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- Volume 19, Issue 5, 2005
South African Journal of Higher Education - Volume 19, Issue 5, 2005
Volumes & issues
Volume 19, Issue 5, 2005
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 853 –862 (2005)More Less
This article describes and evaluates two different teaching-learning approaches during pulmonary practicals in physiology. The one experimental group of students did the practical according to the conventional method used in the past, where students were more passive in the teaching-learning environment. The teaching-learning strategy for the other experimental group was designed to stimulate more active learning in students. A quantitative study by means of a questionnaire, as well as a qualitative study by means of interviews, determined the students' responses on five different variables that contained the key concepts of the objectives of this research. A statistical analysis of the results indicates that when students are actively involved in the teaching-learning process, they enhance their ability to use cognitive skills such as interpretation, judgement and problem-solving skills. The results also underline the importance of an active approach towards practical work and emphasis ideas such as group work, co-operation, full participation, small group discussions and the scientific work method.
Realities of a foundation programme implemented as a vehicle to align learners cognitively for entry into a National Diploma in Information and Communication TechnologySource: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 863 –879 (2005)More Less
The skills gap in formally trained black and coloured information and communication technology (ICT) professionals is in part a reflection of the social and historical injustices of past political policies. Furthermore, the current funding formula challenges higher education institutions to improve throughput rates, while providing a skilled labour force. The Vaal University of Technology (VUT) has experienced unacceptably low pass rates in the subject Programming I over five years (2000-2004). The VUT introduced an entry-level certificate in ICT during 2003 in order to widen access, to improve pass rates for Programming 1 and to provide articulation for a diversity of learners into the Higher Diploma in ICT. This article shows that access was indeed widened while the added curriculum had a positive impact on the learners' cognitive skills. Importantly, the results show that the English proficiency module had a positive correlation with the Programming 1 module, but that no significant correlation exists between the Mathematics module and the Programming 1 module.
An assessment model in outcomes-based education and training (OBET) for health sciences and technology in South AfricaSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 880 –899 (2005)More Less
The study addresses a concern in higher education and specifically in health sciences and technology regarding integrated and authentic assessment with an outcomes-based approach. Interviews were conducted with head-hunted academics in health sciences and technology. From the information generated, an assessment model is proposed for application in health sciences and technology. By applying the Delphi technique, a validated assessment model is presented for assessment in outcomes-based education and training (OBET) in health sciences and technology. The process and product of the research should add value to the assessment of learning in the outcomes-based approach in higher education with specific reference to health sciences and technology.
Author P.M. MaponyaSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 900 –911 (2005)More Less
As with all organisations, higher education institutions today also face a number of challenges that require strategies to be developed in order to remain at the forefront. To respond to issues affecting them, higher education institutions need the knowledge, experience and expertise of the academic staff. As the creation and dissemination of knowledge is the centre of focus in higher education institutions, effective knowledge sharing within the parent institution becomes critical. However, this process does not prevail in most higher education institutions. Much knowledge is embedded in various faculties, schools, departments and individual academic staff. These internal structures exist and operate as disparate entities. And as such, they disconnect academics from each other and the knowledge that is created often goes unnoticed. Ensuring that what is known in one part of the institution is available to all faculties, schools and departments will help academics to learn from each other and to become efficient and effective in their core activities. This article argues that, in order for higher education institutions to improve academic excellence and innovation in research, they need to recognise and value the knowledge created within and to encourage the sharing of best practices, lessons learned and knowledge among academic staff. The article examines the dynamics of knowledge sharing, and also how trust and organisational culture inhibits the sharing of knowledge within higher education.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 912 –930 (2005)More Less
Global changes in the twenty first century have brought about major challenges for higher education institutions. Many employees at higher education institutions experience these changes as stressors that can impede their professional growth and <I>work wellness</I>. The <I>aim</I> of this study was therefore to investigate the experiences of employees of their work wellness at a South African Higher Education Institution. A <I>qualitative</I> research design was used. Participants were included in the research through availability sampling. Data were collected by means of focus group interviews until a point of saturation. Audiotapes of the interviews were transcribed and followed by descriptive data analysis. This article reports the five themes that became evident. Based on the results, recommendations to enhance the growth and wellness of employees in Higher Education are also presented.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 931 –942 (2005)More Less
Can corporate moral degeneration be countered through higher education? In the wake of reported unethical conduct of corporations and multinationals worldwide this article explores the challenges facing ethics education in the world of accountants and business leaders. A short overview is provided with regard to the development of and relationship between ethics and corporate governance in South Africa. Legislation, codes of ethics and regulatory frameworks do, however, not seem to provide sufficient guarantees that corporations will abide by them. Cognisance of the latest legislation is already a part of the curriculum of all Master of Business Administration (MBA), ?? (CTA) graduates and business degrees. Yet, it does not seem to stop corporate moral degeneration. <BR>The role higher education can play to prepare business and corporate leaders for ethical, responsible and sustainable business practices are investigated. Any educational strategy not taking into account the paradoxes and complexities which accountants and business leaders face will be in vain. Teaching accountability and ethical conduct, therefore, needs to be critical of the meta-narratives in society in their shaping of the value-systems of individuals and corporations.
