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- Volume 28, Issue 6, 2014
South African Journal of Higher Education - Volume 28, Issue 6, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 28, Issue 6, 2014
Revisiting innovative approaches to teaching and learning in nursing programmes : educators' experiences with the use of a case-based teaching approach at a nursing school : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursing - leading articleSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1694 –1707 (2014)More Less
Innovative approaches to teaching and learning have been acclaimed by educators in health care related professions as being more suitable to teaching future professionals, and to engendering critical thinking, as well as the competencies that are relevant to the needs of the society. This article focuses on teachers' concerns about the implementation of the case-based method of teaching at a school of nursing in the Western Cape, South Africa. Teachers involved in this method of teaching for at least two years provided qualitative data through a series of focus group discussions (4 FGDs) organised according to the different year levels of the nursing programme of the School of Nursing, so as to be able to contextualise answers to the study questions. The FGDs were followed by a one-day consensus workshop for all educators involved in case-based teaching for a shared discussion that concentrated on finding solutions for the future. Concerns raised included issues about the facilitation role of the teacher; the role of the student; curriculum alignment; assessment methods; and the role of the environment in case-based teaching and learning settings. Recommended solutions were aligned to the identified concerns.
Production and deployment of professional nurses from three nursing schools from 2005-2010 : towards strategic change in the Western Cape : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1708 –1731 (2014)More Less
The Western Cape Department of Health (WCDoH), in its Provincial Nursing Strategy of 2009, identified a shortage of nurses as a critical factor in its implementation. However, the increased student enrolment in the Western Cape continued without any research-based evidence about the deployment of nurses for service delivery. This article describes the production and deployment of professional nurses to Western Cape public health facilities for the period 2005 to 2010. A quantitative approach using an exploratory descriptive design was used during three research phases. The findings indicated that professional nurses who graduate with the four-year degree/diploma play an insignificant role in meeting the need for professional nurses in the Western Cape. From the findings, strategic direction is provided and described in order to advise policy makers about staffing professional nurses at the Western Cape public health facilities.
Prior expectations of leadership programme attendees and their subsequent reflections on completion thereof : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1732 –1749 (2014)More Less
This article describes the reflections of nursing academics on their personal expectations prior to commencement of a leadership programme and their subsequent reflections on completion of this introduction to the leadership programme. The programme aimed at developing the participants as leaders in conjunction with developing the culture of research in a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape, South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design was used. A total sample of eight nursing academics at a higher education institution (HEI) took part and narratives were written in July 2012. The results indicated active participation and involvement; development of skills and knowledge; a balance between programme and personal goals; a sense of confidence amongst attendees; the creation of a structure for growth; and critical thinking. The implication of the study was that a leadership research team has been established with clear underlying assumptions of transformative leadership in research driven by self-leadership.
Effect of increased student enrolment for a Bachelor of Nursing programme on health care service delivery : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1750 –1761 (2014)More Less
The shortage of nurses in the Western Cape province in South Africa has led to increased student enrolment for the Bachelor of Nursing programme at the University of the Western Cape (UWC) since 2004. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted between 2010 and 2012 to determine the effect of the increased nursing student enrolment on health care service delivery in the Western Cape. Nine nurse managers from public health facilities in the region participated in in-depth individual interviews and one focus group discussion was conducted with six clinical supervisors who accompanied the students in the clinical facilities. The study found both direct and indirect adverse effects on service delivery. The changing learning environment, competition for learning opportunities and limitations in terms of clinical support posed challenges for professional nurses to perform their multifaceted role which includes clinical teaching and mentoring, and affected service delivery. Therefore, careful planning of students' learning experiences in both theory and practice is imperative to ensure that teaching and learning and service delivery are not negatively affected.
Reflections of nursing students, lecturers and clinical supervisors in the Western Cape on large classes : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1762 –1775 (2014)More Less
Nursing education in the Western Cape responded to the South African higher education transformation agenda by establishing a Common Teaching Platform (CTP) for the delivery of the undergraduate nursing programme. Three universities in the region have collaborated since 2005 in the delivery of this programme. One of the universities was identified as the enrolling institution. During this period, the province experienced a shortage of nursing personnel. In response to this shortage and to transformation in the country, there was an increase in the enrolment target for the undergraduate programme offered by the three collaborating universities. Five years after the establishment of the CTP and the increased student intake, there was a need to explore the experiences of the lecturers, clinical supervisors and students regarding teaching and learning in large classes. In this article, the experiences of nursing students, clinical supervisors, and lecturers are shared and suggestions from the target groups are presented.
