HTS : Theological Studies - Volume 72, Issue 4, 2016
Volume 72, Issue 4, 2016
Where is God when dementia sneaks into our house? Practical theology and the partners of dementia patients : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3227More Less
How can hope, love and faith stay alive when dementia enters a home? In this article I shall look especially at the spouse or partner who shares an abode with a person with dementia. Most of the authors in this field, also John Swinton who is perhaps the best known author whose books are written from a (practical) theological perspective, focus on care in institutions, that means care by professionals. A partner living with a dementia patient has two main roles: as partner and caregiver. Night and day a partner is witness to the ongoing deterioration of her or his beloved partner, without being a professional. This article is founded not only on literature about dementia patients, but also on the experiences of several partners, as well as my own experiences as a partner. The question we all ask is: 'From where does our strength come?' I argue that what is said in the literature on the subject of (the pastoral care for) dementia patients does not help the partners, because it lays a heavy burden on them, who are already suffering from feelings of grief and guilt. I do not agree with John Swinton's idea that God created dementia. Looking for different ways of thinking about God and faith to survive with hope and love, I turn to the exegesis of the creation stories by Ellen van Wolde. These give the opportunity to take the evil of the situation of the deterioration of the personality of a patient with dementia seriously, and at the same time grant the possibility to turn the grief and guilt feelings into strength to fight evil, together with a God whose empathy and love stays with a partner in her or his loneliness and grief.
The contribution of Qumran to historical Hebrew linguistics : evidence from the syntax of participial negation : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3150More Less
In this article we examine how Qumran Hebrew can contribute to our knowledge of historical Hebrew linguistics. The premise of this paper is that Qumran Hebrew reflects a distinct stage in the development of Hebrew which sets it apart from Biblical Hebrew. It is further assumed that these unique features are able to assist us to understand the nature of the development of Biblical Hebrew in a more precise way. Evidence from the syntax of participial negation at Qumran as opposed to Biblical Hebrew provides evidence for this claim.
Author Eibert TigchelaarSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3281More Less
What does a sacred text look like? Are religious books materially different from other books? Does materiality matter? This article deals with three different aspects of material variance attested amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls, Ancient Jewish religious text fragments, of which were found in the Judean Desert. I suggest that the substitution of the ancient Hebrew script by the everyday Aramaic script, also for Torah and other religious texts, was intentional and programmatic: it enabled the broader diffusion of scriptures in Hellenistic and Roman Judea. The preponderant use of parchment for religious texts rather than papyrus may be a marker of identity. The many small scrolls which contained only small parts of specific religious books (Genesis, Psalms) may have been produced as religious artefacts which express identity in the period when Judaism developed into a religion of the book.
Author Gert Jacobus MalanSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.2998More Less
Since Jean Paul Gustav Ricoeur's passing away in 2005, there has been a significant international resurgence of interest in his work. Coming to grips with the sheer extent of Ricoeur's publications on a variety of subjects can leave one thoroughly perplexed. This is also true when investigating his views on myth and demythologisation. Numerous of his publications expound from various perspectives his insights on myth and its interpretation. This investigation proposes to bring together Ricoeur's extensive contributions on myth, its interpretation and demythologisation in order to present them in condensed form. This will pave the way for a future follow-up study to compare Ricoeur's perspectives to Bultmann's demythologisation program and consider combining their contributions for theological hermeneutics.
Author Gert MalanSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3260More Less
Modern Christianity has failed to update its myths and has even eliminated them, thus, excluding the metaphysical experience indispensable to religion (Jung). Myths should be interpreted, not eliminated. Answering the question about how to interpret myths without eliminating them or their intended effect is the object of this paper. The study investigates the possibility of interpreting myths as metaphors, thus, in a non-literal way. Various definitions of metaphor and myth, and theories for their interpretation are discussed, with focus on their relationship to symbolic universes. Finally, a non-mythical symbolic universe structured by root-metaphors is suggested as a framework for the existential interpretation of mythical concepts in the New Testament.