Author B. SmutsSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 943 –955 (2005)More Less
New approaches and teaching methods in Higher Education call for a variety of measures to evaluate their effectiveness, particularly where student demography is also changing and language assumes added importance. Student rating instruments have proved valuable in obtaining systematic feedback on students' experiences of teaching and of courses but hold some disadvantages. This article describes the use of small group class interviews, also known as Small Group Instructional Diagnosis (SGID), as a useful adjunct to student ratings. Although time intensive, this model holds numerous advantages. It acknowledges the value of student opinion and offers opportunities for dialogue about teaching and learning. Lecturers benefit as they are partners in planning the evaluation and in implementing and monitoring the effects of changes introduced. A lasting value of Small Group Instructional Diagnosis lies in the promotion of a culture of reflection on teaching and learning issues by both students and teaching staff.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 956 –968 (2005)More Less
This article reports on the processes and challenges of constructing an outcomes-based assessment tool in first year university Management tutorials that would meet the following criteria: (1) provide students with constructive feedback that would guide their future performance (2) not demand excessive effort on the part of the tutor to be effective (3) address the demand for fairness. Students and tutor evaluations suggested that the tool developed, met the first two criteria successfully. Achieving the third criterion proved challenging for two reasons: (1) the difficulties involved in making the assessment criteria explicit and (2) the inconsistency across tutors when converting the criterion-referenced performance indicators into norm-referenced percentages. Further research is needed to address the challenges posed in achieving the criterion of fairness.
Author D. Van LillSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 969 –989 (2005)More Less
Globalisation has moved the South African tourism, hospitality and sport industries into a complex business environment with the competitive edge being defined in terms of service and value for money. These industries increasingly judge graduate qualities by conceptual, operational and especially emotional expertise. Higher education, on the other hand, demands improved graduate yield and research outputs. This scenario necessitates that universities provide education and training in this field to redefine their traditional graduate profile. The study examined how access criteria, emotional intelligence and academic success define highly soughtafter graduates. A multivariate competency model, explaining 84 per cent of the total variability, was developed based on a sample of 119 first-year Hospitality Management students enrolled at the Central University of Technology. Academic achievement explained 58 per cent and emotional intelligence 16 per cent of the variance. Student performance was classified into four groups and predicted with 80 per cent accuracy. Finally, specific emotional intelligence competencies were closely associated with highly performing graduates. While only 36 per cent of students seem to be top performers, the model provides guidelines on proactively identifying underperformers and the key academic success and emotional intelligence areas to improve the overall performance of first-year Hospitality Management students.
'Becoming like us' : global discourses, local knowledge and social struggle in comparative African higher educationAuthor E. WeberSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 990 –1001 (2005)More Less
The article critically reviews global discourses in the academic writing on comparative education dealing with the crises in African higher education. Several analyses explain how the struggling education systems can overcome obstacles and join the modern world in accordance with Western developmental models. One of the most common methodologies used to analyse comparative higher education employs the nation state as the main analytic unit. We might learn about how government policies influence reform at tertiary institutions, or how the university structure of one country compares with another; but little about the problematic impact of globalisation on the patterns observed at the national levels. Informed by writing on postcolonialism, the article proposes alternatives to the current literature: it advocates the development of critical knowledge systems and independent institutions, rooted in local societies and social struggles.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 19, pp 1002 –1019 (2005)More Less
This article will discuss the findings from an analysis of focus group interviews held with former Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Foundation Programme students, in which they were asked to elaborate on their experience of the foundation programme. The data analysis revealed that the foundation programme has a far-reaching effect on all aspects of the students' lives and not only on their academic performance. Results from a longitudinal study show that students who complete a foundation year do tend to perform better in later degree studies than directly admitted students with similar academic profiles. However, this research has highlighted the fact that the students themselves place a high value on the <I>non-academic</I> benefits of the course. The link between academic and life skills development will be explored and recommendations emanating from the findings will be made for the future design of foundation programmes.