First-year learner nurses' perceptions of learning motivation in self-directed learning in a simulated skills laboratory at a higher education institution : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1776 –1794 (2014)More Less
Employing self-directed learning (SDL) methodologies, that are associated with improvement in the affective and psychomotor domains, could be advantageous to learner nurses. Despite the efforts to expose students to SDL in a school of nursing in the Western Cape, South Africa, the challenge remains the students' lack of self-motivation to SDL during clinical activities in the simulated skills laboratory. This article focuses on first-year learner nurses' perceptions of learning motivation (as part of a larger study) in SDL activities in a skills laboratory. An exploratory descriptive quantitative design was used. A sample of 168 respondents was selected through simple random sampling. A self-administered 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was developed. The data was gathered and then analysed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21 software. Descriptive statistics were used to present the findings. It was found that learner nurses were self-motivated to learn with some challenges during the implementation of SDL.
Contextual determinants for community-based learning programmes in nursing education in South Africa : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1795 –1813 (2014)More Less
Community-based learning (CBL) is one of the fastest growing reforms in the education of health professionals domain. This article aims to present the contextual determinants of CBL and to describe the causal conditions that led nursing education institutions (NEIs) to incorporate CBL into their curricula. A grounded theory research design was adopted. Two university-based schools of nursing were purposively selected to participate in the study and there were 16 participants. Data analysis entailed three phases, namely, open, axial and selective coding. The contextual circumstances contributing to the implementation of CBL emerged as the nature of the graduates produced from the traditional vs the new curriculum; transformation of higher education; transformation of the healthcare system; and transformation of nursing education in South Africa. CBL has emerged as a political instrument that has influenced not only a change in the country's health system but has responded to the needs of the South African population at large.
Learning styles among nursing students, the implications for higher education institutions : a systematic review : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1814 –1829 (2014)More Less
Understanding the learning styles of nursing students has been highlighted as an area in the scholarship of teaching that needs attention. The aim of this review was to determine the common learning styles of nursing students and the appropriate teaching styles needed. A search was conducted using various databases and journals for the period from 2000 to 2013. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the studies reviewed. The results are presented in a narrative. The 11 articles included in the review represented four continents and were primarily descriptive studies. The review highlighted that nursing students prefer the kinaesthetic and multimodal learning styles. Kinaesthetic learners prefer live examples and lots of interaction. Interactive and real-life experiences as teaching methodologies are the preferred methods of nursing students and are seen as a holistic approach that incorporates all of their senses of seeing, feeling, smelling, hearing and sometimes tasting.
Pursuing a corporate understanding of service-learning in nursing education : a case study : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingAuthor H. JulieSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1830 –1841 (2014)More Less
A corporate definition of service-learning (SL) could help to mainstream SL in higher education institutions (HEIs). Concepts like 'service-learning', 'community engagement' and 'community service' tend to be used interchangeably. It is thus imperative to start from a common understanding of these related concepts. Therefore, this article discusses the development of a definition of SL for a school of nursing. The democratic process of the nominal group technique (NGT) allowed the academics to discuss conflicting points openly during the consensus-seeking process. The thematic analysis, based on frequency scores, identified 'equal tri-partnership'; 'teaching and learning process'; 'reflective practitioners'; 'community needs'; 'community development'; 'shared values'; and 'community engagement' as the essential concepts to be included in the definition of SL. It can be concluded that the final SL concept list was formulated due to the academics' willingness to examine their individual practice theories with the purpose of developing a shared understanding of these concepts.
Intimate partner violence amongst undergraduate nursing students : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1842 –1860 (2014)More Less
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is reported to be rife among the student population at tertiary institutions and the general population. Yet the abuse is under diagnosed by nurses in health care settings. Research indicates that nurses' personal experiences of this type of abuse play a role in the management of survivors. Hence, this study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among the undergraduate nursing student population at a tertiary institution in the Western Cape, South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by the stratified random sample. The reported lifetime prevalence of IPV included psychological, physical, financial and sexual abuse. IPV was significantly associated with the educational status of the respondent's mother, financial support and witnessing of abuse during childhood. A support structure is thus needed to prepare the undergraduate student nurses emotionally before commencing with their training in the management of survivors of IPV.
