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- Volume 10, Issue 2, 2002
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 10, Issue 2, 2002
Volumes & issues
Volume 10, Issue 2, 2002
Author Akinsolape A. OlowuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 5 –8 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... EDITORIAL Hurrah! Our journal is TEN! We are grateful and feel honoured for the support of our contributors, reviewers and subscribers. Foremost, we are grateful to the American Psychological Association for abstracting and indexing our journal from inception (1993) in the PsycINFO that indexes and abstracts approximately 3, 000 articles per month that are selected from 1, 300 scientific journals. This volume of coverage makes PsycINFO the major source of information for the world's literature in psychology and related fields. Users can access this information by manual searches of Psychological Abstracts (PA) or through computer searches on PsyLIT and PsycINFO.PsycINFO ..
Self-concept of Eritrean students exploring self-concept of students : links with gender, grade, and future identityAuthor Vanita PatwardhanSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 12 –37 (2002)More Less
The study explored self-concept of students in two stages- a) gender and grade differences, and b) its relation with future identity. Self-concept is one's overall idea of a sense of self, with multi dimensions of self in reference to others. Future identity refers to youth's awareness of life's work in future. In the first stage, 381 students (191 females and 190 males, from seventh grade through under-graduate level) attempted an inventory measuring multi dimensions of self-concept. They showed a high level of self-concept, with no significant gender differences. The difference in two extreme grades was significant. In the second stage, 30 undergraduate students attempted two inventories measuring self-concept and future identity. The correlation between these two components was weak. Further investigation is necessary and implications for need based intervention programs are apparent.
Author Godwin C.E. ObidigboSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 38 –48 (2002)More Less
This study examined the relationship between self-concept and academic performance of Nigerian students. The study made use of 1000 participants (500 males and 500 females) whose ages ranged from 15-18 with a mean of 16.7 and a standard deviation of 1.12. The study used an indigenous self concept scale developed by Ezeilo (1988) to assess the self concept of students while 20 questions pertaining to mathematics (5 questions) English or literary ability (5 questions) and current issues (10 questions) to measure academic performance. The study, which adopted a correlational design, posited two (2) hypotheses. They were tested using the Pearson product moment correlation statistic. Results indicated that significant differences were noted in the measurement of self-concept and academic performance of students. Equally, males were found to score higher than females on the measured items. Implications for these were given while recommendations were made to parents, teachers and authorities on how best to improve students' self concept and academic performance.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 49 –74 (2002)More Less
The primary goal of the present study was to test the reliability and validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory among South African university students. An additional goal of the study was to explore the factors that are related to personality traits. Research participants were three hundred and sixty-eight (103 male and 265 female) students from four universities in South Africa. Two major findings were obtained. First, the majority of the items in the inventory were reliable and valid for assessing the five personality traits of the tested sample. The research participants' personality traits varied as a function of gender, race, educational level, and socioeconomic status. It was concluded that although the results of the present study has its heuristic value, these results should not be generalized as this is the first study that has obtained results that were different from those in the three other existing studies of South African university students.
A comparative analysis of motivations for occupational choice or preference between professionals and studentsAuthor H. Johnson NentySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 75 –93 (2002)More Less
The study attempted to determine the extent to which influences of motivational factors on occupational choice or preference differ between practising professionals and students who aspire for related occupations as well as how the influences of these motivational factors on job choice or preference differ across professions. Data generated through the administration of Bakare's (1971) Motivation for Occupational Preference Scale (MOPS) to 205 professionals and 300 students were analysed using independent t-test and ANOVA statistical techniques. The results showed that these factors (external influence, extrinsic reward-oriented values, self-expression values, and people-oriented values) generally tended to influence students' preference of occupations significantly more than they influenced professionals' choice of these occupations. It also showed that professionals and students respectively differed significantly across occupations in the level to which each motivational factor influence their choice or preference of these occupations. Based on these findings, useful implications are drawn, and recommendations made for career counselling of students.
Author Andrew A. MogajiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 94 –105 (2002)More Less
This study was aimed at finding the correlates of industrial conflict among workers. Data were collected from 600 employees randomly selected from three manufacturing industries in Lagos, Nigeria. The sample included 450 junior workers, 90 supervisors and 60 managers. The parsimonious model of the multiple regression analysis revealed that 9 out of 27 interpersonal, intergroup and organizational climate variables, significantly predicted the occurrence of conflict in the organization. The variables including: standard, warmth, risk and organizational support were significant at p<.01 respectively; reward and identity were significantat p<.05 respectively; health, type of industry and shift schedule were significant at p<.10 respectively. However, all the 9 variables jointly account for about 34% variance in industrial conflict at p<.01, df=31/568, F=9.30. Analysing the test scores with One-way ANOVA, the results did not indicate any significant difference in the perception of industrial conflict among the managers, junior workers and supervisors. The results did not also indicate any significant difference among the food, textile and shoe industries. Using the t-statistics to analyse the data, the results did not reveal any significant difference between the male and female employees. The findings show that the sources of industrial conflict are the same to all categories of workers. This portends a very good omen to the management to be able to adopt a unique method of conflict resolution and create a conducive atmosphere for the industrial relations practice. The results have implications for the management of change and the enhanced relationship between management and labour union.
