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- Volume 16, Issue 1, 2002
South African Journal of Higher Education - Volume 16, Issue 1, 2002
Volumes & issues
Volume 16, Issue 1, 2002
Author H. AltSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 9 –14 (2002)More Less
Increasing globalisation of higher education and the consequent extension of "competition" beyond regional and national boundaries will make it inevitable for South African higher education institutions to look at practice in other countries to inform their decisions. In order to understand the potential impact of international benchmarking on South African institutions, it is important to explore the future role of benchmarking on the international level. In this regard, examples of transnational benchmarking activities will be considered. As a result of the involvement of South African institutions in its projects, this will include the activities of the International Benchmarking Club (CHEMS). The conception of benchmarking as well as the factors that influence the potential take-up of benchmarking in higher education systems will furthermore be clarified. It is also important to take into account the systemic factors that encourage/inhibit benchmarking.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 15 –21 (2002)More Less
The higher education sector in South Africa has been characterised by a myriad of changes in recent years. One such a change is the expansion of private higher education which, in most cases, is a consequence of internationalisation. Internationalisation manifests itself in various ways, ranging from inter-institutional co-operation to agency agreements. This article strives to highlight the important role that internationalisation can play in facilitating partnerships between higher education institutions across continents. To achieve this objective, literature on partnerships in higher education was studied. An example of a partnership between a university in South Africa and a university in the United States of America will be provided as authentic evidence that, assuming the notion of "partnering", internationalisation could significantly contribute to the provision of university education. Although it has only been running for three years, the case study is provided to enable readers to critically determine the feasibility of forging partnerships at the intercontinental level.
South African legislation on limiting private and foreign higher education : protecting the public or ignoring globalisation?Author E. BitzerSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 22 –28 (2002)More Less
In October 2000 legislation was passed by the National Assembly to amend the Higher Education Act (Act 101 of 1997). A number of the amendments were aimed at limiting the operations of private and foreign higher education institutions in South Africa. Good arguments exist for the legislation as accepted, but questions are also being raised as to whether the amended Act might represent some form of protectionism, allowing certain local higher education institutions to continue with weak programmes and practices instead of allowing open competition to challenge and eliminate weaknesses. Questions are also being asked about depriving students of opportunities and choices in an increasingly globalised economy. The article introduces a link to the concept of globalisation by indicating how global financial markets impact on developing countries. It then explores the globalisation phenomenon as it impacts on education in general and higher education in particular. Against a backdrop of the factors leading to closer regulation of private and foreign higher education, the article discusses its implications and points towards certain alternative avenues that might protect "consumers" of higher education on the one hand but also promote healthy competition and co-operation for improved quality in higher education in South Africa.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 29 –35 (2002)More Less
The international communications network is both a feature of globalization and a condition of possibility for the process of globalization. Universities are willy-nilly part of the process. This poses a range of dilemmas for universities in Africa. In this article we focus on some dilemmas of distributive justice as indicated in the question: Should South African universities introduce or develop on-line learning for flexible mode delivery under circumstances in which some students do not have access to Information Communication Technologies (ICTs)? Walzer's account of distributive justice provides an illuminating set of concepts for understanding the issues embedded in this dilemma. The concepts of simple and complex equality, and the related concepts of dominance and monopoly, social goods and the criteria for their distribution are especially pertinent. They are deployed to develop some tentative recommendations on how South African universities should approach dilemmas of distributive justice in the use of ICTs.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 36 –40 (2002)More Less
Although the concept of globalisation is embedded in the economic field, it is not foreign to education in view of the fact that economic growth leans heavily on current research trends. The concept includes important factors like the free flow of information, diminishing boundaries, culture, language and the biggest commodities - knowledge and technology. Within these factors the role of higher education needs to be clearly outlined, seeing that these factors contain far reaching implications and consequences. One example centers around the lack of clarity in areas like copyright that are brought about by the free flow of information. Knowledge ownership and sharing, commodities whose origin used to be valued and respected in the paper era, have become blurred in the electronic age. Culture and language are central in the debate on globalisation because as boundaries diminish it is crucial that different cultures come together. The degree to which such an expectation is feasible remains to be explored in higher education. Consequences like internationalization, SADC protocol and economic concerns emerge, as the world becomes boundless. These issues will be discussed in detail in the article. Globalisation in Higher Education has the potential to play a significant role in deepening our perceptions of culture and sense of understanding of what our responsibilities are as players in the global village. Higher education institutions, as leaders in the creation and utilisation of knowledge, are well placed to engender a research climate that will open opportunities for social and economic innovation in the country.
