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n Health SA Gesondheid - Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework : a literature review

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Abstract

This article intends to describe how critical thinking of learners can be facilitated or infused in clinical nursing education using the identified core cognitive critical thinking skills, their related sub-skills and the affective dispositions. The desire of the researcher to apply these critical thinking skills in clinical nursing education was in response to the recommendations made by experts in critical thinking who conducted the Delphi research project about the concept analysis of critical thinking (Facione, 1990:6, 13). The recommendations made urge educators to develop programmes and teaching and assessment instruments to facilitate or measure critical thinking using the identified core cognitive thinking skills. Nurses should be critical thinkers because they deal with the lives of patients. They are faced with challenges in their daily practice which require the ability to make rational and critical clinical decisions and also make astute clinical judgment that are logical to solve health related problems. Critical thinking is understood to be purposeful, self-regulatory judgments which result in interpretation, analysis, evaluation and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based (Facione, 1990:2). The core cognitive thinking skills are supported and driven by the identified affective dispositions such as inquisitiveness, analytical thinking, open- and fair-mindedness, flexibility, self-confidence, being systematic, truth-seeking and a mature attitude. An exploratory and descriptive approach was used to describe how critical thinking of learners can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. Since critical thinking can not be facilitated in a vacuum, the author used the theoretical framework of critical thinking identified by critical thinking experts in a Delphi study (Facione, 1990:6, 13) within the nursing process framework (Wilkinson, 1992:29) and other relevant literature to demonstrate how critical thinking can be facilitated were used. Content validity of the study is ensured based on the two theoretical frameworks. Recommendations to apply the identified critical thinking skills and the dispositions are made.

Hierdie artikel het ten doel om te beskryf hoe kritiese denke by leerders in kliniese verpleegonderwys gefasiliteer kan word deur die geïdentifiseerde kern-kognitiewe kritiese denkvaardighede, hul verwante sub-vaardighede asook affektiewe disposisies te gebruik. Die navorser het in reaksie op aanbevelings wat gemaak is deur kundiges op die gebied van kritiese denke wat die Delphi-navorsingsprojek oor die konsepanalise van kritiese denke geloods het (Facione, 1990:13) die behoefte ervaar om hierdie kritiese denkvaardighede in kliniese verpleegonderwys toe te pas. Die aanbevelings moedig opvoeders aan om programme en assesseringsinstrumente te ontwikkel wat kritiese denke kan meet deur van die geïdentifiseerde kern-kognitiewe denkvaardighede gebruik te maak. Verpleegkundiges behoort kritiese denkers te wees aangesien hulle met die lewens van pasiënte werk. In hul daaglikse praktyk staar hulle uitdagings in die gesig wat 'n bevoegdheid vereis om rasionele en kritiese kliniese besluite te neem asook om intelligente, kliniese oordele te maak wat logies is vir die oplossing van gesondheidsverwante probleme. Kritiese denke word verstaan as 'n doelgerigte, self-regulerende beoordeling wat kulmineer in interpretasie, analise, evaluering en inferensie, sowel as die verantwoording van die bewysgronde, konseptuele, metodologiese, kriteriologiese of kontekstuele oorwegings waarop die beoordeling geskoei is (Facione, 1990:2). Die kern-kognitiewe denkvaardighede word ondersteun en aangedryf deur die geïdentifiseerde affektiewe disposisies, soos weetgierigheid, analitiese denke, openheid en regverdigheid van denke, buigbaarheid, selfvertroue, 'n sistematiese ingesteldheid, 'n soeke na die waarheid en 'n volwasse houding. 'n Verkennende, beskrywende benadering is gebruik om te beskryf hoe kritiese denke van leerders in kliniese verpleegonderwys gefasiliteer kan word. Aangesien kritiese denke nie in 'n lugleegte gefasiliteer kan word nie, het die navorser gebruik gemaak van die teoretiese raamwerk van kritiese denke soos deur die kundiges in die Delphi-studie geïdentifiseer (Facione, 1990:6, 13), asook ander relevante literatuur om te demonstreer hoe kritiese denke binne die verpleegprosesraamwerk gefasiliteer kan word (Wilkinson, 1992:29). Inhoudsgeldigheid van die studie is verseker deur en gebaseer op die twee teoretiese raamwerke. Aanbevelings om die geïdentifiseerde kritiese denkvaardighede en disposisies toe te pas, word gemaak.

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/content/health/12/4/EJC35030
2007-12-01
2016-12-08
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