HTS : Theological Studies - Volume 60, Issue 1_2, 2004
Volume 60, Issue 1_2, 2004
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 369 –383 (2004)More Less
In recent years the name Banyamulenge has become associated with a warrior group in Eastern Congo because of the role some of its community members played in the war against the Mobutu regime. Researchers have been intrigued by the political motivations which unfortunately do not cover the cultural aspects of this community. This article attempts to document the cultural heritage of the Banyamulenge community. Many of the practices and traditions have become obsolete. The article explains the Banyamulenge cultural way of living, and how the divine was traditionally revealed to them in the form of human deities. Burnt sacrifice was part of community worship. The article documents what has been learnt from elders about the oral tradition, the cultural and religious realities of the community.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 385 –409 (2004)More Less
This article focuses on two theological contributions based on a social analysis of the Gospel of Matthew and its application to the Banyamulenge community in the Democratic Republic of Congo: the work of Overman (1990, 1996) on the formation of the Matthean community and its identity versus formative Judaism in their cultural setting; the work of Neyrey (1998) on honour and shame codes in the social context of the Matthean community. The article analyses the commitment of the first Banyamulenge Christian believers in light of the cultural codes of honour and shame, which were also part of the community's survival mechanisms. The life story of Madam Kibihira is compared to other women entries in Jesus' genealogy (Mt 1) and the Canaanite woman (Mt 15). Madam Kibihira was the first woman who became Christian and also the first Banyamulenge victim for her faith in Christ. The article argues that faith earns honour regardless of social status.
Author P.J.W. SchutteSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 411 –429 (2004)More Less
This article focuses on Marcus J Borg's book "Reading the Bible again for the first time" with the all important subtitle "Taking the Bible seriously but not literally." He offers a new understanding of Scripture that respects both tradition and reality, blending biblical scholarship with a concern for authentic faith. This article presents a synopsis of the contents of Borg's book, together with remarks, additions and even includes contradictory viewpoints from other contemporary scholars, which are being included not with the purpose of taking sides, but to stimulate conversation on Bible reading, a burning issue of our times.
Author Willem J. SmithSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 431 –440 (2004)More Less
During the last third of the twentieth century a discipline that applies psychological and psychoanalytic insight to the study of the Bible, has resurfaced within biblical studies. In his book, Soul and Psyche, Wayne Rollins offers a psychological biblical approach as one of the new approaches to Scripture since the 1960's. This approach tends to bring a renewed appreciation for the role of the human psyche or soul in the history of the Bible and its interpretation.
Author Johan StrijdomSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 441 –458 (2004)More Less
In this article the Baptist is compared with the upper- class/literate millennialists behind the Psalms of Solomon, the Testament of Moses, the Similitudes of 1 Enoch, and the Qumran scrolls on the one hand, and with the lower- class/illiterate millennialist movements in Josephus on the other hand. The argument is developed in constant dialogue with the analyses of John Dominic Crossan. After an initial statement of historical facts about the Baptist, these are compared with the named groups in terms of each one's (1) criticism of the social-political and religious status quo, (2) depiction of the imagined mediator through whom God was expected to intervene, (3) portrayal of the violent/non- violent intervention of God and the group respectively, and (4) social ethics. It is concluded that John shows closer resemblance to the literate than illiterate millennialists, and should therefore rather be considered as a dissident retainer.
Author N.H. TaylorSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 459 –485 (2004)More Less
Luke-Acts was written during the period after the destruction of the second temple, when, for most Jews, hopes for future restoration were conceived largely in terms of rebuilding the temple and city of Jerusalem and resuming the cultic life associated therewith. Against this background Luke poses an alternative vision, in which the divine presence associated previously with the o:p is seen no longer as localised but as dispersed. The Holy Spirit manifested in the life and expansion of the Church transcends and supersedes the notion of sacred space associated with the Zion traditions.
Author D.F. TolmieSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 487 –502 (2004)More Less
Afraid of what? The meaning of mhv pw" eij"keno;n trevcw h] e[dramon in Galatians 2:2
The phrase mhv pw" eij" keno;n trevcw h] e[dramon in Galatians 2:2 represents an exegetical dilemma. It seems as if Paul expresses his fear that the leaders of the congregation in Jerusalem had the final say as far as his apostleship and missionary work were concerned, but this does not seem to be consistent with his rhetorical strategy in Galatians 1:1-2:10. In this article Paul's use of mhv pw"-phrases is investigated whereafter Galatians 2:2 is explained against the background of his rhetorical strategy in this part of the letter. It is suggested that Paul's use of the mhv pw" eij" keno;n trevcw h] e[dramon in Galatians 2:2 should be viewed as a weak point in his argumentative strategy.