The effects of occupational prestige, marital status and technological level of job on perception of working mothersSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 106 –118 (2002)More Less
This study investigated the perceptions of mothers as a function of their marital status, prestige and technological level of their jobs. 320 university students and civil servants participated in the study. Each subject rated a briefly described working woman as a stimulus person on a 24 seven-point bipolar scales that describe job competence, personal and interpersonal adjustment characteristics. The manipulation was such that each subject evaluated one of 8 working mothers of a young child that was portrayed either as married or single and in a job that is of either high or low prestige and requires high or low level of technology. Results showed that mothers in high prestigious and high-tech jobs were more favourably perceived, especially if they were married . Mothers in high prestigious and high-tech jobs were seen as better adjusted and more competent than those in low prestigious and low-tech jobs. The perception was however less favourable for single mothers.
The impact of supervision and mentorship practices on perceived competence of teacher-trainees and beginning teachers in GhanaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 119 –135 (2002)More Less
This study aimed at finding out the self-perceived competencies that teacher-trainees and beginning teachers acquired as the impact that practicum supervision and mentorship have had on them. <br>Stratified and simple random sampling procedures were used to select 446 second year and third year teacher trainees and beginning teachers for the study. A 39-item inventory with an internal reliability coefficient of 0.85 was used to collect data. General Linear Model univariate analysis of variance, t-test of independence and Pearson's Product Movement correlation coefficient were used in analysing the data. <br>The results show that there is a statistically significant difference in self-perceived competence among the three cohorts - second year, third year students and beginning teachers - as a result of practicum supervision and mentorship practices. A statistically significant relationship was also found between the self-perceived competence perceptual scores and practicum assessment scores of the participants, even though the relationship was very low. <br>It is recommended that the Ghana Education Service should ensure that the policy guidelines on the IN-IN-OUT programme are properly implemented to guide practicum supervision in Ghana. In furtherance of this, the focus during the out period should be on clinical supervision.
Author Mary Grace FajonyomiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 136 –144 (2002)More Less
Besides other agencies of socialization, the home, school and government play a vital role in shaping the behaviour of individuals. Precisely the study examined the roles of these three agencies in reorientating the value system of adolescents in Borno. 110 adolescents took part in the study. the questionnaire was based on the natural ethics and duties of Nigerian citizens as stipulated in the constitution of the country. The findings of the study revealed the strength and weaknesses of the agencies in reorientating the adolescents' value system. Based on the findings, suggestions and practical counselling strategies were given to improve the value system of the adolescents.
Concept - mapping, students' locus of control and gender as determinants of Nigerian high school students' achievement in BiologyAuthor J.B. Bilesanmi-AwoderuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 145 –161 (2002)More Less
This study investigated the relative effectiveness of concept mapping and lecture methods on the academic achievement of Nigerian High School Studies in biology using gender and locus of control as intervening variables. This study made use of a 2 x 2 x 2 non-randomised control group, pretest - posttest quasi-experimental factorial design. The sample consisted of two hundred and forty (240) senior secondary two students of which 120 were males and 120 were females. <br>Two instruments; Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and Locus of Control Scale (LOCS) were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). <br>The results show that the concept-mapping strategy is more effective in enhancing students' achievement in biology than the lecture method. Also, locus of control was found to have a significant main effect on the treatment with internals having more adjusted mean scores than the externals. However, there was no significant main effect of gender on the treatments. Also, the study recorded no significant two-way and three-way interactions of the independent and dependent variables. <br>Based on these findings, the investigator is recommending the use of concept-mapping in schools as an effective means of achieving high performance in high school biology. Also, students should be counselled, especially those with external locus of control to re-orientate themselves and change to the internal locus of control which is positively linked with high performance. <br>Finally, teachers are enjoined to use the concept - mapping strategy in teaching both the male and female students because this method has been found to be effective in the teaching of students, irrespective of their gender and locus of control.