Teaching and facilitation strategies for the professional socialisation of student nurses : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1861 –1875 (2014)More Less
A fundamental goal of the professional socialisation of student nurses is to enhance nursing conduct and quality of care. Professional socialisation requires internalisation of characteristics typical of a profession when a student nurse learns and applies knowledge, skills, norms and values. The success of professional socialisation lies in the quality of teaching and learning. The quantitative phase of a sequential mixed methods study revealed the perceptions of nurse educators regarding their role in the teaching and facilitation of professional socialisation. The study findings informed the development of guidelines to support educators in planning and implementing teaching and facilitation strategies. Strategies should incorporate values and beliefs of the nursing profession; be student centred; take cognisance of the hidden curriculum; and utilise various teaching, facilitation and assessment methods. The role of the educator in supporting students in a positive and empowering manner becomes imperative for the professional socialisation of students.
Author Y. BotmaSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1876 –1893 (2014)More Less
The nurse educators in a small sub-Saharan African country decided to change their content-driven hospital-based nursing curriculum to a competency-based curriculum (CBC) with a primary health care focus. The high burden of disease and the inability of the country to meet the Millennium Development Goals formed the basis of the decision. The author employs a case study to explain the process used to develop a CBC with the aim to reduce curriculum drift. The role players were the nurse educators, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Nurse Education Partnership Initiative (NEPI), Nurse Capacity Building Programme (ICAP), and Lesotho Nursing Council. A selected task team explained the characteristics of a CBC; facilitated the process to reach consensus on the key competences; and applied four educational principles in the process of developing the curricula. Consensus on the core competencies was reached by using the nominal group technique. Benchmarking of these competencies was done against international standards.
Debating the impact of doctoral research on the future of nursing : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingAuthor V.J. EhlersSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1894 –1907 (2014)More Less
The major obligations of universities are to teach, to do research and to provide community service. Doctoral programmes should prepare nurse leaders for the academic, service and policy-making sectors. In order to be awarded a doctoral degree by most universities, the candidate needs to satisfy the examiners that his/her thesis has made a unique and original contribution to nursing and/or the health sciences. The impact of these 'unique and original contributions' on nursing, health care services and policies should be examined. Presenting the research findings in academic and popular publications and at conferences should help to disseminate the findings. However, the implementation and evaluation of the recommendations made in the studies should also be realised in order to impact on the future of nursing.
Research development in university nursing departments in South Africa : description of a research development model : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1908 –1928 (2014)More Less
In the field of research, nursing is in a catch-up mode and the need to rapidly develop the capacity to do research that addresses the health needs of the population is being addressed by university nursing schools in South Africa. The design and implementation of the research development programme intended to surmount this problem is described in this article. The programme aimed at developing lead researchers within each nursing department to lead a research programme on a selected health topic. The focus was on the person as well as the department as the research platform. The lead researchers were assisted in: developing a research team for their programme; becoming part of an international network; working with a research mentor; submitting proposals for external funding; and preparing for National Research Foundation (NRF) rating. This was done through a series of workshops and the appointment of a mentor for each lead researcher. The programme was successful in getting lead researchers to establish research teams in their own institutions; to work with mentors; and to apply for external research funding.
Experiences of final-year nursing students at a public college of nursing regarding their preparedness to become registered nurses : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1929 –1942 (2014)More Less
The purpose of this article is to describe the experiences of final-year students at a public college of nursing in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, regarding their preparedness to become registered nurses and to recommend strategies to enhance the preparation of nursing students for transition. A qualitative, explorative and descriptive research design was utilised and a purposive sample of 27 final-year nursing students was selected to reach the objectives of the study. Unstructured focus group interviews were used for data collection. Tesch's method of qualitative data analysis was applied. The results indicated that most final-year nursing students experienced a lack of preparedness to assume the registered nurse's role with regard to certain factors, including curriculum-related aspects, equipment and library resources during their training. Some experienced adequate preparedness in relation to role competency such as patient care. Nursing students lacked confidence and expressed apprehension about meeting the performance expectations of the workplace. Therefore the identification of learning needs, their consideration, and contribution to the periodical review of the curriculum; reinstatement of clinical preceptors; standardisation of procedures; formulation of procedure manuals; and delegation of finalists for managerial duties were recommended.
