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n Health SA Gesondheid - The GAMMA® nursing measure : its development and testing for nursing utility : original research

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Abstract

In the specialised nursing fields of gerontology, oncology, rehabilitation and home-based care where people live with permanent or temporary disabilities, nurses are unable to perform routine and empirical scoring of their patients' abilities to live independently, because of the lack of valid nursing measures indicating patients' frailty or vulnerability. These independent living abilities are also referred to as the instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs).


To provide nurses with a nursing scale, named the GAMMA, which enables nurses to routinely observe, score and record their patients' IADLs and to test its nursing utility.
A study with two sequential phases was done. Firstly, descriptive data were collected from key informants, namely a registered social worker and two registered nurses, skilled in caring for disabled persons living in long-term care facilities. The data were analysed using inductive content analysis techniques in order to design and construct the GAMMA nursing scale. In the second study, the utility of the GAMMA was studied by training and testing the application of the GAMMA within a group of registered nurses ( = 5) working in three retirement villages. After four months, focus group interviews were conducted with the registered nurses in order to explore the GAMMA's nursing utility. Descriptive data were analysed using deductive content analysis techniques.
The outcome of the study provided good results. High levels of agreement between participants confirm the GAMMA's acceptance, usefulness and confidence as a nursing scale to empirically establish the transition of nursing care between independent living and assisted living.
The GAMMA has the characteristics which allow it to be used routinely as a nursing scale in gerontology, oncology, rehabilitation and home-based care nursing processes.

In die gespesialiseerde verpleegareas van gerontologie, onkologie, rehabilitasie en tuisversorging waar pasiënte leef met permanente of tydelike gestremdhede, is verpleegkundiges nie in staat om gereeld en empiries te bepaal wat hul pasiënte se vermoëns is om onafhanklik te lewe, as 'n aanduiding van hul verswaktheid of broosheid nie. Die vermoëns om onafhanklik te lewe word ook na verwys na as die instrumentele aktiwiteite van daaglikse lewe (IADLs).


Om die verplegingswetenskappe te voorsien van 'n skaal, genoemd die GAMMA, wat die verpleegkundige in staat kan stel om as roetine prosedure pasiënte se IADLs waar te neem, te meet en te noteer, en om die nuttigheid van hierdie skaal vir verpleging te bepaal.
'n Studie met twee opeenvolgende fases was gedoen. Eerstens was 'n ondersoek geloods om beskrywende data te versamel van 'n geregistreerde maatskaplike werker en twee geregisteerde verpleegkundiges wat ervare is in die versorging van gestremde mense wat in lang termyn fasiliteite woon. Die data was geanaliseer met induktiewe inhoudstegnieke om die konstruksie van die GAMMA te ontwikkel. In die tweede studie was die GAMMA se bruikbaarheid vir verpleegkundiges bestudeer deur eers opleiding en toetsing aan geregistreede verpleegkundiges ( = 5) te bied in drie aftree oorde. Vier maande na implementasie het 'n fokus groep met die geregistreede verpleegkundiges vergader om die die GAMMA se nuttigheid vir verpleegkundiges te evalueer. Beskrywende data was geanaliseer met behulp van deduktiewe inhouds analiese tegnieke.
Die uitkoms van die GAMMA het goeie resultate opgelewer. Daar was hoë vlakke van aanvaarding, betroubaarheid en vertroue in die GAMMA as 'n empiriese verplegingsskaal om die oorgang tussen onafhanklike en ondersteunende lewenstyl te bepaal.
Die GAMMA het die eienskappe om as roetine prosedure gebruik te word as 'n verplegingsskaal in die gerontologie, onkologie, rehabilitasie en tuisversorging verplegingsprosesse.

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/content/health/19/1/EJC151528
2014-01-01
2016-12-04
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