- A-Z Publications
- South African Journal of Higher Education
- Previous Issues
- Volume 21, Issue 5, 2007
South African Journal of Higher Education - Volume 21, Issue 5, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 21, Issue 5, 2007
Author Paul SmeyersSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 415 –426 (2007)More Less
This article starts with characterizing the climate in which institutions of higher education operate nowadays. It sketches briefly how this is different from the modern university as conceptualized by Von Humboldt. Following attention is given to those positions which have been critical of the recent developments. It is then asked whether there is something that researchers working in the area of education can do. It is argued that besides philosophy of education, a reflection on educational research itself may be helpful to put the task of higher education in perspective. Philosophy of educational research will help to see the different aspects that are involved in doing research. This is consistent with, though much more limited than, the position Ricken developed, that is, to reformulate the idea of the university from the perspective of knowledge. Finally it is argued that this may presuppose a partial return to the idea of scholars and scholarship and to reappraise the importance of concepts and theories in doing research.
Author M.J. BezuidenhoutSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 427 –440 (2007)More Less
Quality assurance in medical education is a complex matter. Institutions and external critics of accreditation processes often question the objectivity of peer judgements. Members of accreditation panels similarly often feel at a loss for a lack of mechanisms to help them arrive at a collective assessment of the performance of an institution. In this study a measurement tool for the evaluation of medical education programmes was developed. Based on a literature study and participant observation a draft guide for accreditation visits was compiled, and used as data collection instrument in (individual and focus-group) interviews. The sample represented the three populations involved in the medical education accreditation process. The participants were positive about the value of the proposed guide. The findings indicated that a guide for accreditation reviews would render the accreditation process more objective and structured, and could start an effective developmental process in undergraduate medical education in South Africa. As the guide contains clear criteria (rubrics and scoring guide) for accreditation evaluations, no room is left for personal perspectives to bias the evaluations.
Author J.F. GraaffSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 441 –454 (2007)More Less
Sociology invites transformations among first year students which go through at least three distinct levels. At the conceptual level, three basic concepts, debunking, relativizing and system-relating, challenge public opinion modes of thinking. But students in this course go beyond explicit course examples and perform these notions in a more implicit way. While these shifts are predominantly cognitive, there are, in addition, important psychodynamic currents which underlie them. So, relativizing and the ethnographic perspective (following Gadamer) lead from angry, pathologizing projection to tolerant, theorizing empathy, from monsters to forbearance. System-relating (following Jung) entails a diminution of an inflated ego, a move from grandiose hubris to humility. Debunking and critical theory (following Fanon) relate to the change from victimhood to effectuality, from self-negation and self-negativity to initiative and positive self-identity.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 455 –467 (2007)More Less
When final year medical students reporting poor prescribing confidence were tested, key prescribing weaknesses emerged. This study aimed to characterize student variability in both the experience of and cognitive levels displayed during prescribing. Blooms Taxonomy cognitive categories were assigned to each question of a student test measuring prescribing ability. For the true / false questions, students scored highest within the lowest two cognitive categories. Results were lower for mid-ranging abilities and were lowest for the highest ranking category, 'evaluation'. For short-answer questions, the lowest and highest ranked cognitive categories produced the best (36.9%) and worst (16.6%) average results respectively. The qualitative data, gathered from student interviews with paper case treatment decisions, revealed prescribing reasoning predominating at different Bloom levels. Phenomenographic analysis exposed different shifts in prescribing conceptions, developing from the mechanistic use of medicines to considering the patient more holistically. This understanding will assist the guiding of students toward more mature prescribing conceptions.
