1887

n Historia - Trespass and pounds at the Cape of Good Hope before and during the 19th century

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Abstract


Dwarsdeur die grootste gedeelte van sy geskiedenis kon Suid-Afrika akkuraat beskryf word as 'n land van weiding. Die inheemse bevolking, behalwe diegene wat 'n bestaan deur middel van jag of insameling gemaak het, was beesboere. Na 1652 het beesboere die grense van die Europese nedersetting uitwaarts gestoot. Toe die eerste Kommissie van die Rondgaande Hof wat deur die Hof van Justisie aangestel is (1811) sy toer van die Kaapse binneland vollooi het, het die kommissarisse opgemerk dat almal van die menige setlaar jeugdiges "daarna uitsien om beesboere te word". Hierdie verwagting het uitgebrei na die dele wat later Natal, die Oranje-Vrystaat en Transvaal geword het. Teen 1800 was Kaapstad die enigste sentrum van redelike grootte, en die drie setels van plaaslike owerheid (Stellenbosch, Swellendam en Graaff-Reinet) was maar klein dorpies in die oë van Europa. Daar was in die negentiende eeu 'n groot aanwas in die getal dorpies. Toespitsing op landbou was 'n eienskap van hierdie dorpe waar boorde en tuine op dorpspersele 'n grool deel van die vars voedselbehoeftes voorsien het. Hierdie feit, en die wetgewers se besorgdheid dat die onderskeid in wese tussen die dorpe en die pastorale omgewing behou moet word, het genoodsaak dat lewende hawe streng beheer moos word. Die vroeë bepalings met betrekking tot betreding en skutte het dus spesifiek net na dorpe verwys, en 'n gepaste stelsel vir plattelandse distrikte het maar stadig ontwikkel. Die pligte van die skutmeester was dus nie baie duidelik nie, en die skutregulasies is dikwels omseil. Aspekte hiervan word in hierdie artikel ondersoek. Dit handel ook oor die effek van die skutstelsel op die Khoikhoi.

Throughout most of its history. South Africa could accurately be styled a 'grazing country'. The indigenous people, except for those who subsisted by hunting and gathering were cattlekeepers. After 1652, graziers pushed out the frontiers of European settlement. When the first Commission of Circuit appointed by the Court of Justice (1811) completed its tour of the Cape interior. the commissioners observed that all of the numerous settler youth 'look forward to become graziers'. This expectation was carried to what became Natal, the Orange Free State and Transvaal. By 1800, Cape Town was the only centre of any size and the three seats of local government (Stellenbosch, Swellendam, and Graaff-Reinet) were little more than villages to European eyes. The nineteenth century saw a rapid increase in the number of small towns. The pursuit of agriculture was a feature of these towns where orchards and gardens on town allotments supplied much of the fresh produce consumed. This fact, and the legislators' concern that towns be distinct in character from their pastoral surrounds, dictated that livestock should be strictly controlled. Thus the early regulations respecting trespass and pounds referred specifically to towns and a system suitable for rural districts only slowly evolved. The office of poundmaster was somewhat anomalous, while the pound regulations were frequently abused - aspects which this article explores. It also is concerned with the impact of the system of impoundment on the Khoikhoi.

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/content/hist/39/2/EJC37830
1994-11-01
2016-12-03
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