Historia - Volume 37, Issue 2, 1992
Volumes & issues
Volume 37, Issue 2, 1992
Meester van die parallel : 'n huldeblyk aan professor F.A. van Jaarsveld met sy sewentigste verjaarsdagAuthor Johann TempelhoffSource: Historia 37, pp 3 –12 (1992)More Less
Master of the parallel: a tribute to Professor F.A. van Jaarsveld on his seventieth birthday. During a career spanning almost a half a century, Professor F.A. van Jaarsveld frequently made use of the parallel technique to clarify history. In essence, parallelism suggests an investigation to find similarities between events. In terms of Descartian understanding, it is accepted that the results of investigation are determined by the way in which the observer perceives reality. Although there are no historical laws, there are indications of similarities in the history of mankind over the course of time. Professor van Jaarsveld uses this parallel technique particularly in his critical, comparative historiography. In these studies, this technique enabled him to identify the different schools of historical writing in South Africa. In the sphere of methodology he emphasised the need for the practice of contemporary history. With a knowledge of the past, it is possible for the historian to understand the time in which he is living. Later, partially at the cost of sacrificing political history, he accentuated socio-economic history by pointing out the effect of urbanisation and industrialisation on South African society. In his critical cultural studies on Afrikaner society, Professor van Jaarsveld made extensive use of the parallel technique. His historical and contemporary parallels, which were often misunderstood incorrectly, clarified the historical and contemporary circumstances of the Afrikaans-speaking community of South Africa in a stimulating manner. In this tribute which celebrates Professor van Jaarsveld's seventieth birthday, the author also makes an evaluation of his most recent work and comes to the conclusion that Professor van Jaarsveld is now in a postmodernist phase of historical writing.
Author Nicholas SoutheySource: Historia 37, pp 13 –25 (1992)More Less
Cape slavery has long been a neglected area of study in South African historiography. G.M. Theal largely ignored slaves in his formative historical writing, arguing that they were 'mildly' treated and thus historically of minimal importance. This set the pattern for later work, whether that of liberals, Afrikaner historians, or radicals, all of whom had different concerns in explaining the origins of racism in South African society. In the last decade, however, a number of studies of Cape slavery have significantly advanced understanding of the pre-industrial Cape. These have been influenced by a variety of factors: the need to correct historiographical neglect, to explore class and race in Cape history, and to apply insights gained from slave studies in other societies to the Cape. This article surveys the development of the study of slavery at the Cape, and highlights important features of older and newer literature. It also argues that continuities between the pre-industrial Cape and later South African society are more significant than previously acknowledged.
Author J.Celestine PretoriusSource: Historia 37, pp 26 –37 (1992)More Less
Robert Henry Dingley: Amateur Artist on the Eastern Frontier. Robert Henry Dingley was a British officer who served with the Cape Regiment on the eastern frontier of the Cape Colony from 1813 till 1817. He kept a journal which he illustrated with colourful drawings. Parts of this interesting journal are in the possession of the Merensky Library of the University of Pretoria. The part which deals with his experiences on the eastern frontier has unfortunately been lost. The drawings, however, have survived and are in the Africana Museum in Johannesburg. Dingley was stationed at various border posts which were erected along the Fish River after the Fourth Frontier War (1811-1812) to ward off attacks by the Xhosa. In Dingley's drawings the circumstances in which the soldiers and white colonists lived in that remote area of the Cape Colony are depicted, as are some aspects of wild life. In this respect Dingley's drawings are unique since British officers usually depicted scenes of battles or adventures whilst hunting only. Although amateurish, Dingley's drawings are therefore of considerable cultural historical significance. They confirm, to a large extent, the findings of travellers who visited the interior of the Cape Colony in the beginning of the 19th century. After the Cape Regiment was disbanded in 1817, Dingley returned to England.
