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- Volume 4, Issue 2, 2010
Global Media Journal - African Edition - Volume 4, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 4, Issue 2, 2010
Author Stanley Naribo Opuamie-NgoaSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 4, pp 132 –150 (2010)More Less
This paper comprises two parts. The first part defines democracy and attempts an examination of the role of the media in a functional democracy. In an attempt to explain issues in the media and public opinion within the realm of democracy, the paper explores etymological origins of media, arguing that what the media ought to be differs from what is obtainable.
Part two examines the media's role in various African countries when they were under colonial rule and the continent's push for self-rule, observing that post-colonial Africa witnessed a bifurcated partisan media.
The paper, with specific reference to the role of the media in present day South Africa and Nigeria, concludes that, for the proper role of promoting a healthy culture of democracy in society, today's news media needs to reflect society's concerns and the media's interest in democratic equity.
Author Fredrick OgengaSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 4, pp 151 –162 (2010)More Less
This paper utilises Hall's (1977) 'encoding-decoding' theory in the context of critical political economy theories of the media and cultural studies to explain the political, economic and cultural factors that influence media operation and content both at a macro and micro level. While political economy provides the setting in which the Kenyan media operates, cultural studies show how media content is not only shaped by the political and economic environments comprising those in power positions. Audiences are also actively engaged in the process of meaning construction. Considering Hall's (1977) encoding-decoding theory, the audiences can reject, negotiate or accept media content based on their own value systems and cultural orientation. Meaning, therefore, becomes a product of continual struggle between different discourses and power cannot be located in a top down manner as to who influences meaning as seen in a propaganda model. This is due to the fact that texts are diffused in different locations in society. The 2008 Kenya Communication Bill is utilised as an example to trace briefly the political and historical developments of policy issues that have influenced the Kenyan media. The Bill, furthermore, indicates how a weak socio-economic, political and cultural environment is marred by ineffectual policies meant to safeguard and guarantee the freedom of the press as an extension of individual freedom of expression as enshrined in the Kenyan constitution. This weak policy context has ensured the Kenyan media remains subject to easy political manipulation and control. However, the paper concludes by showing how citizen journalism is growing out of a regulated mainstream media through internet technology.
Source: Global Media Journal - African Edition 4, pp 163 –185 (2010)More Less
The article discusses the coverage of politics in South African women's magazine Fair Lady in selected years from democratisation in 1994 to ten years later in 2004. In a democracy, the media has the explicit duty to inform society. Within this context three questions are asked: (1) Which political themes are covered? (2) In what genres do the political items feature? (3) In what ways does the magazine focus the reader's attention on political items? These aspects were selected to provide a clear view of the extent and manner in which Fair Lady presents politics in its content. This study was done by means of a qualitative content analysis. By focusing on these issues and by drawing on the functions of the media; the agenda setting theory; the schema theory and the on-line evaluation theory, it is argued that the magazine deems politics as important and incorporates it on its agenda to provide readers with necessary political information which they might not otherwise attain. Fair Lady overcomes the fact that politics does not traditionally feature in women's magazines by taking care in attracting and keeping readers' attention to political items. The publication (especially in 2004) can be held up as an example to other women's magazines trying to fulfil their function as a medium to educate and inform readers whilst at the same time not alienating the entertainment-seekers.
Employment patterns of UNAM graduates : an assessment of the employability of the media studies graduates of the University of NamibiaAuthor Fred J. MwilimaSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 4, pp 186 –195 (2010)More Less
The Department of Information and Communication Studies of the University of Namibia was established in 1998. Over the years the Department has grown, surpassing expectations to become the flagship of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in terms of student numbers. This study was carried out in 2009 by the Department of Information and Communication Studies (DICS) and focused on the employment patterns of students who went through its programmes from 2000-2007. The purpose of the study was to obtain feedback from the former students on their current employment, a perspective of their education at the university and what they think may have been missing in their programme which may need to be adjusted to better prepare future students for the job market. Although this study covered graduates of all the programmes in the department, this article will concentrate on graduates of the media studies specialisation (B.A. Media Studies) of the department only.
Author William Francis NicholsonSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 4, pp 196 –211 (2010)More Less
This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography) with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under the three main headings of lighting, camera view point and the camera's mode of perception.
Author Fidelia Van Der LindeSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 4, pp 212 –227 (2010)More Less
Media today is more omnipresent covering all aspects of society, ranging from historical to topical to social and political, thereby forming an integral part of people's lives. In the South African context, the introduction of democracy, coupled with numerous global technological developments, has dramatically altered the media landscape rendering it more liberal with an increased exponential content. In most democratic countries media literacy education is considered the preferred alternative to censoring and boycotting. This is to empower both media professionals and consumers thereby allowing them to analyse critically, monitor and moderate media messages in order to reduce any negative impacts of the media and ensure enhanced enjoyment and discourse. The need has been motivated for a media literacy module to be included in the journalism or media studies curricula at undergraduate level. This article highlights the importance of media literacy education - especially in terms of fostering a democracy - and outlines the typical media literacy curricula suitable for journalism students.
Author Arrie De BeerSource: Global Media Journal - African Edition 4, pp 228 –230 (2010)More Less
From this edition on the Global Media Journal-African Edition will regularly present new books in the field of media studies in an additional section. Readers are invited to contact the Book Editor (email@example.com) to suggest books to be reviewed. Readers can also contribute their own reviews (not longer than 800 words). Refer to instructions to authors elsewhere in this journal for the copy presentation.