural beliefs of the community on pregnancy were more influential to educational access and participation of pregnant teenagers than the official school policy; stakeholders at both schools were found to have inadequate knowledge and political will to assist pregnant learners; and the South African school provided a more open response to teenage pregnancy, in contrast to concealment at the Zimbabwean school. The paper posits that the policy on mainstreaming pregnant teenagers in formal schools is largely a form of political symbolism. An all-inclusive approach to policy formulation and implementation is recommended as an intervention strategy to the problem.
Parental marital status and peer influence as corelates of teenage pregnancy among female teens in south-South NigeriaAuthor F.N. UgojiSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4125 –4138 (2011)More Less
The study examined the effects of parental marital status and peer influence on the occurrence of teenage pregnancy among 324 female teens in south-south, Nigeria. The participants responded to a valid scale. The Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression procedures were used to investigate the predictive capacity of the independent variables on the dependent variables. The result indicated that the two independent variables, when taken together and individually were effective in predicting teenage pregnancy among female teens. Single parents were seen to be more associated with teenage pregnancy than intact parents. On the basis of these findings it was suggested that in addition to providing sound sex education, parents should ensure appropriate supervision of the activities of their children particularly the female child and the kind of peer associations they keep and that the government should set up social service agencies to enable them assist single parents and their children particularly the female child to attain proper development.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4139 –4150 (2011)More Less
Girl-child education has become a matter of concern to stakeholders in Nigeria. This study examines the concept of and crucial issues in girl-child education. It identifies socio-cultural patterns, religious misconceptions, poverty, teenage pregnancy and early marriage amongst others as factors militating against the girl-child education. The paper advocates that public and school libraries must begin to play relevant roles and contribute to the eradication of discriminations against women. It outlines the roles public and school libraries must play in order to improve girl-child enrollment in school as well as reduce school drop-out. In order to effectively play their roles, the study suggests that libraries should source for funds from external agencies rather than depend only on their parent institutions/organizations.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4151 –4160 (2011)More Less
Urban indigenous people's way of life and their socioeconomic conditions have not attracted much attention in urban community studies despite the fact that they constitute an important segment of the urban population. Similarly, the manners in which urban indigenous women are subordinated to men in the patriarchal family structure and the attendant urban economic relations fostered by men deserve to be examined. This paper therefore attempts to examine gender issues in five indigenous communities in Port Harcourt. The communities are: Abuloma, Oroazi, Rumuadaolu, Elekahia and Ogbuna-abali. The key questions explored in the study are: how are urban indigenous women been marginalized in the process of urban growth and what urban role had been feminized? Focus Group Discussion (FDG) was used to elicit information from the women in these communities. The study revealed that the integration of indigenous communities into urban growth center redefine women agricultural role and created a new economic relation in which women constitute a large segment of people in the informal sector. The study also revealed that government urban renewal policy in the indigenous communities has not been gender sensitive. Based on these findings it is recommended that gender sensitive approach be adopted in urban planning.
Articulating cultures : socio-cultural experiences of Black female immigrant students in South African schoolsSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4161 –4188 (2011)More Less
Contests of space and place in South African "schoolscapes" are now not so much about "race" as it is about nationalism and territoriality. While the politics of belonging unfolds and overtly manifests itself, a more covert, insidious and worrisome issue is that of the erosion of the social and cultural mores of Black immigrant students. Utilising social constructivism, case study approach and narrative inquiry, this study sets out to explore the socio-cultural experiences of Black female immigrant students in South African schools. It was found that the socio-cultural context of South African "schoolscapes" represented a site of contamination and shame; was marred by conflict and contained elements that worked towards the erosion of cultural and social mores of Black female immigrant students.
Gender bias and citizenship rights to political participation in Nigeria : challenges for democratic consolidation and economic developmentSource: Gender and Behaviour 9, pp 4189 –4206 (2011)More Less
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) provides that "all human beings are born free and equal in dignity". The Nigerian Constitution (1999) affirms this. However, in Nigeria, women do not enjoy equal rights and priviledges as men (Sow, 1994, cited in Isma'il, 2006). This has resulted into policies and programmes failing to address the feminine dimension of poverty. Women's impoverished condition has generated serious global concern especially following the Beijing Conference of 1995. The aim of this paper therefore is to examine the issue of gender equity and citizenship rights to political participation and the challenges for democratic consolidation and economic development. The methodological approach used in writing this paper is content analysis. The paper observes that gender bias in any society creates serious constraint to democratic consolidation, and hence derails rapid economic growth and development. The need to urgently address the factors creating these challenges, like moral, social, economic, ethnocentric and religious, etc, issues through the adoption of the principle of proportional and rotational representation of both genders by all political parties has become highly imperative, in addition to abhorring the culture of masculine dominated policies and programmes.