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- Volume 2, Issue 1, 2008
Global Media Journal - African Edition - Volume 2, Issue 1, 2008
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2008
Author Abiodun SalawuSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 1 –14 (2008)More Less
This paper advocates for compulsory inclusion of indigenous languages in the mass communication/journalism curricula in Nigeria. Emphasising the point that every educational programme should be socially relevant and culturally sensitive, the paper argues that while it is not out of place for a journalist to be global in orientation and application, thereby equipping himself with proficiency in a very international language like English, it will, however, be out of place for him not to be able to communicate effectively with his very own people. This report concludes by calling for appreciation of the indigenous languages and support for the media's use of them, from both the people and the governments.
Author Isaac PhiriSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 15 –31 (2008)More Less
All African countries, where there are functioning states express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays a significant role in the war against plunder of national resources by African leaders. However, studies that examine exactly how the media influences the decisions and actions of public actors in Africa's anti-corruption agenda are few. This paper aims to fill this gap. The goal is to use the Zambian case to gain a clearer understanding of the evolution of anti-graft journalism in Africa and to derive enduring insights into the relationship between the anti-corruption actions of the state and anti-corruption reporting by the press. Three key questions provide a framework for this investigation: 1) Is the press driving the Zambian government's anti-corruption campaign 2) Is President Mwanawasa's 'zero-tolerance' campaign self-generated and the press simply following and reporting news events coming out of the bold steps already determined by the government? 3) Is it possible that the press and the state have found common ground and formed an informal but formidable alliance to combat graft?
Author Deidre DonnellySource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 32 –52 (2008)More Less
A comparison of two South African women's magazines, Cosmopolitan and True Love, via both textual and reader analysis, examines their reception by teenage girls. Do women's magazines serve as cultural developmental markers and informal educational devices in the passage from girlhood to adulthood? The study adopts a poststructuralist view on the gendered self as socially constructed within discourse. Women's magazines give 'femininity' a material form and are discursive sites-of-struggle. Critical discourse analysis is applied to the text analysis, while the concept of 'interpretive repertoires' is applied to the focus group analysis.
Author Richard RooneySource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 53 –65 (2008)More Less
This paper examines media freedom in Swaziland since the kingdom's new constitution came into effect in 2006. Despite the constitution, Swaziland remains a non-democracy and there continues to be a restrictive media environment.The paper tackles three research questions: (i) How repressive were media laws in Swaziland before the constitution came into effect? (ii) What does the 2006 constitution say about media freedom? (iii) To what extent has the constitution improved media freedom?The paper relies on a qualitative analysis of the pre-existing media laws, the constitution itself, and a survey of media events since 2006.The paper concludes that there has been no discernible progress on media freedom in Swaziland and there is little reason to be optimistic in the near future that this will change.
Author Robin TysonSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 66 –79 (2008)More Less
This paper seeks to reveal the patterns of power, influence and ownership that South African media houses are having over Namibians and Namibian media outlets. The hypothesis is that there has recently been an increased interest in Namibia as a source of further revenue for South African media businesses as well as an opportunity for further strengthening ties of cultural and language issues between the two countries. In addition there might also be increased opportunities for South African political perspectives to be further advanced through linkages with Namibian media outlets.The paper further seeks to expand academic discourse to include those countries, such as Namibia, living in South Africa's cultural and economic shadow, and, in a larger sense, looks at the increasingly regional and even nature of media systems in Africa.It tries to move these discussions into everyday discourse, as opposed to the margins, where, as McMillin (2007:68) says:we fail to understand the incredible impact of colonialism on the development of their media systems, the regional influence of these systems, and the unique character they take on as they assert their postcolonial identities and meet the challenges of globilization.The research refers to the unique position of Namibia, having been, firstly, a German colony, and, later, a South African 'administered territory', and makes reference to the implications this had on the shaping and control over the media environment.The findings reveal an increase in South African influence and shareholding over Namibian media companies and content. This parallel has strengthened economic ties with South Africa, and in particular the influence of South African retail chains and their stock levels of Namibian versus South African publications.