Globalisation and employment equity - implications for academic human resource development in South African higher educationSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 41 –47 (2002)More Less
Globalisation poses a challenge to higher education systems internationally, but especially so in developing countries, since institutions of developed countries market seriously amongst students of developing countries. South African higher education institutions have to position themselves for this external ``threat'', but have to simultaneously deal with an even bigger internal challenge after six years of democracy - the academic staff of a majority of South African higher education institutions still consists mainly of white males. Government has made it clear that employment equity in the higher education sector is a high priority. This article suggests that an accelerated evolutionary process should be utilised in attaining employment equity, as probably the only realistic option to maintain a competitive edge in a globalised higher education environment.
Author S.M. HoltzhausenSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 48 –52 (2002)More Less
The power of knowledge in the new millennium is unavoidable ± information technology leaders know it, higher education futurists see it, and business/industry leaders experience it. In this rapidly emerging knowledge society there are diverse types of knowledge such as information and communication technologies, for example microprocessors, computers, telecommunications, opto-electronics, etc. Although developed countries have the capacity to deal with this techno-economic shift to a knowledge-based society, developing countries such as South Africa find it difficult to cope due to the lack of technological capacity as well as prominent socio-economical and educational problems. Therefore, establishing and maintaining higher education institutions of international quality become increasingly difficult and complex. One of the questions to be answered which will determine the proactive role for survival is the following: Should knowledge always be globalised or should developing countries first conform to the demands of Africanised knowledge?
Author G.D. KamperSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 53 –59 (2002)More Less
The Education and Training Protocol of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and its implications for regional cooperation in the provision of higher education in South Africa are discussed. The article firstly deals with trends in regional cooperation in the provision of higher education as these are evident from developments in Europe, South East Asia, North America and Sub-Saharan Africa. Some pertinent preconditions for the regionalisation of higher education (RHE) are stated. The SADC Protocol on Education and Training is subsequently discussed by giving attention to its principles and objectives, and its organisational arrangements regarding tuition and research. Pertinent strengths and weaknesses of the Protocol are identified. The article closes with some guidelines on the regionalisation <i>vis-à-vis</i> globalisation of higher education in the Southern African region.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 60 –66 (2002)More Less
For higher education the globalisation of the economy and working life means increasing competition for resources, students and status. Today, as new forms of knowledge production are gaining ground, universities no longer hold the monopoly on scientific research and knowledge. This article seeks to chart appropriate strategies for the university of the 21st century. First it explores early and recent changes in higher education, such as the massification of higher education, various drifts affecting universities and harmonisation of the European degree structures. The globalisation of the market economy has meant changes in the survival strategies of universities and their research policies. Is it possible simultaneously to maintain excellence in research and in teaching? One of the challenges lies in providing high-quality education in the new fields without weakening the more traditional disciplines. One survival strategy could be to merge, another to specialise in few chosen fields. The article also ponders over the value of academic degrees in the future and concludes with a look at future prospects for the role and mission of the university.