Theological imagination as hermeneutical device : exploring the hermeneutical contribution of an imaginal engagement with the text : original researchAuthor Anneke ViljoenSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3172More Less
In the past, biblical scholarship has neglected the hermeneutical contribution that an imaginal engagement with the text may make. The author's aim in this article was to develop theological imagination as a hermeneutical device. This was done by briefly considering the concurrencein the hermeneutic contributions of three interpreters of biblical texts, with specific regard to their understanding of biblical imagination. These were Walter Brueggemann, Paul Ricoeur and Ignatius of Loyola. Their hermeneutical contributions concur in their understanding of a biblically informed imagination, and it is specifically this aspect of the concurrence of their thought that was explored. An illustration from Proverbs 14:27, which draws on the metaphor and biblical motif of the fountain or source of life, was put forward to demonstrate how the concurrence in the contributions of these biblical interpreters may influence an imaginal engagement with the text.
Author Arthur J. DeweySource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3222More Less
The death story of Jesus of Nazareth has traditionally been understood as a matter of historical fact. The various versions of the story would seem to confirm a documented death scene. Nevertheless, critical appraisals of this material have raised numerous questions regarding the passion story. This article considers how the very structure of the story is a vital clue to the way in which the death of Jesus was invented. The Jewish tale of the suffering and vindication of the innocent one provides the memory locus for discovering meaning in the fate of Jesus. We find that the basic fact of the death tale of Jesus is that it was a fiction, authorising further elaborations for those who understood the craft of memory.
What light does Matthew's use of Mark in Matthew 1-4 throw on Matthew's theological location? : original researchAuthor William LoaderSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3284More Less
This article approaches the issue of Matthew's theological context by examining Matthew's use of Mark, including through redaction and supplementation, in Matthew 1-4. This is undertaken in two parts: Matthew 1-2, which is largely additional material, and Matthew 3-4, followed by a concluding assessment. Issues addressed or alluded to in these chapters frequently find resonance in the remainder of Matthew's gospel and so give important clues about Matthew's concerns and their relevance for understanding its context. Such issues include the importance of messiahship; continuity with Israel, but also with John the Baptist and the Church; defence against slander; heightened christological claims; soteriology; Gentile mission; the status of Torah; and Jesus as judge to come. The article suggests a location within a Jewish religious context with a Jewish self-understanding, separate from the synagogue, but claiming to belong where its opponents would claim it did not; and a Christian tradition where the approach of 'Q' to Torah is upheld in contrast to Mark's, while embracing and expanding Mark's Christology and restoring the common understanding of Gentile mission as a post- Easter phenomenon.
Author Peter NagelSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3248More Less
The well-known passage Mark 4:1-34 is no stranger to New Testament scientific scrutiny, not to even mention the hotly debated phrases in Mark 4:10-12. To avoid repetition, the aim with this article is to determine the extent of the impact the Isaiah 6:9-10 citation in Mark 4:12 might have had on the interpretation and understanding of Mark 4:1-34 and the Gospel as a whole. The theory is that the citation in Mark 4:12, especially within Mark 4:1-34, is foundational for understanding the Markan gospel as a 'parable'. Moreover, the redactional inclusion of the concept of 'the Twelve' will prove to be a vital contribution in understanding the Markan gospel as a 'parable'. Arguing this theory will include evaluating the parable theory in Mark 4:10-12, followed by determining the interpretative effect the explicit citation in Mark 4:12 had on Mark 4:10-12 and its larger literary context (Mk. 4:1-34). This will be followed by concluding remarks and suggestions.
Author Jeremy PuntSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3213More Less
This article considers intersections between cultural studies and New Testament studies. It ponders and focuses on possible approaches to the bearing of the 'cultural turn' on biblical studies. Following a brief consideration of cultural studies and its potential value for New Testament studies, four promising developments in cultural studies approaches to the New Testament are noted.
Author Eduard VerhoefSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3125More Less
The must have been critical factors that made the growth of Christianity possible.
