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n Historia - Operasies Chuva en Moduler (fase1) : 'n Waardering van die SAW-UNITA-bondgenootskap, Mei tot Oktober 1987

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Abstract

In Julie 1974, nadat die Portugese Caetano-regering in 'n militêre staatsgreep omvergewerp is, het Portugal aangekondig dat hy bereid is om oor Angolese onafhanklikheid te onderhandel. Op 15 Januarie 1975 het Portugal die Alvor-ooreenkoms gesluit met die drie Angolese bevrydingsorganisasies, die MPLA, FNLA en UNITA, waarvolgens 11 November 1975 as Onafhanklikheidsdag bepaal is. 'n Volskaalse burgeroorlog het egter teen Augustus 1975 tussen die UNITA-FNLA-bondgenootskap en die MPLA uitgebreek. Die MPLA het die alliansie tot so 'n mate verslaan dat daar oor die algemeen verwag is dat UNITA en die FNLA nie daarvan sou herstel nie, maar mettertyd sou verdwyn. UNITA het egter die nederlaag oorleef en weer van krag tot krag gegaan - in so in mate dat hulle 'n definitiewe bedreiging vir die MPLA ingehou het. Die voortgesette burgeroorlog het teen die agtergrond van die Koue Oorlog (1945-1990) afgespeel. Suid-Afrika, gesteun deur die VSA, het UNITA ondersteun, terwyl die USSR en sy satellietstaat Kuba die MPLA gesteun het. Laasgenoemde het die kommunistiesgesinde SWAPO ondersteun en hulle in staat gestel om Namibië vanuit Suid-Angola binne te dring. Die SAW het gevolglik sedert 1975 verskeie transgrensoperasies van stapel gestuur om enige insypeling in Suidwes-Afrika vanuit Suid-Angola in die kiem te smoor. Die fokus van hierdie artikel is 'n evaluering van die UNITA-SAW-alliansie tydens Operasies Chuva en Moduler (fase een), Mei tot Oktober 1987. Binne die SAW was daar uiteenlopende sienings oor UNITA as 'n bondgenoot : aan die een kant was daar die siening dat die samewerking "breedweg en algemeen gesproke" goed was, teenoor die siening dat UNITA 'n onbetroubare bondgenoot was. Die waarheid lê waarskynlik tussen hierdie uiterstes. UNITA was vertroud met die plaaslike omstandighede en is ondersteun deur die plaaslike bevolking. Hulle het, ondanks gebrekkige konvensionele vermoëns, geen geringe rol gespeel in die sukses van Operasies Chuva en Moduler (fase een) nie.

In July 1974, after the Portuguese Caetano government had been overthrown in a coup, Portugal announced that it was willing to negotiate on Angolan independence. On 15 January 1975, Portugal signed the Alvor Agreement with the three Angolan liberation organisations, namely the MPLA, FNLA and UNITA, in terms of which 11 November 1975 was to be Angola's Independence Day. However, by August 1975 a full-scale civil war had broken out between the UNITA-FNLA alliance and the MPLA. The MPLA defeated the alliance to such an extent that it was generally expected that UNITA and the FNLA would not recover, but would gradually disappear. UNITA, however, survived the ordeal and then went from strength to strength, to the point that they presented a real threat to the MPLA. The prolonged civil war took place against the backdrop of the Cold War (1945-1990). South Africa, supported by the USA, assisted UNITA, while the USSR and its satellite state Cuba supported the MPLA. The latter supported the communistic SWAPO and enabled them to penetrate Namibia from South Africa. As a result, beginning in 1975, the SADF launched a number of trans-border operations to thwart any infiltration of South-West Africa from Southern Angola. The focus of this article is an evaluation of the UNITA-SADF alliance during Operations Chuva and Moduler (phase one), May to October 1987. In the SADF there were different opinions of UNITA as an ally: on the one hand, the cooperation was described as mostly good in general terms; on the other hand, UNITA was seen as an unreliable ally. The truth is probable to be found somewhere between these extremes. UNITA was familiar with local conditions and was supported by the local population. In spite of their limited conventional abilities, they had no small part in the success of Operations Chuva and Moduler (phase one).

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/content/hist/57/2/EJC129617
2012-11-01
2016-12-04
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