Challenges for higher education transformation in South Africa : integrating the local and the globalAuthor L. Le GrangeSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 67 –73 (2002)More Less
Higher education in South Africa is faced with an important challenge, how it will cope with the tension between the universal claims of global science on the one hand, and on the other the equally compelling claims to recover the African past (Scott 1997:18). In this article I explore how this challenge might be taken up, by arguing that Western knowledge systems and Indigenous knowledge systems can work together if the representational aspect of knowledge is de-emphasised and the performative side of knowledge is emphasised. I use Turnbull's (1997) ideas of performativity and spatiality to show how seemingly disparate knowledge traditions might be able to be performed together within local knowledge spaces. I point out that although globalisation has homogenising tendencies it also opens up spaces for new identities and the contestation of established values and norms (Stromquist & Monkman 2000). In a socially distributed knowledge system partnerships between higher education institutions and indigenous peoples might create new knowledge spaces which could have transformative effects for academics and indigenous communities.
Author N. NkopodiSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 74 –81 (2002)More Less
Much has been written about the impact of globalisation in the corporate world. Most of those involved in the corporate world are aware of the impact of globalisation on their business activities and are taking required precautions. Actions followed include mergers, acquisitions and strategic alliances. These actions are aimed at ensuring their survival and profits in the face of increasing competition. In contrast, institutions of higher education in South Africa are lagging behind in this regard. The decline in student numbers and cut in government subsidy make it necessary for these institutions to examine the private sector for strategies aimed at protecting their survival and profits. This article touches on activities often encountered in the corporate world and suggests that institutions of higher learning can learn from these actions. The purpose of this article is to impress on the reader that globalisation has increased competition and that, in order to survive in a competitive market, higher education institutions must improve and sustain their competitiveness. Other public institutions and government departments are rising to the challenge and those involved in higher education should do likewise.
Globalising and internationalising the higher education sector : challenges and contradictions in less industrialised countriesAuthor I.M. NtshoeSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 82 –90 (2002)More Less
The increasing shift towards globalisation, internationalisation, marketisation and managerialism in Higher Education (HE) in Advanced Industrialised Countries (AICs) and in general, and in Less Industrialised Countries (LICs) in particular, is examined. The post-apartheid case of South Africa is used as an example of these processes in LICs. It contests the impacts and influences of increasing managerialism, the introduction and domination of the discourse and language of business in HE, emphasis on public accountability, creation of quasi-market HE sector, gradual move away from institutional autonomy, collegiate culture towards entrepreneurial and academic capitalism culture in HE in general, and in post-apartheid in particular. It further examines issues of equity, redress, social justice and social reconstruction and development in relation to globalisation, marketisation and internationalisation in HE in LICs. It is concluded that the HE sector in LICs is shaped by worldwide structural adjustments, which HE must respond to, however, intra-state and intra-institutional competition creates a situation where the rich sections of communities and historically advantaged institutions become richer, and poor ones poorer. It concludes that historical inequitable allocation of resources to HE within nation-states tend to entrench and reproduce inequalities because HLIs have no capacity to diversify their funding base, to become entrepreneurial and capitalist institutions. It is therefore concluded that, while globalisation and managerialism have had negative effects on HE, many institutions have not been able to respond to these challenges.
Author A.H. StrydomSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 91 –98 (2002)More Less
Globalisation and its impact on higher education will be discussed, while globalisation as a critical external influence on the South African higher education system in its development towards a national higher education system will also be explained. The establishment and development of higher education as a field of study are described as being critical in understanding globalisation in relation to national planning in higher education.<BR> The implementation of the ambitious National Plan for Higher Education of the Department of Education expects the unstinting commitment and scientific work of all constituencies to be successful. It is argued that reliable support of the National Plan should also be in the form of developing, establishing and implementing learning programmes of high quality in higher education studies as the basis for research into higher education.<BR> The field of higher studies is then discussed with specific reference to the position and standing of higher education studies in South Africa.<BR> Finally, critical comments and observations on higher education studies in South Africa that might lead to quality growth in the research and learning programmes of this field of study are shared.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 99 –105 (2002)More Less
The modernist drive for order contrasts with the post-modern acceptance of pluralism. The world finds itself in a crisis of difference, and we can no longer count on a harmonious society that embraces a dominant status quo with its values. Globalisation as an organising principle seems to contradict the complexity of a postmodern world. This article examines the discourse of globalisation and its effect on higher education and the curriculum. It does so by deconstructing the language of globalisation by subjecting it to a postmodern reading to reveal underlying power relations. The intention is not to oppose or subvert globalisation as a grand narrative, but to try and open up new ways of understanding globalisation.