What factors made it possible for Christianity to grow from 0 to 10 per cent of the population of the Roman Empire in the year 300, and even to 50 per cent in the year 350? By the end of the first century hardly any of the 60 million people of the Roman Empire were Christians. How did they manage to reach the major milestone of 10 per cent in the year 300? Five factors are very important in this regard, namely, (1) The apostle Paul was an excellent advocate to promote the christian message. (2) His voyages, his frequent visits to several christian communities, his epistles and his rules of life enabled him to create a 'world wide web' of christian communities that were recognisable as such for every traveller. (3) At the time monotheism was more attractive than the polytheism of the ancient Greek times. 4. The universalism preached by Paul (Gl. 3:28) was attractive as well. (5) The emperor Julian (the Apostate) recognised that christians surpassed everyone else with respect to philanthropy. According to him, only if the priests of other religions followed suit would it be possible for their 'gentile' religions to survive.
Review of James Alfred Loader 'Proverbs 1-9' (Historical Commentary on the Old Testament), Peeters Leuven, 2014 : review articleAuthor Pieter VenterSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3385More Less
Loader's commentary on Proverbs 1-9 belongs to the category of technical commentaries. It is evaluated in terms of similar commentaries written by scholars who focus on interpreting the original Hebrew text. The design of the commentary, the four essays included in the commentary, and the approach to the text is discussed. A final section deals with Loader's exposition of Proverbs 8. This section focuses on the problematic Hebrew terms qnh in 8:22 and 'amon in 8:30 and compares his interpretation with the opinions raised by other scholars in this regard.
Author Pieter G.R. De VilliersSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3465More Less
This article analyses aesthetics and mysticism in the writings of Albert Geyser, the prominent South African theologian who is mostly known for his brave, uncompromising struggle against the apartheid system. In the first part of the article, brief introductory comments are made about Geyser's theological and political role in South Africa in the light of his Protestant context and his opposition to apartheid. It is then investigated how his reputation as a Biblical scholar and his protracted, much publicised stance against apartheid obfuscate his remarkable interest in aesthetics and mysticism and explains why his other theological interests and especially his interest in mysticism have not yet been researched. In the second part of the paper Geyser's mystical interests are investigated by analysing his comments on church architecture, worship, music, liturgy and his pioneering translation of Thomas á Kempis' Imitatio Christi.
Theology in the flesh - embodied sensing, consciousness and the mapping of the body : original researchAuthor Jacob MeiringSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3429More Less
Flowing from his model for a contemporary theological anthropology as embodied sensing, the author focuses on the corporeal-linguistic turn in the 21st century and explores how his use of bodymapping, as an applied aspect of theological anthropology within the context of narrative therapy, intersects with the work of the neuro-scientist, Antonio Damasio on consciousness, and specifically his research on how the brain constantly maps the body in the brain. The author also explores the notion of sensing in the latest book of the Irish philosopher Richard Kearney and based on this, expands his model for theological anthropology to the embodied sensing of meaning.
Re-visiting the notion of Deep Incarnation in light of 1 Corinthians 15:28 and emergence theory : original researchAuthor Wessel BentleySource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –8 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3425More Less
Niels Hendrik Gregersen's 'Deep Incarnation' is opening up possibilities for engagement between science and theology. Recent discoveries, like that of Homo naledi, raise questions about how inclusive a Christian doctrine of Incarnation is. Is Jesus only God incarnate for Homo sapien sapiens, or is the incarnation inclusive of preceding hominid species as well? Does the incarnation stretch beyond the hominid line? This chapter engages Gregersen's understanding of Deep Incarnation in light of 1 Corinthians 15:28 and emergence theory. It proposes that there is a direct correlation between worldview and how we believe in the inclusive nature of divine incarnation.