Author William BoatengSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 162 –181 (2002)More Less
Over the 1970's and 1980's the tertiary education sector was in deplorable state in terms of financial provision and physical infrastructure and in the relationship between tertiary institutions and government. In order to resuscitate the tertiary education in the country, government decided to introduce reforms in the sector. It is however, evident that many of the government proposals for tertiary education continue to be met from central government budget. Cost recovery and income generations from services provided by the tertiary institutions are still very initial. Among others, government funding to the running of tertiary institutions is still very low, thus making it difficult for almost impossible for tertiary institutions to carry out the tenets of the reforms, such as the revival of research and upgrading of staff. This situation has worsened the access to and quality of tertiary institutions in the country. <br>Three sources were used for the survey data collection; Interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and official statistics/records from the tertiary institutions, the Ministry of Education, the National Council for Tertiary Education and the World Bank. <br>The general objective of the study was to assess on the ground, the Budgeting, Funding and Cost Recovery of Tertiary Education in Ghana. <br>The study proved among other factors that, delay in fee payment, inadequacy of government subvention and delay in the release of government's subvention stood out as the major problems faced by tertiary institutions in fund mobilization. The study further revealed that Institutions' financial support for students was woefully inadequate. Students' fee payment was also identified as the main modality for cost recovery of tertiary education. <br>It was recommended that communities and industries should be made to make meaningful contributions towards tertiary education in the country. The students loan scheme was also found to be poorly managed, hence the need to appraise the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (ssnit) loan scheme for students to make the scheme sustainable.
An experimental study of the relationship between representational systems in the bilingual and psychological differentiation.Author Iyabo Bola BassirSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 182 –193 (2002)More Less
A sample of 98 bilingual students, equally proficient in English and Yoruba, were ordered from low to high separation of representational systems on the basis of their scores on three verbal indices: (1) percentage of responses given to a word association test in English which could not be translated into Yoruba. (2) Percentage of correctly identified sentences in a sentence recognition test and (3) differences in performance on a bigram test when the instructions were given in English or Yoruba or English and Yoruba. Respondents then participated in a task involving a shortened form of Witkin's Embedded Figures Test. It was predicted that the degree of separation of representational systems is significantly related to field dependence/independence. The results of this preliminary study are interpreted to indicate that the degree of separation of the bilingual's representational systems may be related to his/her degree of psychological differentiation.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 193 –210 (2002)More Less
This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior secondary school pupils in a Ghanaian municipality. A random sample of 600 junior secondary school pupils in form 2 was used for the study. Multiple regression procedures were used to analyse the data. The results of the study showed that in both Mathematics and English Language, mothers' reinforcement of their children's academic progress, fathers' education, and area of residence have indirect effects on children's academic performance. Children's academic effort is an intervening variable. Implications for parents and teachers are discussed.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 212 –244 (2002)More Less
The purpose of the study was to describe the state-of-the-art of the education of children with special needs in Ghana with special reference to policies, assessment and teacher training. The study, therefore, was a purposive descriptive sample survey. Data for the study were collected using questionnaires and interview schedules at the University of Cape Coast, the National Assessment Centre and three special schools among others. Interviews were also held with major stakeholders including the Deputy Director-General of the Ghana Education Service and Directors of Special Education and Teacher Education. Relevant documents were also reviewed. The results indicate that some policies have been put in place in the country regarding the education of special needs children. The main facilities that exist for children with special needs are in the areas of visual impairment, hearing impairment and mental retardation. No special facilities or services exist for the gifted, the learning disabled, and the behaviour disordered, and so on. It came to light that the National Assessment Centre has inadequate number of staff and lacks some important equipment and items to facilitate its work. A significant number of teachers of children with special needs in Ghana is non-specialist and/or untrained. The findings have implications for policy and practice for educating children with special needs in Ghana.
Effects of training in community-based rehabilitation on attitudinal change of people toward people with disabilitiesAuthor Prosper DekuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 244 –257 (2002)More Less
The purpose of this study is to establish a relative effect of training in Community-based rehabilitation on attitude of non-disabled people toward people with disabilities. A total of 75 unit committee members of the KEEA District assembly who were put in 3 groups responded to the ATPD Scale. Data were analysed using the t-test at 0.05 significant level. Results indicate that significant differences exist in the pretest and post test attitude scores for those exposed to treatment while no significant difference was observed in the pre-test and post-test attitude scores for the control group. The conclusion was that training in the CBR can substantially change attitudes of non-disabled people toward people with disabilities
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 258 –273 (2002)More Less
This paper presents a report of an observational study on the impact of alcohol and presence of women on verbal behaviour of Nigerian alcohol users. Specifically, the study investigated how speech is influenced by alcohol use in relation to; the frequency of speech, the type of issues discussed and if the presence of women is related to these aspects of verbal behaviour. Three hundred and thirty-one Nigerians were unobtrusively observed in alcohol and/or non- alcohol scenes. In 78% of the 77 locations covered, the people observed used alcoholic drinks. An observational schedule in which a list of issues (themes) was made was used to collect the data. Two trained observers visited each location during which a group of drinkers and / or diners were observed and the content of their speech recorded using the themes on the schedule as a guide. The analysis of data showed that the total frequency of issues discussed was significantly more in the alcohol scenes than the non- alcohol scenes. <br>But in terms of specific issues discussed, there were significant differences between the locations only in the case of seven (7) issues out of twenty-four (24) issues in favour of alcohol serving locations. Furthermore, the result showed that the presence of women significantly influenced the frequency of speech and not the type of issues discussed. In other words, speech was more in the women-present locations than the women -absent locations. However, there were no significant differences in specific issues discussed between the locations. In general, alcohol-serving locations were inclined to the discussion of less serious issues such as women (19.6%) whereas the non- alcohol serving locations were more inclined to discussion of serious issues such as the economic condition of the country. The findings were discussed in terms of the effect of alcohol on people's mental activities relevant to speech production, particularly the removal of inhibition following alcohol use. Suggestions for future directions of research in the area were made.
