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- Volume 11, Issue 2, 2003
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 11, Issue 2, 2003
Volumes & issues
Volume 11, Issue 2, 2003
Author A.A. OlowuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp I –II (2003)More Less
Extracted from text ... v EDITORIAL Our Volume 11 No. 2 opens with an article by three erudite scholars, Professor Karl Peltzer, Dr. B.Y. Oladimeji and Professor, O. Morakinyo wrote a piece on, factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Nigerian University Students. Alex Asamoah reviewed the role of the school counselor on adolescent sexual behaviour and the AIDS pandemic. Dr. Ayanniyi Alhassan, reported on perception of risk and action taken to avoid HIV / AIDS infection among students in a high-risk state. Drs. Olley, Ajuwon, Jimoh and Akintola have proposed some skills training for safe sexual practice and coercive behaviour prevention among ..
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 1 –8 (2003)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among University students in Nigeria. <br><I>Design: </I>Cross-sectional survey. <br><I>Setting: </I>450 first year University students at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. <br><I>Participants: </I> The sample consisted of 220 (48.9%) males and 230 (51.1%) females in the age range of 16 to 30 years (M age 21.6 yr., SD=2.9) chosen at convenience from a first year orientation class. <br><I>Main outcome measures: </I> Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV / AIDS vulnerability (likelihood to get it), severity, prevention benefits and prevention barriers, and condom use self-efficacy. <br><I>Results: </I> Bivariate analysis found that HIV / AIDS perceived prevention barriers, HIV / AIDS perceived severity, and male gender were associated, and age at first vaginal intercourse was inversely associated with HIV risk behavior. Regression analysis indicated that perceived prevention barriers and male gender were predictive and age at first vaginal intercourse was inversely predictive for HIV / AIDS risk behavior. <br><I>Conclusion:</I> HIV prevention intervention programmes should include addressing the perceived prevention barriers particularly with condom use, students engaging early in their life in sexual intercourse and male students.
Author Alexander AsamoahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 9 –18 (2003)More Less
The rate of HIV infections among adolescents is high due to their sexual behaviours. The best way to control the spread of HIV among adolescents is to work towards influencing their sexual beliefs and practices. Since the school brings together adolescents with varied sexual experiences, the role the school counsellor plays in assisting students to deal realistically with sex issues is imperative for HIV / AIDS prevention and control.
Perception of risk and action taken to avoid HIV / AIDS infection among students in a high-risk stateAuthor Ayanniyi B. AlhassanSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 19 –33 (2003)More Less
The paper presents the findings of an investigation into adolescents' sexual behaviour and action taken to avoid infection among JSS students of Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State-the state with the highest HIV infection rate in Nigeria. Several types of questionnaire were deployed to collect the data. The questions have a high reliability because they have been used in studies on school children in Uganda. Response to the survey questions were coded for computer analysis frequencies. Two-way table methods including chi-square test for independence were used to determine if there was a significant difference between those who reported that they have not had sex and those who reported that they had sex. The difference was significant (<I>p</I><0.05). There was also quite a statistically significant difference between those who had taken actions and those who had not (<I>p</I><. 001). There was a very strong indication that increasing knowledge results in safer behaviour (<I>p</I><. 029). In the light of the findings, recommendations were made to remedy the situation and implications for further research were generated.
Skills training for safe sexual practice and coercive behavior prevention among adolescents in Ibadan, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 34 –51 (2003)More Less
This study examined the effect of a didactic skills training program for inschool adolescents in Ibadan on knowledge concerning prevention of sexual coercion, knowledge about HIV/AIDS, sexual role/responsibility and assertiveness/communication skills. <br>A total of 73 in-school adolescents ages 15 - 19 years (? = 18.2, SD 2.1) who were recruited from four secondary schools in a local government area took part in the study. Results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in knowledge about prevention of sexual coercion, HIV/AIDS, sexual role/responsibility and assertiveness/communication skills at post-intervention testing. <br>Also, being male, having good general self-efficacy, greater age and greater number of years of education significantly predicted a greater increase in skill acquisition. At 6 month follow-up, an appreciable number of adolescents were educated concerning various forms of topics, suggesting the ability of the adolescent to simulation of target behaviours. <br>Our findings suggest that skills training can effectively empower adolescents with regard to safe sexual practice.
