HTS : Theological Studies - Volume 64, Issue 1, 2008
Volume 64, Issue 1, 2008
Huldigingsvoorwoord tot die feesbundel opgedra aan prof dr C R de Beer, Viserektor, Universiteit van Pretoria, by geleentheid van die Universiteit van Pretoria se eeufeesviering / Preface to the jubilee number dedicated to Prof Dr C R de Beer, Vice-Rector, University of Pretoria, on the occasion of Universary of Pretoria's centenarySource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 1 –4 (2008)More Less
Dit is vir die Redaksie van die HTS Teologiese Studies 'n besondere voorreg om in hierdie jubileumjaar van die Universiteit van Pretoria, 'n feesuitgawe aan Prof dr C R de Beer, viserektor en onder andere verantwoordelik vir die Fakulteit van Teologie, op te dra.
It is a great honour for the Editorial Board of HTS Theological Studies to dedicate this celebratory edition of the journal to Professor C R de Beer, the Vice-Rector, who is, inter alia, responsible for the Faculty of Theology, in this jubilee year of the University of Pretoria.
Die Universiteit van Pretoria se eeufeesviering in 2008 : woorde van gelukwense deur die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika / The University of Pretoria's centenary celebration in 2008 : a message of congratulation from the Netherdutch Reformed Church of AfricaAuthor T.F.J. DreyerSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 5 –6 (2008)More Less
Die Kerkhervorming van die sestiende eeu was 'n belangrike stimulus vir akademies-universitêre opleiding van predikante. Die ontstaan van die oudste universiteite in Europa is ten nouste verweef met teologiese fakulteite. In sommige gevalle het universiteite gegroei vanuit 'n aanvanklike teologiese fakulteit. Die honderd jaar se geskiedenis van die Universiteit van Pretoria (UP) reflekteer ook iets van die verbondenheid van teologiese opleiding met UP. Van die honderd jaar was die Nederduitch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA), vanaf die vestiging van 'n teologiese fakulteit in 1917, verbonde aan die Universiteit van Pretoria.
The Church Reformation of the sixteenth century provided an important stimulus to the academic training of ministers at universities. The origin of some of Europe's oldest universities is closely associated with faculties of theology. In some instances universities grew from the early beginnings of a theological faculty. The past hundred years of history of the University of Pretoria (UP) also reflects something of this close partnership between theological training and a university. The Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NHKA) has been part of UP ever since the establishment of a faculty of theology at this university in 1917.
HTS Theological Studies and Verbum et Ecclesia - the journals of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria : historical overview and strategic planningSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 9 –24 (2008)More Less
This article celebrates the centenary of the University of Pretoria (UP) in 2008. The editors of Verbum et Ecclesia and HTS Theological Studies, the two theological journals associated with the Faculty of Theology at UP, reflect on the journals' historical roots, editorial focuses, distinctive features, subscription and language statistics and on their contribution to support the academic study of theology and related disciplines. The Faculty of Theology was founded in 1917 and celebrated its ninetieth birthday in 2007. The origin of its journals dates back to 1943. This article discusses the challenges that academic journals face in South Africa and undertakes strategic planning for the future. A concluding addendum, consisting of statistical diagrams with regard to the journals' profile during the last five years, illustrates the argument.
The contribution of the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NHKA) to theological training at the Transvaal University CollegeAuthor P.J. Van der MerweSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 27 –48 (2008)More Less
The ideal of theological training of candidates for the ministry of the Dutch Reformed Church (NHK) found its first (formal) expression in 1884. Difficult ecclesiastical, social and economic circumstances (including the consequences of the First and Second Anglo-Boer Wars) prevented dreams and plans from being realised. The opening of a Pretoria division of the Transvaal University College (TUC) in 1908 created new opportunities, but it would take another eight years before planning for theological training at the TUC could start. The NHK and the Presbyterian Church were involved as denominational partners in this undertaking. This phase lasted from 1917 to 1933. These humble beginnings laid the foundation for the theological training of ministers at university level - a paradigm which is still applicable in South Africa today.