How to expect God's reign to come : from Jesus' through the ecclesial to the cosmic body : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –11 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3380More Less
This study seeks to articulate the universality of the eschatological expectation, in its specifically Christian form, by interpreting it from the perspective of a radical embodiment. This can be understood in a twofold manner. Firstly, the mysterious reality of the eschatological reign of God is rooted in - and thus can be more adequately grasped through the lens of - Jesus' own body seen as distinct yet not separate from his risen body and, mutatis mutandis, from his extended body, both ecclesial and cosmic. Secondly, for the eschatological expectation to be lived out in an incarnational way, it must be 'enfleshed' in actions aimed at social and ecological liberation.
The article consists of four sections. Firstly, we explain in what sense body - and more specifically Jesus' body - is used in our analysis as a hermeneutic key to notions such as 'risen body', 'spiritual body', 'extended body', 'social body', 'ecclesial body', 'cosmic body', basar/kol basar ('flesh'/'all flesh'), and 'life'. Then, the universality of the eschatological expectation is being articulated on two levels, namely, (1) with regard to the social, and in particular the ecclesial, body, and (2) with regard to the cosmic body, with ecological implications inherent in such perspective. Finally, we close the loop by briefly revisiting the notion of Jesus' body.
Author Daniel P. VeldsmanSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3388More Less
The new hominin fossil called Homo naledi that was discovered 2 years ago in the Dinaledi Chamber (South Africa) was welcomed into the species of human relatives on 10 September 2015. Welcomed? Representing at least 15 individuals with most skeletal elements repeated multiple times, this is the largest assemblage of a single species of hominins yet discovered in Africa. Do, however, these bones represent a new Homo species? It is this question that I have tried to capture in my playful grammatically incorrect title 'Welc(ho)mo Naledi'! However, it is not this question that I will endeavour to answer, but a very different theological implication. My aim in this article is definitely not to argue an opinion on the diverse question regarding the discovery of the fossil skeletons from the Dinaledi Chamber. My aim is related but different, much more modest, restricted and focused. It is to ask 'on the other historic side' (that is, beyond the fossil record!) of Naledi about human distinctiveness and symbolic behaviour, specifically on soteriology. Within the broader contemporary philosophical-theological discourses on anthropology and specifically the fundamental question, 'Are we special?', I would like ultimately to take on the intriguing theological implications for soteriology from the Naledi (and earlier) findings.
Author Gideon R. KotzeSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3271More Less
This study investigates the literary references to orphans in writings amongst the Qumran texts that were written in Hebrew and can be associated with the sectarian Qumran movement. The study focuses on passages where forms of the word יתרם are used. These include the Damascus Document (CD 6:16-17), Hodayot (1QHa 13:22) and Barkhi Nafshia (4Q434 1 i 2). The investigation concludes that the references to orphans in these passages do not have the same rhetorical functions. In CD 6, the wordings of authoritative scriptures are adapted to portray orphans and widows as the victims of wrongdoing. In 1QHa and 4Q434, however, orphans are mentioned in hymns that praise the Lord's positive treatment of needy people.
Author Johann CookSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v27i4.3280More Less
This article will analyse a number of Dead Sea manuscripts and/or fragments in order to determine their linguistic and exegetical value. The article will, firstly, address textual material that is largely in agreement with the Massoretic Text - 1QIsaa is a case in point. Secondly, fragments that are seemingly less relevant will be discussed. The less helpful fragments from the Biblical books Proverbs and Job are taken as examples. Finally, highly significant textual differences, such as a fragment from Genesis 1 and one from the complicated books of Jeremiah, will be evaluated.
Author Pieter M. VenterSource: HTS : Theological Studies 72, pp 1 –9 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i4.3259More Less
The Hebrew Bible is quoted and alluded to in 4QInstruction. There is an obvious similarity between the way the raz nihyeh of 4QInstruction and Lady Wisdom in Proverbs 8 function. This intertextual study investigates this phenomenon by comparing 4Q416 2 III 8-21 and 4Q417 1 I with Proverbs 8:12-21 and 8:22-31. It is concluded that apocalyptic influence changed the character of Lady Wisdom but not her essential function.