Does the restructuring of higher education in an era of globalisation create space for communitarian liberalism?Author Y. WaghidSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 106 –112 (2002)More Less
My intention is to explore the possibilities of communitarian liberalism within the restructuring of higher education in an era of globalisation. Globalisation is an essentially contested term that is often read as embracing notions of atomistic liberalism, including a preference for the market and the entrepreneurial (individualist) self. In this article I argue, firstly, that restructuring higher education in an era of globalisation does engender possibilities for communitarian liberalism and, secondly, that communitarian liberalism can contribute towards deepening democracy at higher education institutions.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 113 –121 (2002)More Less
International co-operation in the pursuit and advancement of education aimed at producing citizens who are able to cope with change and contribute to national and international economies, may no longer be ignored. In preparing for its most recent curriculum review, the University of the Free State (UFS) School of Medicine borrowed extensively from well-known international models of medical education. This move implied a shift from lecture-based education to more innovative teaching and learning strategies. In international terms, the inclusion of personal, transferable skills in a learning programme for medical students represents a major step in the direction of fulfilling the requirements of accountability and quality, as specified by the World Federation on Medical Education. However, modelling on international examples is potentially problematic for a developing country such as South Africa. Limited resources and well-established theories on what medical education should entail, influence the process of change. This article focuses on the practicalities of implementing policy intentions with regard to the incorporation of skills in the new curriculum. It consists of various snapshots of actions taken and reflection upon the effects of those actions. Problems that were encountered reinforce the idea that caution should be applied when extrapolating the experience of one institution to that of another.
Perceptions of quality teaching and learning as indicators for staff development aimed at experienced academicsAuthor A.S. Coetzee-Van RooySource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 122 –135 (2002)More Less
In many ways, the Vaal Triangle Technikon is a typical South African institution. Global and local changes have impacted the institution and it has been transformed dramatically during the past decade. Amidst these changes, providing quality teaching and learning remained the key performance area for academic members of staff. Considering these changing contexts, this article wants to explore how an understanding of perceptions of quality teaching and learning can improve staff development aimed at experienced academics at the Vaal Triangle Technikon. Very little academic staff development efforts are directed at experienced academics working at the Vaal Triangle Technikon. If one argues that experienced academics is a resource to the institution because they are able to maintain quality teaching and learning in the midst of accelerated transformation, then more attention must be afforded to their development. It is argued in this article that understanding perceptions of quality teaching and learning held by experienced academics could be used to provide indicators for more relevant academic staff development aimed at this valuable group of staff.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 136 –144 (2002)More Less
The value of higher education has traditionally not been exposed to and determined by market forces. Academic work has for centuries been deemed part of the creative domain and for that reason immeasurable. In South Africa, as in many countries abroad, public and political pressure on higher education institutions for accountability has burgeoned. The introduction of outcomes based education has further focussed the attention on what institutions deliver. In a global labour market the question of comparability has become increasingly relevant. This article reports on action research in the development of a job evaluation system for academic work, based on JE Manager, a local product, and also compares this system to Higher Education Role Analysis (HERA), a similar product developed by the Education Competences Consortium especially for the higher education sector in the United Kingdom.
Reflexive competence and the construction of meaning : the contribution of higher theological studies in a globalised milieuAuthor M. KareckiSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 16, pp 145 –151 (2002)More Less
Globalised systems often reflect an array of ambivalent values. Persons participating in such systems need a strong sense of personal identity and the ability to have a deeper sense of meaning in their lives. Higher theological education that has a strong emphasis on reflexive competence can help learners to constructing meaning and hence enable them to participate in a globalised milieu with confidence. In this article we examine the value of using a reflective journal to enable learners to grow in their ability to integrate what they learn into their lives so that they can grow not only in knowledge, but in wisdom.