Author G.A. DuncanSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 51 –71 (2008)More Less
Presbyterianism, through two significant personalities, provided an important impetus to the formation and development of the early University of Pretoria. Their contribution has to be understood in terms of the contexts of their Scottish Presbyterian heritage, South Africa in the early years of the twentieth century and the state of higher education prevalent at that time. Together these contexts may be described as political, religious and educational. Prof AC Paterson made significant contributions both in teaching and administration at the institutional level. Prof E Macmillan made his contribution in the field of teaching, but never divorced from the very context where ministry has to be exercised.
Author J. BeukesSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 73 –109 (2008)More Less
From the investigative premise of a Foucauldian archaeology of knowledge, this article attempts to unearth the layers of ideas which constituted the Hervormd approach to doing theology over the past century. Digging into seemingly disassociated bodies of theological precedents, the article anatomizes four layers of ideas in a series of diverse orientations towards theology, namely the (1) ethical, (2) confessional and (3) dialectical orientations, and stemming from a Kantian orientation in particular, (4) the validity of 'the philosopher's voice' in the often tense relationship between theology and philosophy. Respecting the inexplicit nature of this multifarious kind of theology, the author calls for an ongoing estimation of the diversity of voices within the Hervormd approach, rejecting any attempt to integrate these different layers of thought into a monolithic enterprise of knowledge about God and the world.
Author C.J.A. VosSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 111 –120 (2008)More Less
The exploration of the horizons : searching for a contemporary homiletic hermeneutics
In this article, the author takes up the Ricoeurian idea of a dual hermeneutic. The article emphasizes the need for critical homiletics, not only to make the invaluable and necessary recourse to a "hermeneutics of suspicion" but also moves beyond it to a "hermeneutics of recollection" that is sympathetic to religion. The concept of a second naiveté is also considered in relation to the dialectic between the two hermeneutical extremes.
In hierdie artikel word die hermeneutiese insigte van Paul Ricoeur vir die homiletiek ontsluit. Die hipotese is dat Ricoeur se hermeneutiek die homiletiek kan verryk. Die voorwaarde is egter dat Ricoeur se hermeneutiese grondlyne noukeurig gelees en krities geëvalueer moet word.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 123 –138 (2008)More Less
Ecclesia reformata semper reformanda - a hard to do command
This article is a reworked version of the Moderator's opening address at the 68th General Assembly of the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa in October 2007. Against the fourth-century background of Emperor Constantine's "church politics", the paper reflects on the first-century rhetoric of the Apostle Paul in 2 Corinthians 10:3ff and 17ff about non-worldly, divine weapons of warfare, and about boasting and self-commendation. It shows how Paul understood oral rhetorical words as theatrically performed by employing the genre of the so-called "Fool's speech" by means of which Paul argues that masks disguise the authentic identity of Christ-followers. Paul's rhetoric is applied in the article as an appeal to the modern-day church to be ecumenically open and anthropologically inclusive. The article demonstrates the uneasiness of some members in the institutional church to proceed along a path of ongoing reformation (ecclesia reformata semper reformanda).
A place to share : some thoughts about the meaning of territory and boundaries in our thinking about God and humanityAuthor Riet Bons-StormSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 141 –153 (2008)More Less
This article proffers some thoughts in reply to the following question : how can we think about God in a theology that takes into account the concept of place in such a way that we are able to live together in a salvific way with others, sharing a place as equals? Concepts such as "territory" and "territoriality" are helpful, because they can be linked with "identity" and the need to feel safe. Boundaries and boundary markers such as walls play an important role in conflicts. The possibility of a "liminal space" at a boundary where eye-to-eye relationships may be possible helps to make "the other", the stranger, a human being with her / his own needs and vulnerability. Using the Israeli / Palestinian conflict as an example, images of God and their impact on the possibility of sharing the land are explored. Hagar, herself a stranger, experiences God's lifesaving attention and names God "God of seeing".