Author Fab O. OnahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 274 –288 (2002)More Less
The event of retirement from public service in Nigeria has carried enormous adjustment and change problems among the retirees. This is because rather than being a natural event, retirement is now a nightmare in Nigeria considering the less than satisfactory situation on the ground. Working on the assumption that retirees can still be useful to themselves and the society at large, and using the activity theory, this paper looks into the roots of the various adjustment and change problems of Nigerian retirees. Fundamental among the problems are unpreparedness of the workers, suddenness of the event and generally poor attitudes towards retirement, among others. In view of the degree of psychological damage and trauma associated with retirement, a comprehensive mitigating package was presented including worker education, counselling, phased retirement and age-related skills acquisition, among others. Retirement can still be a dignifying phenomenon if the principles of need, fairness and equity are called to mind in managing the affairs of the retiring workers.
Vulnerability, borderline personality disorders. Clinical and therapeutic issues in mental health using a cognitive analytical modelAuthor Zoubida GuerninaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 289 –297 (2002)More Less
Borderline personality disorder and vulnerability are difficult to assess and are rather elusive to define. A case study material is presented from a cognitive analytical model. An attempt of the dominant features of cognitive analytical therapy and discussion of vulnerabilityin relation to personality disorder is provided. An evaluation of the methodology is discussed with specific focus on the impact of being trapped and feeling vulnerable. The rationale behind this paper is to show that through the shared reformulation between the client and therapist unhelpful procedures that might contribute to vulnerability in a borderline personality can be identified. For the purpose of this paper, the word client and patient are used interchangeably. It is hoped that the emerging issues on this case will be used to assess vulnerability in borderline personality disorders. The interpretation and evaluation given show the need for further research in the area.
Author F.A. OluwatelureSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 299 –310 (2002)More Less
Psychosocial factors are important in the aetiology and progress of essential hypertension. This paper looked at the relationship between some psychosocial variables and blood pressure. Two hundred subjects (M = 100, F = 100) belonging to 26 professional groups drawn from three Nigerian states were administered individually (a) a twelve item biodata instrument, (b) modified psychophysiological test. The subjects' blood pressures were taken. Result showed that some variables were significantly associated with blood pressure and while psychophysiological symptoms, age and environment contributed significantly to elevated arterial blood pressure.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 10, pp 311 –326 (2002)More Less
A significant portion of Nigeria's laws evolved from British laws as a result of colonial relationship. In Britain, over the ages, the laws constituting sources of Nigeria's laws have undergone metamorphosis to adapt with changes. However such laws continue to exist in Nigeria's law books in the same form they were in Britain - in some cases centuries back - which are totally at variance with prevailing situations. This archaism reflects, inter alia, in the various aspects of law pertaining to the treatment and status of the mentally ill and allied issues. Having to operate under these outdated laws invariably imposes some burden in the mentally ill while creating enormous dilemma for the psychiatrist. This paper seeks to examine the principal Nigerian laws relating to mental illness vis-à-vis status of the mentally ill and the psychiatrist having to practise under such laws in the face of ethical pronouncements by the World Medical Association generally and the World Psychiatric Association (Hawaii Declarations 1977, 1983 and so on). "Laws" in the context of this paper principally refer to legislations as these will be the pivot of discourse. Nonetheless other sources of Nigerian Law - Common Law, Case Law, Customary Law, where relevant, will equally be incorporated. Likewise opinions of learned writers in treatises, journals and so on will not be leftout. Commentaries and suggestion for reforms will be proffered as deemed appropriate. The writer hopes that the paper will contribute to stimulating positive development in the mental health sector in Nigeria.