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- Volume 25, Issue 1, 2011
South African Journal of Higher Education - Volume 25, Issue 1, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 25, Issue 1, 2011
Author Y. WaghidSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 5 –13 (2011)More Less
In the letter of invitation to the contributors to this special issue we wrote that A Pedagogy of Hope Revisited would be a collection of articles by members of the Faculty of Education at Stellenbosch University (SU). The intention was to help articulate a new vision and purpose for the Faculty's education agenda while simultaneously contributing to debates on education in South Africa. In the letter a deep yearning was also expressed for the articulation of an education for social justice - one that focuses on the lives of our students and staff as persons who will assume the ethical, political and social responsibilities of our shared national and global communities.
Author H.R. BotmanSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 14 –21 (2011)More Less
Stellenbosch University has gone through a serious engagement with the topic of a pedagogy of hope. The engagement included the initial proposal of Paulo Friere, the South American educationist, bearing the imprints of the twentieth century and the new ways in which intellectuals are revisiting the critical pedagogy of hope for the twenty first century. There are serious differences between the two efforts. However, a relevant pedagogy must be contextually designed in a clear acknowledgement of the needs and fears of all people in such a context. South Africa has a long way to go and this article is a contribution to the search of a conceptual framework to reconsider the renewal of the educational system.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 22 –40 (2011)More Less
In this article we present a conceptual framework that we have found sufficiently robust and broad-based to offer a platform for engaging with social and educational challenges in collaboration with our students and research participants. In our framework we employ aspects of the work done by Engeström (1987; 2001) in terms of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), Rule's (2004) concept of 'dialogic space', as well as the notion of 'doing reasonable hope' as developed by Weingarten (2007). We present it as our particular effort to make a contribution to reaching the millennium goals. We draw on two of the more prominent conceptual tools offered by Engeström: his mediational triangle and notion of expansive learning, as well as his metaphor of knotworking and show how hopefulness-in-action allows us the scope to maintain that our way of working is centrally about doing reasonable hope.
Author M.C. NdlovuSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 41 –55 (2011)More Less
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss how the idea of a Pedagogy of Hope is perceived, interpreted and realised at the Institute for Mathematics and Science Teaching of the University of Stellenbosch (IMSTUS). First some background information is given about the impact of the programmes which, it is argued, cannot be pinned to one Millennium Development Goal (MDG) theme. The focus then shifts to how IMSTUS adopts a pragmatic rather than theoretical interpretation of the University's vision of a pedagogy of hope by engaging in reflection-in-action to bring about redress in mathematics and science education to historically disadvantaged learners. It is concluded that the impact of the innovative interventions at the Institute turns despair into hope for learners who would otherwise have had no opportunity to realize their hopes and dreams in participating fully, as democratic citizens, in the socio-economic development of the country.
Author L.M. DreyerSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 56 –69 (2011)More Less
In South Africa, the processes of democratisation and social restructuring are inextricably linked to the debate on inclusive education. Although the debate on inclusive education originated in the disability discourse, it is increasingly viewed broader as a reform that supports and welcomes diversity. While the constitution and policy framework in the new South Africa is internationally recognised as of the most progressive regarding human rights, research shows great concerns regarding the gap between policy and implementation thereof. From a human rights and social justice perspective, education is viewed as a basic human right and the foundation for a more just and equal society. In this article I will therefore draw on Paulo Freire's (1998) notion of 'pedagogy of hope' and root my argument in his definition that hope is 'an ontological need that should be anchored in practice in order to become historical concreteness'.
Late entrants into the academic profession : conceptual constructions of hope in a faculty of EducationSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 70 –84 (2011)More Less
Professional development of generic black academic staff in South African higher education is viewed against the background of increased emphasis on open dialogue and concern for upward mobility in academe. Open dialogue and liberation create new expectations and challenges for staff. This article describes professional development of academics that embarked on advanced studies in the field of higher education. Using in-depth e-mail conversations with academic staff participating in M.Phil. and Ph.D. programmes, qualitative research was employed to explore developmental experiences. A conceptual framework emerged which reflects the context, process and outcomes of programme participation in formal higher education qualifications. The framework could be the basis for developmental strategies of academic staff - particularly in research-oriented universities with late entrants from a variety of non-traditional backgrounds. Benefits will impact on delivery of quality higher education to the student body and thus contribute to the broader transforming education context in South Africa.