Author R.A. BurridgeSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 155 –174 (2008)More Less
The use of the Bible in ethical debate has been central for the last two millennia. Current debates about sexuality, or the position of women in church leadership, are marked by both, or all, sides of the argument using Scripture. However, this has been true of many issues in the past. This is demonstrated in the debate about slavery two hundred years ago. Careful analysis of the use of Scripture in both the justification and critique of apartheid reveals how both sides quoted Scripture in its various modes, such as rules, principles, paradigms, and overall world-view. The biographical nature of the Gospels means that we must set Jesus' rigorous ethical teaching in the context of the narrative of his deeds, including his open and welcoming acceptance of all people. It was an inclusive community of interpretation which changed the debates about slavery and apartheid, and a similar inclusive community is needed today.
"The Arabs" in the ecclesiastical historians of the 4th / 5th centuries : effects on contemporary Christian-Muslim relationsAuthor D.D. GraftonSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 177 –192 (2008)More Less
Historical inquiry into the origin and history of "the Arabs" has long been a part of Western Orientalist literature. However, Christian scholars from the 7th century onward sought to understand the rise of Islam from within a Biblical framework. This article looks at how the early church historians of the 4th and 5th centuries viewed "the Arabs" and passed on those images to their ecclesiastical descendents. It aims to argue that the pejorative image of "the Arabs" as uncultured pagan barbarians of late antiquity was extended to Muslims in the 7th century and transferred into the Latin derogatory term "the Saracen". This negative image has been perpetuated in Western Christian literature and continues to color Western Evangelical Christian and Dispensational images of "the Arabs". The article shows that such perceptions have as much to do with the cultural stereotypes disseminated from the ecclesiastical historians as they do with Biblical hermeneutics.
Author K. JeppesenSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 195 –206 (2008)More Less
Arab Christianity has a long history, longer than the history Christianity has in many European countries, a fact we seem to have forgotten in the west. According to Acts 2:11, some Arabs together with several other people of different nationalities were present when Peter gave his address to the crowd on the first Pentecost day after the ascension of Christ. Even if this piece of information is not historically true, there is no doubt that Christianity spread to the Arab world fairly early, probably in the beginning with some Judaeo-Christians, who moved to Arabia, and later on as a result of a mission to the gentiles. Already in antiquity the Bible was translated from the Greek Septuagint into Arabic.
Sexuality and partnership : aspects of theological ethics in the field of marriage, unmarried and homosexual couplesAuthor U.J. KortnerSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 209 –225 (2008)More Less
The attitudes towards sexuality in Western society are undergoing dramatic change. One of the main problems sexual ethics has to deal with today is the question whether the church should acknowledge unmarried long-term relationships. The debate about the acknowledgement of homosexuality as a form of human sexuality equal to heterosexuality is aiming towards the acknowledgement of the equal status of homosexual partnerships and heterosexual marriages as a final consequence. In addition to these issues the article also discusses the issue of the blessing of unmarried or homosexual couples. In light of such public blessings and their liturgical form, the article aims to discuss the question about the promise such blessings holds according to Christian ethics.
Author J.A. LoaderSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 227 –251 (2008)More Less
The formal problematic of the concept hebraica veritas
Proceeding from the importance of the concept of hebraica veritas in terms of both its original intention and of the opposing positions on Holy Scripture entertained by the Roman Catholic tradition and the emerging Protestant views during the Reformation, a brief discussion of the meaning and early context of the concept is given. The formal problematic of the hebraica veritas as found in the Tanak is addressed vis-à-vis its latinised version in the Greek text tradition. Jerome's use of the concept is analysed on the basis of his textual justification for it. Pneumatological and salvation-historical dimensions are identified, and the function of the concept as self-identification over against Judaism is discussed, as well as its implications for delimiting the canon. It is concluded that the concept needs to be foregrounded anew in light of its significant impact in the context of accounting for the concepts of Holy Scripture, canon and therefore canon-based endeavours to construe a "biblical theology" of the "whole Bible".
Author J-C. Loba-MkoleSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 253 –266 (2008)More Less
This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these "theoretical frames", namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary-functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.