A critical and functional analysis of the mirror metaphor with reference to the media's responsibility towards societyAuthor Zigi EkronSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 80 –87 (2008)More Less
Attempts to define the media's role and function as the fourth estate often rely on the use of the mirror metaphor to descriptionbe its relationship towards its audience. The metaphor suggests the media and its contents are merely a reflection of reality. The assumption is that this reflection serves society's need to have an unbiased, objective and critical view of itself. The image presented in the reflection should therefore enable society to evaluate and adjust itself accordingly.Although this apparent pragmatic approach satisfies the most basic descriptionption of the media's role as a mediator of reality, it fails to consider the factors that may influence the reflection that is presented and the manner in which it is received.This paper applies critical theory to examine the manner in which factors, such as media concentration and commercialisation, distort the reflection in the mirror. It also analyses the notion of a mass audience which consumes media content. The paper challenges the outdated assumption in normative theory that the media serves a homogenous society. Instead it proposes a move towards pluralism of the media as a means to address the needs of diverse and multicultural societies.
Author Marietjie MyburgSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 88 –95 (2008)More Less
Media theory, says McQuail (2005:5) is an effort to 'make sense of observed reality'. The 'observed reality' of war is layered with themes of power, politics and culture on several levels. There is the journalist on the beat; the news institution he or she works for; the soldiers or armies involved in the conflict; the governments these armies represent and finally there are the media users on both sides of the conflict - that is if there are only two sides. In this sense war represents a highly concentrated or condensed version of everyday reality which forms the framework for media connecting with society.This report will take the case of the war in Iraq as an example of how the media's role to 'sustain a shared sense of social order' (Allan, 2004:8) and to connect us 'to other experience' (McQuail, 2005:83) have been compromised by political, ideological and, on the side of the global media networks, economic agendas.
Author Anri Van Der SpuySource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 96 –105 (2008)More Less
Journalists often argue that their role in a society is to provide content that merely reflects reality. The critical theories regarding the media's role in society however suggest that the media are carriers of dominant ideologies, thereby ""reflecting"" that which is favourable to the dominant party in a society. Normative theories, on the other hand, suggest that political and social structures have a vast influence on the different things that may be expected of the media. Is it perhaps time that the media realise that that which their mirror reflects, is not reality at all?
Author Owen MarriottSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 106 –113 (2008)More Less
The introduction of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG's) by the UN has highlighted the need to improve healthcare conditions across the globe. These goals are particularly pertinent in Somalia, one of the least developed countries in the world. This paper intends to look at the way the burgeoning telecommunications network in Somalia can benefit healthcare professionals by providing access to the internet which in turn provides access to information that can improve healthcare. The paper will argue that although the development of healthcare is commonly associated with the modernization paradigm, the internet can offer a more participatory approach to benefit healthcare professionals in Somalia.
The kanga and the kangaroo court - reflections on the rape trial of Jacob Zuma, Mmatshilo Motsei : book reviewAuthor Simphiwe SesantiSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2 (2008)More Less
Contemporary interpretations of African culture are responsible for objectifying women. This is Mmatshilo Motsei's conclusion after profound reflections on the implications of Jacob Zuma's rape trial in which he was accused of raping the daughter of his comrade who died in exile.
Freedom of association + freedom of speech = freedom of the media? : conference speech : 5 May 2008 University of StellenboschAuthor Henry JeffreysSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 116 –119 (2008)More Less
Thank you very much for the opportunity to participate in this important conference marking World Press Freedom Day. The conference theme poses an interesting conundrum, at least in the way I interpret it. Does freedom of association plus freedom of speech equal freedom of the media?
Author Rhoda KadalieSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 2, pp 120 –124 (2008)More Less