Author A. FataarSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 85 –96 (2011)More Less
This article advances the notion of a 'scholarship of hope' in order to signpost one route into a generative approach to academic work. Such an approach has to proceed on the basis of a defamiliarising type of inquiry meant to challenge dominant understandings of our social world. I suggest that a defamiliarising scholarship of hope involves asking courageous and novel questions, applying methodological inventiveness, and the pursuit of the explanandum in unfamiliar spaces, accompanied by an eclectic box of analytical tools and descriptive languages. I offer this article as an example of such a scholarship of hope. It is based on a discussion of aspects of black youth subjectivity in relation to their school going. It is an attempt to unsettle predominant understandings of young lives and their school-based navigations. The article starts off with a discussion about what a scholarship of hope might entail. This is followed by some thoughts on the study of subjectivity in education. I then move to a consideration of young people's school lives in the light of their rearranged social contexts, followed, finally, by a perspective on them in the post-apartheid turnover. The main argument of this article is that a scholarship of hope ought to be based on bringing understandings of excluded communities and their perspectives and knowledges to academic consciousness. Such a scholarship is also meant to inform the critical pedagogical work of educators in school classrooms and university lecture halls.
Author N. EdwardsSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 97 –109 (2011)More Less
Teachers are the curriculum implementers in the classroom, which can become either a constraining or transformative environment. In this article Bourdieu's notion of habitus is appropriated to illustrate the transformative potential of the teacher in the classroom. Paulo Freire's problem-posing education is also utilised as it opens up the space for a dialogical encounter in the classroom. It is then suggested that argumentation as pedagogy in science education is dialogical by nature and can contribute towards social transformation. Debates about socio-scientific issues in the public domain require the skills that argumentation promotes and it is proposed that social justice pedagogy can make a contribution.
Author K.J. Van DeventerSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 110 –128 (2011)More Less
Bloch (2009, 58), a previous advocate of Outcomes-based Education (OBE), states that schooling in SA is a national disaster. Quality holistic education that includes Physical Education (PE) and school sport should be the focal point of progress in developing countries. However, PE is worldwide in a political crisis and the situation is no different in South Africa (SA). Curriculum 2005 (C2005), the first democratic curriculum, launched a total onslaught on PE by drawing on unworkable proposals form New Zealand and Australia. Life Orientation (LO), a new Subject, which accommodates PE, came with C2005. Researchers found that within the context of transformation, LO are struggling to define itself. To determine the state of PE within the context of LO, a study was conducted in selected primary and secondary schools in the Eastern Cape (EC), Free State (FS) and North-West (NW) Provinces and compared with a study previously conducted in the Western Cape Province (WC). The findings indicated that most of the schools were located in previously disadvantaged areas and that 50 per cent of the LO teachers who facilitated PE in the four provinces were not qualified in PE. The United Nations (UN) view PE and sport as an important vehicle to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). To contribute to the economic and social growth and improved public health, it is recommended that PE and school sport as very powerful transformative tools can enrich the lives of poor township learners as well as play a critical role in community upliftment.
Author A.E. CarlSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 129 –144 (2011)More Less
There are many approaches and arguments on how hope could be given to children in a society characterised by violence and conflict, hope that may contribute towards optimising their potential. This article focuses on the notion and meaning of Peace Education, what the possible link between Peace Education and a Pedagogy of Hope might be and lastly, on what the curriculum implications are for the school and the teacher. I argue that it is through relevant curriculum development that the aims of Peace Education and thus the promotion of hope, can be promoted and achieved. Schools and educators are key role-players in this process as the future of society depends on the children of today. These role-players therefore have to be enabled and empowered with appropriate skills and knowledge to achieve this vision of giving people hope.
