HTS : Theological Studies - Volume 67, Issue 3, 2011
Volume 67, Issue 3, 2011
Histories-vergelykende ekklesiologie - oppad na 'n omvattende Praktiese Ekklesiologie : original researchAuthor Wim A. DreyerSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –8 (2011)More Less
Historical-comparative ecclesiology - Towards a comprehensive Practical Ecclesiology
Practical Ecclesiology is a theological discipline, which opens up the possibility of a multi-disciplinary approach to ecclesiology. One aspect of such a multi-disciplinary Practical Ecclesiology is a historical-comparative approach. In this contribution an historical-comparative ecclesiology is developed under the headings of institutional, transformational and non-institutional ecclesiology. Practical Ecclesiology is normally practised from an empirical, strategic and hermeneutical perspective. This article argues that a historical perspective is essential to Practical Ecclesiology as it deepens our understanding of how the church evolved, transformed and adapted over centuries. This opens up important points of discussion in context of the 21st century.
Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996 - 2001) : listening to the people : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –8 (2011)More Less
This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC) in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA) in 2001.
Wat is reformatoriese teologie? : nadenke na aanleiding van 'n kerklike beswaarskrif : original researchAuthor Ignatius W.C. Van WykSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –11 (2011)More Less
What is Reformational theology?: Thoughts on a petition of protest
The Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA) has been associated with apartheid for decades. In 2010 the NHKA decided to withdraw its theological legitimisation of apartheid. This decision caused conflict and strife within the church. This article deals with the theological arguments of the opponents of Decision 54 of the General Church Assembly of 2010. It argues that the defenders of apartheid deviate from the Reformational theology on central issues. Special attention is given to the doctrines of justification and the imago Dei. Christian freedom and ethical responsibility also receive attention.
Homoseksualiteit : die standpunte van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk en die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika in 2007 : original researchAuthor Pieter J. StraussSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –8 (2011)More Less
Homosexuality: The viewpoints of the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA) in 2007
These two churches, through their broadest assembly namely the General Synod and the General Church Assembly respectively, show remarkable similarities in their approach to Scripture on the matter of homosexuality, the position of gay people in church life and the time frame in which they took decisions on these matters. The point of departure for both is marriage as something only for one husband and one wife. This is explicitly complemented by the NRCA with a limitation of sexual intercourse to marriage, which rules out the possibility of homosexuality. In the DRC the same principle is tradition, thus basicly coming to the same conclusion as the NCRA. The reason for these similarities is not that the two assemblies openly copied each other, but the fact that they both are reformed churches in Southern Africa serving, mainly, Afrikaners. Perhaps these similarities supply another reason for the present increase in cooperation between the two churches.
Author Jaco S. DreyerSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –8 (2011)More Less
The aim of this article is to contribute to the academic discussion on the inter-linguistic translation of the Christian message in the public sphere. There seems to be consensus amongst academic public theologians and social philosophers such as Habermas about the importance of translating religious language in the public sphere. Views differ, however, on the manner of translation. Five key aspects of Ricoeur's paradigm of translation are discussed and offered as a framework for the academic discussion in public theology on the translation of the Christian message in the public sphere. It is argued that notions such as the tension between faithfulness and betrayal, the illusion of the perfect translation, striving for equivalence of meaning, the importance of the desire to translate, the work of translation and linguistic hospitality offer insight in the complexity of the translation task as well as its ethical nature.
Author Malan NelSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –9 (2011)More Less
Missional integrity and contextual relevance
The research problem addressed in this article discussed whether so-called missional local churches too often escape local contextual involvement by sending money or even people to work on their behalf 'elsewhere'. Is it true that local churches take the easier 'money-way' out to save a missional public face? The hypothesis is that missional integrity is in essence to be 'firstly' contextual relevant 'before' being nationally and even globally involved in mission. A basic assumption is that every local church is a gift of God to a specifically and even geographically defined context.