The role of student evaluation in improving the quality of teaching and learning practices at the Central University of Technology, Free State : a case studySource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 468 –487 (2007)More Less
Worldwide there seems to be an interest in enhancing the student learning experience through particularly interactive learning, which is an educational philosophy that places the student at the centre of the learning process. Such an approach acknowledges the educational contexts from which students come. What is even more important is the fact that the learning facilitator (lecturer) is supposed to monitor the students' progress much more progressively toward achieving specific and generic objectives. However, to achieve this and to ensure that learning is maximised, it is imperative for institutions to continuously receive feedback about the quality of the learning process and experience. Consequently student evaluation has been introduced by almost all quality assurance agencies in higher education. In this article we reflect on the student evaluation system that the Central University of Technology, Free State has developed over a period of three years and discuss the findings of the research thus far.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 488 –505 (2007)More Less
This article reports on an analysis of person attributes of e-learning practitioners at the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT). Findings from a study of the latent structure of an e-learning practitioner construct, are presented to illuminate the characteristics and personal profiles of the e-learning practitioners at TUT. Rich sources of data, for example interviews, documents and archival records were tapped during the data collection phase. Various data analysis techniques were applied in an integrated manner. Synthesis of these research findings resulted in a number of distinct profiles for the different groups in the TUT population. Apart from the essential personal characteristics identified by the Personal Profile Analysis, the feedback reports from the participants reflected the configuration of relationships of the essential elements in terms of a specific pattern or profile for each respondent. Emerging patterns from the qualitative and quantitative analyses expose the 'what is' and 'what is perceived' as different patterns.
Author L. Le GrangeSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 506 –514 (2007)More Less
There has been considerable debate on the nature of scholarship over the past two decades. A key contribution to this debate is a seminal work in which Boyer (1990) articulates an expanded notion of scholarship. One of the four functions of scholarship that Boyer identifies in this expanded view of scholarship is the scholarship of integration. In this article I argue that this function is too narrowly conceived; a broader view of this construct is needed to reflect the complexity of this terrain of scholarship. I argue for a multi-dimensional model of scholarship that integrates three forms of scholarship with Boyer's four functions of scholarship. I also discuss the implications this model of scholarship has for the research university.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 515 –526 (2007)More Less
The study sought to investigate male and female roles in intimate sexual relationships and their implications for HIV / AIDS among students in institutions of Higher Education in Zimbabwe. The sample (N = 118) voluntarily participated in this study. Fifty-eight participants came from a church related university while 60 were from a state owned. Sixty-two were women while 56 were men. The survey design was used. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. Cross tabulations were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that there were no differences in the perceived male-female roles in intimate relationships between male and female students from the two universities. The majority of the respondents viewed man as initiators of sexual encounters and taking control and responsibility over sexual encounters. This scenario was seen as putting women at greater risk for HIV / AIDS. Women empowerment was strongly recommended.
Students and their presenting concerns at a Student Counselling Service at a South African universityAuthor B.M. SchreiberSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 527 –535 (2007)More Less
This article presents a summary of the concerns and the demographic data collected from clients at the Student Counselling Service (SCS) at the University of Cape Town (UCT), South Africa, during the period of March 2001 to April 2003. First-time presenting clients who are enrolled students, were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire, of which 844 were collected.
The demographic profile of the presenting students resembles the profile of the total student population at UCT with exception of graduate status and home language. More undergraduate students and more English second language speakers made use of our service. This is in line with data from other student counselling services in South Africa (Naidoo 1999; Nicholas 1997).
The results indicate that the most frequent presenting concerns amongst students are difficulties with concentration, difficulties with motivation, depression, tiredness and fatigue. Over a third of students felt that their problems are affecting them academically 'a lot'.
The results are discussed and compared to data from other university counselling services.The results of this survey contribute to formulating a meaningful response to students' concerns. In addition, the results assist in identifying vulnerable students.
Author S. SchulzeSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 536 –553 (2007)More Less
This study explores the usefulness of reflexive photography for qualitative research in the human and social sciences. The investigation was done in the context of how male academics construct their world in a university during transformation. A group of white, male academics in the human sciences were provided with a camera and were requested to take pictures of the most meaningful aspects of their work environment. Thereafter photo-elicitation interviews were conducted, transcribed and analysed. The study illustrates the usefulness of reflexive photography to determine human interpretation of interaction with the environment. Participants commented positively on and helped to identify the advantages and limitations of the technique. The research indicated that photographs have no intrinsic meaning but serve as symbols of meaning that participants explain during interviews. Content analysis, a second level of analysis that is based on the first level, is useful in some ways as indicated.