Work integrated learning experiences of primary health care post-basic nursing students in clinical settings : a university of technology context : part 1 : contemporary issues in nursingSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1943 –1958 (2014)More Less
This article explores and describes primary health care (PHC) post-basic nursing students' experiences during clinical placements so as to address the challenges that are faced within the clinical settings. Work integrated learning (WIL), like in any other nursing course, is essential in PHC education as required by the South African Nursing Council (SANC). In the clinical setting, students develop clinical skills which they will need as qualified PHC practitioners. This is achieved through instruction and guidance by lecturers, mentors and clinical staff. However, the clinical learning environment can confront students with many challenges. During a qualitative study, purposive sampling selected nine students registered for Clinical Nursing Science, Health Assessment, Treatment and Care at a university. Students were placed in the clinical settings of Health Districts A and B in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted and the following five themes emerged during data analysis: shortage of staff; inadequate material/non-human resources; lack of supervision in the clinical facilities; distant clinical facilities; and insufficient practice in the clinical skills laboratory. These themes related to the challenges that students experience while engaged in their WIL placement.
Editorial : part 2 : being and belonging in South African higher education : the voices of black women academicsAuthor J.J. DivalaSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1959 –1960 (2014)More Less
Part 2 of this special issue of the South African Journal of Higher Education (SAJHE) takes stock of and reflects on black women's experiences in higher education. It focuses on black women academics. The contributions theorise on what it means to be a black woman researching and working at a higher education institution (HEI) in South Africa, given the contributors' varied backgrounds, experiences, expectations from society and colleagues, and many more. The reflections are drawn from women who started their careers as school educators. Because of the paradigms at work in HEIs, the identities, experiences and aspirations of black women academics become blurred. This is why Howard-Vital (1989) argues that failure to focus on their specific challenges would be a form of silencing that obscures and isolates them, thereby rendering them invisible and powerless.
Experiences of black women teacher educators in the South African higher education system : part 2 : being and belonging in South African higher education : the voices of black women academics - leading articleSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1961 –1971 (2014)More Less
The documenting of black women's past and current experiences within academia remains important despite the apparent opening up of opportunities for the formerly excluded. This is due to the need to confront the twin edifices of domination and marginalisation arising from the legacies of colonialism and apartheid. Within the context of discourses on transformation, it is critical to take stock of the extent to which universities have created supportive and enabling environments that take account of the diverse and unequal backgrounds of their academics - especially women. This introductory article serves to initiate aspects of the debates that inform the narratives of a group of black women academics who are university-based teacher educators and to raise questions about their positioning within tertiary institutions which remain relevant even under a democratic and inclusive dispensation.
What were they all about? Two questions that provoked different reactions and feelings : part 2 : being and belonging in South African higher education : the voices of black women academicsAuthor E.M. BothaSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1972 –1985 (2014)More Less
The poor education and lack of exposure to literature for most blacks in South Africa makes it difficult of English Second Language (ESL) speakers to cope with the demanding expectations for engaging with the level of knowledge and skills required for working in higher education. Being black, being an ESL speaker, and having to work at a higher education institution (HEI), which privileges the use of English, have combined to shape the author's identity in many ways. The author uses the theoretical framework of agency and ownership in this narrative to share episodes of her journey as a student and an academic. Perseverance and persistence enabled her to overcome the challenges she faced during her studies and to navigate the expectations in her academic career. The narrative is based on two questions: the one triggered action of agency, and the other evoked feelings of self-doubt and judgement. As a black woman and an ESL speaker, the article intends to share the author's experiences associated with overcoming those challenges and celebrating her success against all odds.
Becoming a new kind of professional : a black woman academic caught in a transition : part 2 : being and belonging in South African higher education : the voices of black women academicsAuthor S.S. MohopeSource: South African Journal of Higher Education 28, pp 1986 –1998 (2014)More Less
The post-1994 democracy in South Africa sought new policies to steer higher education institutions (HEIs) towards transformation, intended to end the segregation policies of apartheid. Although certain policies led to HEIs opening their doors to students and staff from different backgrounds and institutions, the legacy of apartheid continued to haunt, both overtly and covertly, black women academics, amongst others, as they attempted to pursue their teaching and research identities in these new contexts. It is against this background that the author explores her personal experiences as a black academic, using an auto-ethnographic qualitative method to reveal 'sensitive issues and innermost thoughts' that are not normally within reach (Chatham-Carpenter in Ngunjiri, Hernandez and Chang 2010, 17). She explores her professional position and experiences within HEIs, as these institutions grappled with issues of transformation. She describes what it was like being part of the process of moving from one university, which had been reserved for blacks' to another - one that was then a 'white' HEI. The author explores how her teacher training in a 'blacks only' university led to the kinds of knowledge and practices that in her new context either enabled or constrained her advancement. She then questions the lack of mentorship in these new contexts, and concludes by reflecting on how these experiences may assist a new generation of black women academics and help support transformation goals for HEIs in general.