Author Casper J.H. VenterSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –8 (2011)More Less
Catechist and the forming of faith: Practical-theological perspectives
Scrutinising this topic is an attempt to equip catechists more extensively in serving and furthering the forming of faith in the process of formal catechesis given to children. An additional aim is to highlight an outcome indicated in certain practical-theological studies, that is, that the rational dimension in the forming of faith should not be accentuated one-sidedly in formal catechetical ministry within faith communities. On basis-theoretical level the following aspects are investigated: a closer definition of faith from Hebrews focusing on the forming of faith by means of catechesis; the action of learning in the forming of faith; the sequence in the action of teaching as indicated in Scripture; the gifts of the Holy Spirit in intermediating the process of forming faith; the way and attitude in which the catechist fulfils his or her ministry, and in last instance, the spirituality of the catechist. On metatheoretical level applicable aspects from the field of Emotional and Social Intelligence are investigated. Data from the field of Emotional Intelligence that should be part of the catechist's teaching equipment point to the necessity of being conscious of aspects such as self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation and social skills. Contributions from the field of Social Intelligence include attitudes and skills like empathy, the ability of presenting oneself effectively in formulating ideas, the authority with which the catechist communicates, and his or her caring for someone else's needs. In final instance, relevant practice-theoretical perspectives that can be applied in catechetical ministry, and specifically in the forming and passing on of faith, are outlined.
Ta splanchna : a theopaschitic approach to a hermeneutics of God's praxis. From zombie categories to passion categories in theory formation for a practical theology of the intestines : original researchAuthor Daniel J. LouwSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –13 (2011)More Less
It is argued that both the traditional clerical paradigm of an ecclesial approach and the phenomenological paradigm of an empirical approach are not sufficient enough to describe and maintain a theological methodology in practical theology. This has led to the introduction of a theopaschitic paradigm in theory formation. It is argued that the normative task of practical theology implies a philosophical-hermeneutical dimension, that is, to interpret under girding paradigms as related to meaning and being. It also implies a theological dimension; to reflect theologically on the praxis of God as an influential factor within human actions (inhabitational theology.) With reference to 'the pneumatological praxis of God', a practical theology of the intestines is proposed. Bowel categories reveal a divine intentionality (teleology) and describe a modus of God's praxis, the how of God within the vulnerability and suffering of human beings. This divine ontological mode should operate as a practical theological paradigm determining being qualities (ontic status) within human actions and processes of communication. The under girding theological presupposition is that ta splanchna [strong feeling of mercy and compassion expressed by the intestines] denotes a compassionate praxis of co-suffering (the passio Dei). Passion in practical theology emanates in parrhesia and instills a vivid hope: fides quaerens spem [faith in search of hope].
Author Hendrik J.C. PieterseSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –8 (2011)More Less
In this article I present a theoretical framework for my argument that specific congregations which are renewed to address the current culture and context, according to the vision presented by Professor T.F.J. Dreyer, are competent to generate projects directed to the poor and humble as social capital. The problem addressed in the article, also phrased as the research question, is: what is the nature and diversity of care in the form of projects as social capital amongst the poor in renewed congregations as it emerges from the sermons on Matthew 25:31-46? The goal of the grounded theory analysis of sermons on this text in a research cycle of selective coding, collected from renewed congregations, will be the identification of projects, types of projects, and their properties. I discuss the idea of local theologies as a motivation of contextual religious action by the congregation in projects amongst the poor, provide a description of poverty in South Africa; show the role of religious faith communities in addressing poverty, followed by conceptualisation of social capital in projects of congregations, and lastly I give a description of two examples of projects thus far discovered in analysed sermons.
Author Julian C. MullerSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –5 (2011)More Less
(Auto)biography as theology
This article provides a reflection on the relationship between (auto)biography and theology. This reflection is done with reference to, and in honour of the story of Theuns Dreyer. The author positions himself on the theory that the theology develops on a narrative basis and therefore also by way of (auto)biography. The life of a person, in this case a theologian, is regarded as a 'piece of art' and becomes both a reflection of one's theology and a way of constructing a theology. The richness of walking the inbetween land (ecotone) and to combine two contexts (church and academia) in one story is also explored.
Women's spirituality and feminist theology : a hermeneutic of suspicion applied to 'patriarchal marriage' : original researchAuthor Yolanda DreyerSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –5 (2011)More Less
This article focused on feminist theory, feminist theology, the origins of the patriarchal marriage, and hermeneutics of suspicion. It aimed to provide language for articulating past and present experiences of women from a theological and hermeneutical perspective. The article discussed women's spirituality and the failure of the patriarchal marriage to nurture self-perception (how I see myself), life orientation (where I am in the world) and identity (who am I in the world), with regard to women's spirituality. The article also gave details about the variety of feminisms that exist in theology both in the past and in the present.