Author Jan MuisSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 269 –288 (2008)More Less
This article discusses whether the metaphor of "king" can still be used in Christian God-talk. Firstly, it is argued that the "king" metaphor for God is an indispensable key metaphor in both the Old and the New Testament. "King" has become a root metaphor in the canonical text of the Old Testament and Jesus' proclamation of the coming kingdom of God presupposes that God is king. Secondly, the Biblical meanings of the metaphor are explored. God's kingship implies his authority and power to fight the forces of evil, to liberate and lead his people and to control the events of history. Modified by Jesus Christ, God's kingship is universal, non-violent and in accordance with his love. Then, the use of the metaphor in contemporary God-talk is considered. Because "king" is the only metaphor that can give expression to God's ultimate highness and authority, it cannot be replaced by others. In the concluding section the "king" metaphor for God is conceptually explained in terms of the relationship, the agency and the power of God it implies.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 291 –320 (2008)More Less
When we begin the task of telling time in the Fourth Gospel, we bring something not found in any previous study, namely, a model of time articulated by cross-cultural anthropologists (Bordieu, in Pitt-Rivers 1963:55-72, Ayoade, in Wright 1984:71-89). As much as we admire Davies' study, she has no notes to her chapter on time nor any citations in her bibliography to indicate that she has any conversation partners, much less cultural experts, a deficit to be filled in this study. Learning to tell time entails three theoretical considerations : a definition of time, key classifications of it, and special attention to what the ancients meant by past, present and future. With these lenses we are prepared to do as thorough a study as we can on telling time in the Fourth Gospel. As we consider each classification, we will suggest a brief meaning of it from the experts on time, then present a body of Greco-Roman materials illustrative of the classification, and finally use it to gather and interpret data in John. Proving the native existence of these classifications for telling time in antiquity is essential for readers to have a background against which to compare their usage with that of the Fourth Gospel.
Author Carolyn OsiekSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 323 –337 (2008)More Less
Much has been written about how the social structures of honor and shame affected women in Mediterranean antiquity. Sometimes "honor and shame" are taken out of context and used as absolute opposites, an oversimplification. Rather, honor and shame function as coordinates within a complex matrix of other societal factors. Chief among them are kinship, social hierarchy, economic control and effective social networking. Some contemporary studies from southern Europe help illuminate this pattern. The complexity and variation present in the social dynamics of these contemporary cultures indicate that the same kind of complexity and variation must have been present in ancient cultures too.
Author L.S. RukundwaSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 339 –351 (2008)More Less
In this article, postcolonial theory is presented as a tool for Biblical interpretation, in an attempt to find colonial intentions (be they political, cultural or economic) that informed and influenced the writer's context. Although criticism has been levelled at the church and other religious institutions for having, consciously or unconsciously, facilitated colonial conquests and imperial establishment all over the world, postcolonial theory calls them to a constructive reading that enables readers to see the concerns of the universal mission of justice. Postcolonial theory, as a tool for Biblical interpretation, deals with the Bible as a "cultural product" in time and space. However, as part of socio-scientific method, postcolonial theory encounters some crucial translation problems such as ethnocentrism and anachronism. Nevertheless, whatever hermeneutical tool the reader uses, it must yield two important things from Scripture reading : discovering life and discovering faith.
Author W. SchmithalsSource: HTS : Theological Studies 64, pp 353 –375 (2008)More Less
The Messianic Secret and the Sayings Source Q
The article represents a new way of looking at the complexity with regard the "Messianic Secret" as a tribute to William Wrede, who was born almost 150 years ago. Wrede advocated a literary and historical solution to the Messianic Secret found in the Synoptic Gospels. The article aims to resolve the riddle by also taking the Sayings Source Q into consideration. Q is seen as located in the disciple group of John the Baptist and this group's adherents. The article argues that Mark developed the Messianic Secret as theme to adapt the unmessianic message of Q. As effect, Mark initiated a "christological" use of this motif within the church. The thesis of the article represents a modification that is a progression of some of the author's earlier opinions.