Recognition of prior learning in promoting lifelong learning : a pedagogy of hope or a shattering of dreams?Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 145 –156 (2011)More Less
Recognition of prior learning (RPL) is an issue within the context of lifelong learning, given the (South African) issues of equity and redress, the international demands on adults to contribute to the knowledge economy, qualification inflation and increased competitiveness for knowledge workers. In the process of conscientisation and in an attempt to provide a pedagogy of hope, education could be seen by some as the panacea of all ills and RPL clearly needs to be handled with circumspection. RPL needs to be implemented ethically for it to be sustainable and to make a contribution to the individual perceptions and attainment of the Pedagogy of Hope. Integrating RPL has resulted in varied approaches: RPL can be aimed at the selection of individuals and the recognition of existing knowledge; or the transformation of individuals or knowledge in the process of assessment. This differentiation provides a useful distinction between the various functions that RPL can fulfill. In this chapter we intend to explore the potential that RPL holds as a pedagogy of hope specifically within the field of lifelong learning. We argue that the practice of RPL may facilitate or inhibit hope for adult learners in higher education.
bell hooks and the enactment of emotion in teaching and learning across boundaries : a pedagogy of hope?Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 157 –167 (2011)More Less
The notion of pedagogy of hope has been conceptualised and symbolised as a significant conciliatory and propelling vision for the University of Stellenbosch. Yet few representations of hope engage with the historical and theoretical roots of this notion. These perspectives are crucial to understand in order to provide a foundation on which to build a vision for an institution such as Stellenbosch University, given its past racialised history. This article uses bell hooks' writings on the pedagogy of hope to examine a curriculum project across the Universities of Stellenbosch and the Western Cape. hooks, like Freire, emphasises action through dialogue but also encourages acts that disrupt privilege. Her emphasis on emotional connections with the act of teaching by her creative use of autobiography in education, is another positive contribution to the Freirian conception of a pedagogy of hope. This article uses these understandings of a pedagogy of hope by bell hooks to analyse the methodology used in an interinstitutional, interdisciplinary project entitled Community, Self and Identity (CSI). A range of participatory techniques, blended learning, critical reading, theatre, art, film, workshops and presentations were used to support students to explore their own, and their colleagues' personal, social and professional identities. A specific focus will be placed on autobiography and what guest lecturers who were central to the project, were able to contribute in terms of bell hooks' notions of a pedagogy of hope.
Source: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 168 –182 (2011)More Less
Over the last three decades universities across the world have increasingly come under pressure to address inequalities. In South Africa inequalities emanate to a great extent from the country's apartheid past. It is against this background that the Vice-chancellor of Stellenbosch University commits the institution to 'education for social responsibility' and the 'application of [her] resources to the needs of local and global communities' as the university repositions itself to contribute to development and equality through what he calls a 'Pedagogy of Hope'. In this article, Prof Botman's notion of a Pedagogy of Hope is critically analised against an understanding of the Freirian notion of a Pedagogy of Hope. The authors come to the conclusion that the greatest reason to have hope for Stellenbosch University probably lies in acknowledging that Botman's 'Pedagogy of Hope' emanates from and is embedded in Freire's idea that hope alone is not sufficient. Hope only becomes meaningful when there is a commitment to move beyond rhetoric towards strategic action - to anchor hope in practice.
Author L. Le GrangeSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 25, pp 183 –189 (2011)More Less
In my review of the articles published in this issue of SAJHE I use the notion of 'after' in two senses: 'in imitation of' and 'following in time' (moving beyond) (Schad 2003, x). In the first instance I wish to assess the extent to which contributors have drawn on Paulo Freire's concept of a 'pedagogy of hope' - how their work imitates that of Freire. In the second instance I wish to examine the extent to which authors engage critically with Freire's work and perhaps help us in moving beyond Freire's ideas.
It is imperative that we maintain hope even when the harshness of reality may suggest the opposite (Freire in hooks 2003).