Die NHKA op reis na inklusiwiteit II : 'n holistiese teo-antropologie as voorwaarde vir ekklesiologie : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –10 (2011)More Less
The NRCA en route to inclusivity II: A holistic theological anthropology as condition for ecclesiology
This second article further examines the hypothesis that the fragmentation in the ecclesiology of the Netherdutch Reformed Church (NRCA) is based on a fragmented understanding of humanity. The concept of fragmentation is considered as the result of a positivistic epistemology with regard to understanding the ontology of humankind. In light of this, the NRCA's understanding of humanity is examined as it appeared in the Church's polity of 'no equalisation' with regard to the justification of separate ethnic-based churches and the Church's current understanding of homosexuality. The content of an inclusive theological anthropology is considered and suggested for the Church as a necessary step on its journey towards inclusivity.
Die NHKA op reis na inklusiwiteit I : die anatomie van 'n gefragmenteerde/eskatologiese ekklesiologie : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –8 (2011)More Less
The NRCA en route to inclusivity I: The anatomy of a fragmented/eschatological ecclesiology
This is the first in a two-part series that aims to examine the growing pains the Netherdutch Reformed Church is experiencing in its journey towards Christian inclusivity. This first article examines the fragmentation in the Church's understanding of ecclesiology, which becomes apparent in the debates concerning the meaning and range of inclusivity in ecclesiology. The roots of this fragmentation are examined. It is concluded that the root of the fragmentation is an eschatological understanding of the essence of the church, which is, in turn, due to a fragmented view of humanity. In order for the Church to continue its journey towards inclusivity it should revisit its understanding of humanity and theological anthropology. The second article will focus on the content and implications of a revisited theological anthroplogy.
Missionale gemeentes in die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika - teologies verantwoord : original researchAuthor J. Christo Van der MerweSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –9 (2011)More Less
Missional congegrations in the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa - Theologically substantiated
The Christian churches are experiencing a major paradigm shift as they attemp to navigate the 20th century. Around the mid-fourth century to the mid-twentieth century CE, often referred to as the 'age of Christendom', Christianity and the institutional church had a central place, which was culturally supported in the public life of most Western societies. Today it is impossible to talk about culture without using the plural. Society has changed into what is called a 'pluriverse' of cultures determined by aspects such as geography, race, ethinicity, class, and worldview. For Christian denominations, this paradigm shift has become exceedingly challenging. This article discerns and experiments with approaches to ministry that are vitally challenged by the many current understandings of what it means to be church today. By taking the concept missio Dei as point of departure the article describes the church as being called to be a missional church and the Christian leaders as being called to exercise missional leadership. The article addresses the notion of missio trinitatis as fundamental to the understanding of the missio Dei. God is one who lives by sharing, and the Trinity is the doctrine of a God whose very essence is sharing, thus the consequence is that those who believe in such a God must live a similar life. Matthew 28:19-20 serves as basis for a discussion on the 'embodiment' of the church's missional theology as well as a basis for the development of a missional praxis. The fundamental conviction argued in this article is that there can be no place for a future church that is not missional in essence.
Die pendule subjektiwiteit-objektiwiteit in die teologie van Theuns Dreyer - 'n dialoog : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –11 (2011)More Less
The pendulum between subjectivity and objectivity in the theology of Theuns Dreyer - a dialogue
This article reflects a conversation between Andries G. van Aarde and Theuns F.J. Dreyer. Dreyer was professor of Practical Theology in the period 1983 to 1999, and director of the Reformed Theological College at the Faculty of Theology, University of Pretoria from January 2000 until his retirement in January 2012. The article aims to demonstrate the shifts in Practical Theology and how these changes influenced Dreyer and, on the other hand, how Dreyer himself was the campaigner of the progress in teaching and training of ministers of the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa during the past three decades.
Author Ernest Van EckSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –6 (2011)More Less
Ter erkenning van Theuns Dreyer
Hierdie Huldigingsbundel word opgedra aan prof. Theuns Dreyer vir sy toegewyde diens in die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA) die afgelope 40 jaar op beide akademiese en kerklike terrein. 'Opgedra' in hierdie konteks beteken nie 'dankie' nie. Die rede hiervoor is eenvoudig. Geen blyk van waardering kan uitdrukking gee aan die dankbaarheid van die Kerk dat God 'n persoon met sy gawes vir die Kerk vir die afgelope 40 jaar gegee het nie. Theuns Dreyer se liefde vir die kerk en die Heer van die kerk loop soos 'n fyn draad deur sy hele loopbaan as predikant en akademikus. Daarom was niks ooit te veel gevra nie, al het dit by tye sterk inbreuk gemaak op persoonlike en familietyd. Hiervoor sê die Kerk dankie.