Author M. SirayiSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 554 –566 (2007)More Less
This article challenges faculties of the arts in South African institutions of higher education to place arts education at the centre of academic inquiry, scholarship discovery and broaden their narrow understanding of 'arts education'. I argue for the recognition of a broad-based 'arts education' or 'faculties of the comprehensive arts education'. Such a broad-based approach to the teaching of the arts is not limited to the arts sector, but also includes heritage, cultural management and policy, culture and urban regeneration, culture and rural development, cultural planning, culture and economic development or creative economies, citizenship and immigration, management of cultural diversity, management in entertainment, cultural law and arts education pedagogy and teacher training. The conceptualisation of arts education studies as a field of public inquiry is relatively old and has generated much literature. Thus I wish to argue here that there is good and valid ground to venture into and move towards comprehensive arts education faculties in a broadly conceived fashion.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 567 –583 (2007)More Less
Infusing an enterprising spirit into student endeavors and the promotion of entrepreneurial skills has been implemented worldwide as an impetus to promote 'technopreneurship'. This study empirically investigates entrepreneurial perceptions among non-business engineering students before and after exposure to an entrepreneurship intervention. Initially theory on this relatively new phenomenon - technopreneurship, together with existing findings on intentions, education and perceptions, is presented. After identifying salient themes and variables a hypothesis is formulated to confirm or reject the basic predictions of the research question. Based on a pretest-posttest quasi experimental design, survey data is quantitatively analysed, and findings generally indicate a significant increase in self-employment intentions. Recommendations are made in light of the empirical findings and integrated with existing conceptual findings to advance theoretical and practical developments in this relatively unexplored field.
Author Y. WaghidSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 584 –595 (2007)More Less
Over the past century our world has witnessed much uncertainty and ambivalence as a consequence of inhumane acts perpetrated against humanity such as murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, persecution on political, racial or religious grounds, war crimes (mistreatment of civilians and non-combatants as well as one's enemy in combat), and genocide (through ethnic cleansing, mass executions, rape and cruel punishment of the enemy). These 'crimes against humanity' once again require the emergence of norms which ought to govern relations among individuals in a global civil society (Benhabib 2006, 20). Drawing on the seminal ideas of Amy Gutmann (1996) and Seyla Benhabib (2006), I want to offer some ways democratic citizenship and cosmopolitanism can enhance the educational project of ensuring universal justice for all individuals and not just members of our own societies.
Firstly, I shall argue that educating for cosmopolitanism is conditional upon the cultivation of democratic citizenship, in particular showing how democratic citizenship can help us to recognise and respect every individual's claim to justice. Secondly, I shall show how cosmopolitanism can bring about the recognition of the rights claims of human beings everywhere.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 596 –609 (2007)More Less
Improving throughput in the B. Tech. Nursing Sciences programme is a complex issue as not only the theoretical but also the practical component and undefined inner strengths of the student influence success. The purpose of this article is to report factors in the prospective students' social background, their perceptions of nursing and nurses and their motivation that could influence their academic success in the first year of study. The research design was contextual, qualitative and exploratory. Triangulation of data gathering methods was obtained by using two instruments, a targeted selection interview and a written instrument. Data analysis was done through Tesch's approach. The results indicate that prospective students perceive a nurse to be functioning from the affective domain, and that they judge themselves to be strong in the affective domain. The cognitive domain was rarely mentioned (7%). Due to the myths regarding the nursing profession, the profession continue to attract students who are interested in the myth and not the reality.
Critical questions? Some responses to issues raised in relation to the national benchmark tests projectAuthor N. YeldSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 21, pp 610 –616 (2007)More Less
The project represents an attempt to provide both schooling and higher education with important information on the competencies of their exiting (in the case of schools) and entering (in the case of universities) students: information that does not duplicate the essential information delivered by the school-leaving examination, but that provides an important extra dimension.