Author J.S. BerghSource: Historia 37, pp 38 –47 (1992)More Less
It took a relatively long time before the Voortrekkers settled permanently in the country north of the Vaal River. This was due to the threat posed by the Ndebele of Mzilikazi as well as to the initial preference which most Voortrekkers held for Natal. After they had driven Mzilikazi out, the country which had constituted his sphere of influence was claimed by the Voortrekkers. By 1837 this area included most of the present-day western, northwestern and central Transvaal and smaller parts of modern Botswana and approximately corresponded with that which the Voortrekkers defined in October 1840 as their territory north of the Vaal. Through a careful analysis of the applications for farms made by the new settlers since 1839, together with the descriptionptions of the location of these farms, which were kept in a register, it was possible to identify a large number of these farms on modern topo-cadastral maps. In this way it was possible to obtain a clearer picture of the extent and nature of Voortrekker settlement in this area until 1840. Applications for farms during this period extend to lands as far to the west as Makwassiespruit, in the northwest to Molopo-oog, in the north to the north of the Magaliesberg, in the northeast to the Magaliesberg just north of Pretoria and to the Bronberg and in the east to the vicinity of the Suikerboschrant.
An exposition of the clash of Anglo-Voortrekker interests at Port Natal leading to the military conflict of 23-24 May 1842Author A.E. CubbinSource: Historia 37, pp 48 –69 (1992)More Less
The causes leading to the battle of Congella between the British and Voortrekker troops are fascinating. In approximately eighteen years the predominantly British settlers/hunters/traders had developed Port Natal as an entrepï¿½t for south-eastern Africa. The Voortrekkers had been in the hinterland for some five years and in alliance with the British had triggered off a struggle for hegemony which saw Mpande installed as King of the Zulu subject to the Voortrekkers at Pietermaritzburg. The British authorities at Cape Town became alarmed at the destabilising effect of this encounter and in April 1842 sent their second contingent of troops to Port Natal in defence of the indigenous peoples. Captain T.C. Smith, instructed to be conciliatory, adopted a rather intransigent attitude towards the Voortrekkers whose sovereignty was now threatened. Both sides were spoiling for a fight which broke out on 23 May 1842. This heralded the first of several Anglo-Boer wars.
Author T.R.H. WhiteSource: Historia 37, pp 70 –85 (1992)More Less
This article deals with the early years of Z.K. Matthews from the time that he entered Lovedale High School until his appointment as a lecturer at the University College of Fort Hare. The major focus is therefore on education and the intellectual climate of the time. Lovedale is considered in some detail and a synopsis of its historical background provided so as to place the education of the African in context. Missionary zeal particularly from Lovedale led to the founding of the South African Native College (Fort Hare) and Matthews was one of the first students and the first to graduate. His time at Fort Hare was the beginning of a life long interest in the institution. Because of this the historical background to the founding of Fort Hare is discussed. Adams College was also an important learning experience for Matthews educationally and politically and this also prepared him for his entry to Yale under die guidance of C. T. Loram where he specialised in social anthropology proceeding to the London School of Economics. Of consideration here is the debate between Loram and Kerr as to whether Matthews should take up a position as head of Adams or return to Fort Hare. He followed the latter course in 1936 establishing himself the following year as South Africa's leading African academic with his appointment to the De La Warr Commission.
Author Pieter KappSource: Historia 37, pp 86 –97 (1992)More Less
South Africa and the origins and development of the European Economic Community. When the European Economic Community was introduced in 1958 South Africa did not pay particular attention to this new development. No concerted effort was made to stay abreast of European developments. The South African decision-makers were content to accept the British perception of the meaning and implications of the customs union which systematically developed. While Britain did not join the EEC South Africa's commonwealth trade preferences were not affected. The unsuccessful efforts by Britain in 1963 and 1967 to join the common market and its eventual membership in 1973 radically changed the position for South Africa. The article discusses a number of policy options which South Africa could have followed. However, none of these options were exercised and South Africa remained completely outside the EEC. South African producers, dependent on exports to Europe, had to rely on their originality, the quality of their products and their expertise and introduce drastic changes to counteract the new discrimination against their products.