Author Daan J.C. (Jr.) Van WykSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –2 (2011)More Less
Woord van erkenning aan T.F.J. Dreyer
Wanneer hier hulde gebring word aan die dienswerk van professor T.F.J. Dreyer, is die verhouding tussen die kerk (in hierdie geval die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk spesifiek) en die universiteit (in hierdie geval die Universiteit van Pretoria spesifiek) in die fokus. Die Hervormde Kerk het die afgelope eeu waarin besin is oor teologiese opleiding, hoë waarde geheg aan 'n teologiese opleiding aan 'n universiteit. Hierdie verhouding moet terselfdertyd akademies uitnemend as kerklik diensbaar en lojaal wees. Dit moet daarom iets reflekteer van die spanning tussen wetenskap en geloof, kansel en kateder.
Author Christo LombaardSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –5 (2011)More Less
In this article, developed for and from a 2010 invited guest e-lecture presented at St. Edward's University, Austin, Texas, unexpected historical and theological parallels between Pentateuch Theory and Biblical Spirituality are indicated. Both have inherent confessional impulses, and have always had those. This is indicated by first describing Pentateuch Theory in these terms, by then providing a graphic model of Biblical Spirituality, and in conclusion by summarising the parallels and the inherent existential dynamics involved in both academic fields.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –10 (2011)More Less
This article discussed the use of the Bible in 'Love's hidden life and its recognizability by its fruits', which is the first reflection of Søren Kierkegaard's book, Works of love. Firstly, this article discussed Kierkegaard's lack of clarity about the fruits of love, even though he stresses their divine origin. Secondly, it reflected on his argument that, even though deeds are more important than words, words remain necessary because of the need to express love to others. In a following section he points out that neither specific words nor particular works of love can demonstrate that love exists. One needs to distinguish between works of love and the attitude with which works are done. Thirdly, it pointed out how Kierkegaard argues that the inability to demonstrate love unconditionally does not negate that love is to be known by its fruits. It is rather a personal incitement to love for the sake of love itself. Noting that there is no direct relationship between the fruits of love and the actual effects our love has on others, he points to the fact that the result of love is in the hands of God. He then argues that though fruits of love may be invisible, they become apparent in the strength of our love. The only responsibility we have is to follow love as the divine movement of our heart. In the final part of his reflection, Kierkegaard notes that there is no other way to enter into the reality of love than to believe in it. This implies that one should be careful of making demands on someone in a loving relationship. What is needed is to become rooted in love as the divine source of the heart so that one will understand that this unseen reality is the foundation of existence in which one is known by the Other, whose essence is love.
The hidden life of love : the function of the Bible in Kierkegaard's 'Works of love' : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 67, pp 1 –10 (2011)More Less
This article discussed the use of the Bible in 'Love's hidden life and its recognizability by its fruits', which is the first reflection of Søren Kierkegaard's book, Works of love. The article noted that in the first part of the reflection, Kierkegaard points out how easily love is ignored because of its hidden character and because it belongs to the realm of the heart. Consequently, it seems sagacious to trust only those things that we can observe with our senses. But this attitude speaks of self-deception and fear that will bring eternal loss, because it locks us out of love which connects us with the essence of God himself. The article then explained Kierkegaard's argument that love produces fruit which has to be distinguished from other kinds of fruit. This distinction raises the question of discernment between forms that claim to be love and Christian love, which is rooted in eternity. The second part of this reflection focuses on love as the main feature of Kierkegaard's anthropology that springs from the heart, has its origin in God and therefore cannot be penetrated by the tools of logic. This does not imply that we cannot live this love. On the contrary, we need to live it in order to become familiar with it and to understand it from within. However, this familiarity will, in the first place, confront us with love's unfathomableness and its unfathomable connectedness with all existence. The more we become acquainted with the love of our heart, the more this love will lead us into the mystery of God's eternity. A second feature of Kierkegaard's anthropology, which is immediately linked to the first, is the acknowledgement that this love manifests itself as a need with roots in the hunger of the heart. For the purposes of this article, Kierkegaard's use of the Bible in all these parts was analysed and a general perspective on his reception of the Bible was offered.