The outposts in the service of the Cape Refreshment Station, 1652-1795. The outposts (buitenposten) f the VOC at the Cape, of which 57 were identified by the author, can be defined as manned, decentralised and specialised auxiliary service stations. Their functions included military guard and signal duties, the production of vegetables, timber, fuel and building materials, organising and providing transport for the headquarters, conducting trading expeditions to the Khoi and rescue operations for shipwrecked crews and cargo, collecting specimens for professors of natural history at European universities, herding the Company's cattle and sheep, and fishing. These outposts, particularly the military posts representing the vac at great distances from the Castle in the Table Valley, marked the advancing frontier and played no small part in the decline of the social and economic structures of the aboriginal Khoi. The Cape service station would not have succeeded as it did without the use of the outpost-system, as there was no other way of protecting resources against rivals than by occupying them, there was no alternative labour force, no economic structure that provided maritime services, no other system capable of handling heavy transport, no ally on the borders to share the military pressures, and (early on) no other agricultural producer, that would have enabled the Company to buy rather than to cultivate. Unfortunately the production side of the outpost-system outlived its need and led to the serious retarding of local commercial, industrial and agricultural development and marketing systems.
The establishment of the Nederlandsche Bank en Credietvereeniging in South Africa. Establishment and further perspective. The Nederlandsche Bank en Credietvereeniging was established in the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek in 1888 amidst the attempts of the government to establish a national bank in the country. Several other banks had established themselves in the country, but the ZAR government was suspicious of them because of their imperial connections. The economic situation in the ZAR was very bad after the war of 1881-1882 and the government was seeking loyal financial institutions to support the reconstruction of the ZAR. The NB en CV was established as a Netherlands bank in Amsterdam, operating in the ZAR when they failed to obtain the concession for the national bank, it was nevertheless decided to remain operative in the ZAR. The bank had difficulties with managers in the ZAR, but once the management structure was formalised and functioning effectively, the bank achieved considerable success. The bank started with capital of ï¿½200 000, of which ï¿½50 000 was issued. The bank conducted the normal commercial banking business, but cautiously avoided involvement in the speculative gold industry. Insufficient working capital hampered the bank's activities throughout the period until 1902. Capital was put at the disposal of the NB en CV by its Amsterdam Management, but even that did not fully relieve the shortage of capital. By 1902 the bank had four branches in the ZAR and showed a comparatively higher annual compound growth in its deposits and loans and advances than the far bigger Standard Bank. The war caused the British authorities to ban the NB en CV Chief Agent from the Transvaal, but after 1902 the bank was allowed to continue its operations, although on a restricted basis.
The Reverend Archibald Lamont -Champion of the Underdog. The Reverend Archibald Lamont dedicated his whole life to improving the position of the underdog, irrespective of his religion, class or race. To him people were merely people and therefore during his term as city councillor he campaigned to improve the position of Durban's underdogs: the white labourers, the Indians and the blacks. Lamont considered racial discrimination against the Indians and blacks especially unacceptable since it clashed with his religious beliefs and his trust in British Justice, a view which did not endear him to most of the Durban whites, who regarded him as too liberal, and which resulted in his defeat during the provincial and parliamentary elections of 1927 and 1929. Lamont's election in 1929 as Durban's mayor therefore came as a surprise. In fact, his election was part of the city council's campaign to end an effective black boycott of the municipal beer halls. This boycott was a result of the blacks' dissatisfaction with the harsh municipal administration. By electing a more liberal person, such as Lamont, as mayor it was hoped to give credibility to the municipality's attempt to end the boycott by following an ambiguous policy of reform and oppression. However, instead of being a mere ceremonial figure, Lamont had his own ideas on reform and justice and during his three years as mayor he succeeded to some extent in improving the position of the blacks. This also brought him into conflict with the city council, The Natal Mercury, and most of the Durban whites, who viewed his efforts on behalf of the blacks with suspicion. Eventually Lamont was defeated in his bid for a fourth term as mayor and the city council subsequently took a more conservative stand on racial issues. In recognition of his efforts to improve the circumstances of the blacks, the new Umlazi black township was named Lamont township (today Lamontville) on black demand. Lamont also received recognition from the white workers of Durban who, as a result of his efforts to improve their economic position, elected him as a member of the provincial council for Greyville in 1932.