Author Andries Van AardeSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 503 –532 (2004)More Less
Perspective on Scripture in light of postmodernity
The aim of the article is to focus on the Reformers' so- called "Scripture Principle" in light of the paradigm shifts from pre-modern, to modern and to postmodern theology. The "Scripture Principle" relates mainly to two notions: the Bible is God's word in human speech and Scripture is handed to all believers who are encouraged to interpret it for themselves. In light of the perspectives on Scripture by Friedrich Schleiermacher, Karl Barth, and Rudolf Bultmann, the article discusses the "Scripture Principle" according to three positions: the Bible as book of the church; the Bible as book of believers; the Bible as book of theologians. The article advocates tolerance for users of the Bible to regard the authority of Scripture in concurrence with anyone of these positions without the hegemony of the one over the other. Yet, an overlap is an indication of postmodern theology.
Author Dirk G. Van der MerweSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 533 –554 (2004)More Less
This article attempts to compile a soteriology in the Johannine Epistles. Circumstances and false teachings that might have influenced the theological doctrine and ethical behaviour of the community are constructed. The article argues that aspects which led to the reported schism, determine the structure and content of the soteriology. In the Johannine Epistles the "elder" teaches only basic aspects of soteriology. They are presented from theocentric and christocentric perspectives that are closely interwoven with different themes. The article demonstrates that soteriology is metaphorically presented from the perspective of the conduct of God the Father, reflecting a paternalistic Old Testament image of a household. The elder refers to three of God's characteristics: light (1:5), justice (2:29), and love (4:8). Believers have to direct their lives according to these characteristics once they have been born as children into the family of God and have experienced "eternal life."
Author Ernest Van EckSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 555 –574 (2004)More Less
Resurrection in Judaism, the Greek-Roman world and the New Testament
The article shows that in the Jewish and Greco-Roman worlds' belief in the afterlife underwent a progressive development. It focuses on a "belief" in no life after death in pre-exilic Judaism, which developed into the belief that the dead did not cease to exist in the afterlife. This view again developed into a belief that the dead still lived, but only as a shadow of the living existence. In post-exilic Judaism the belief in a general eschatological resurrection was held, a conviction that was the result of the understanding of martyrdom in especially the Maccabean period. In the Greco-Roman world the conviction initially was that there was no life after death (Homer), and later a belief in the immortality of the soul (Plato) set in. The mystery cults also upheld a belief in the resurrection of the dead. Interpreted from a Jewish perspective on afterlife in the New Testament, the resurrection of Jesus was seen as an individual resurrection before the general eschatological resurrection that inaugurates "the age to come".
Author D.J.C. Van WykSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 575 –605 (2004)More Less
Ad fontes - back to Scripture, or to Jesus, or to Dogma?
A critical approach to the New Testament, its origins, and the development of theological trajectories in the early Jesus movements have caused historians to look for the foundational authority beyond the biblical canon as the decisive authority of Christianity. Some have indicated Jesus as the primary authority for the earliest followers of Jesus. Others have identified doctrinal traditions as authoritative before the canon was finally established. This study challenges the church as institution to consider a foundational authority beyond the written and canonised Scripture as a normative source for Christian faith and life.
Author P.M. VenterSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 607 –624 (2004)More Less
The prayer in Daniel 9 theologically paved the way for prayers in the later synagogue. In this chapter the Daniel tradents linked a traditional penitential prayer to an apocalyptic narrative. Through this combination their view that man has to wait upon God to change history, is extended into a life of sanctification, teaching, fasting and the offering of penitence. As these tradents were estranged from the temple, they had to find somewhere else to conduct their liturgical services. Their apocalyptic mythological view of the temple enabled them to constitualise holy space away from the material temple. In this way they paved the way for the synagogue as house of prayer in later times.
Author G.J. VolschenkSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 625 –639 (2004)More Less
This review article of Walter Brueggemann's book "The land: Place as gift, promise, and challenge in biblical faith" (2002) mainly focuses on land as the primary category of faith in the Bible. The main focus is on the dialectical interrelationship between land possession and land-loss. A holistic, systemic and triangular interrelationship exists between God, land, Israel and Torah/covenant. The balance in this triangular relationship is essential for equilibrium in the system. The pendulum thus swings between land, exile and kingdom or in other words, between "landedness" and "landlessness". The conclusion is that ignorance of this holistic and triangular interrelationship is of great cost and peril to any generation's perspective on land.
Author C.J.A. VosSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 641 –650 (2004)More Less
Guilt, mercy and praise in the liturgy
This article argues that guilt, mercy and praise do not always receive the attention they merit in the liturgy. The article aims to enhance the liturgical meaning of the confession of sin and the absolution. The liturgical meaning of these acts is determined by the theological function of the confession of sin and the absolution. A place in the liturgy is assigned to the Kyrie eleison, the Gloria and the Agnus Dei. This article demonstrates that their proper place is as part of Holy Communion.
The disciples in narrative perspective. The portrayal and function of the Matthean disciples, J.K. Brown : book reviewAuthor Evert-Jan VledderSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 653 –654 (2004)More Less
Author Maake MasangoSource: HTS : Theological Studies 60, pp 656 –657 (2004)More Less