Caring for the carers : mental health education for patients' relatives at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital Kumasi, GhanaAuthor Emma Sethina MensahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 52 –58 (2003)More Less
A programme of mental health education for relatives and family members of both in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) has been described. Essentially the programme entailed a short, about ten minutes of introductory talk, followed by a group discussion on an aspect of mental health relevant to the patients' accompanying relatives. The methodology employed some of the "curative factors" in group therapy namely: sharing new information, instilling hope and interpersonal learning. Results from the discussion showed that relatives were eager and anxious to see the mentally ill patient recover as early as possible. In addition it showed that communication between the doctor, the patient and his relative was of utmost importance to accompanying relatives.
Development and construction of attitude towards examination cheating and examination cheating behaviour scalesSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 59 –67 (2003)More Less
This paper reports the development and construction of a 14-item attitude towards cheating scales and 18-item cheating behaviour scale are reported. Cheating or academic dishonesty is one of the problem plaguing students in its entirety. Two scales were developed to measure students' attitude towards the phenomenon and the extent to which they actually engage in it. A total of 250 students (96 males [38.4%] and 152 [60.8%] females) responded to the Attitude towards Examination Cheating (ATEC) and Examination Cheating Behaviour (ECB) scales. The ATEC scale had a reliability coefficient alpha of 0.83 and a Spearman- Brown split half coefficient of 0.76 while the ECB scale had a reliability coefficient alpha of 0.91 and a Spearman Brown split half of 0.89. Results supporting the intended measure's reliability and the implications for students in general are discussed.
Effect of institutionalization on self-concept and certain cognitive components of adolescent studentsAuthor Vanita PatwardhanSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 68 –91 (2003)More Less
The state of Eritrea has enjoyed 11 years of her independence. She is paving a way towards nation building. The adolescent students in the state will contribute in this venture. They need to be psychologically healthy and mature, the key for which lies in their adequate self - concept. During the developmental stages of adolescence and youth, the self-concept becomes more differentiated and better organized (Steinberg, 1989). It changes and consolidates, due to physical changes, intellectual growth, increasing emotional independence, and changes in roles (Coleman and Hendry, 1999). At this point it is apt to explore the self-concept of students in Asmara - its level, its relation with other factors, and individual differences, if any. Such an exploration may further lead to attain adequate self - concept through intervention programs, which may in turn be fruitful in national development.
Author J.K. AboagyeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 92 –110 (2003)More Less
The study examined the state of preschool education in the Winneba district with the intent of identifying strengths and weaknesses of the sub system. A comparison of rural and urban preschools in the district was also explored. A sample of 30 preschools made up of 16 public and 14 private ones were selected through simple random sampling. The main instruments used for the study were questionnaire and focused interviews. The procedure for the analysis was simple frequency counts and percentages. <br>The study revealed that majority of caregivers and teachers have not received training in early childhood care and development. Play facilities and play items are inadequate in many of the schools. The study concluded that the problems besetting preschools are huge and their solution hinges on the active co-operation of all stakeholders in education.
Author Grace Yawo GadagbuiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 111 –134 (2003)More Less
This study was conducted to investigate the factors which affect the learning climate of children both at home and school. A total sample of 373 students, comprising 118 males and 185 females from various basic and secondary schools in the regions of Ghana were randomly selected for the study. The instrument was a 25 - item questionnaire designed and validated by the researcher to elicit the required responses from the respondents. <br>Descriptive statistics was used to describe the interaction and relationships that existed among the factors. Results showed that most of the children had serious financial and sociological problems at home which had effects on their academic progress. There was a positive correlation between alcoholic fathers on the one hand and family quarrels and poor academic performance of children in school on the other. It was also found that most children were bogged down in house hold chores, poor nutrition and bullied. All these negatively affected their academic progress at school. <br>Recommendations on how to improve the home climate of children and improvement in school are given at the end.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 135 –147 (2003)More Less
The importance of customer's perception of service quality has received tremendous research attention. What is not yet established are the factors that underlie such perception of service quality. To fill this gap, the present study was designed to examine the influence of sex of bank customers and bank-type on customer's perception of service quality. A total of 240 bank customers (135 males and 105 females) reported their perception of service quality of eight commercial banks divided into first and second -generation banks. Respondents' age ranged from 16 to 61 years. Participants completed a modified version of Schneider, White, and Paul's (1998) customer perceptions of service quality scale. Analysis of the survey using a 2 x 2 ANOVA revealed significant main effect of bank-type on customers' perceptions of service quality. Specifically, customers of second-generation banks held more positive perceptions of service quality than customers of first generation banks. Results revealed no significant main effect of sex of customer as well as joint influence of sex of customers and bank-type on customers' perceptions of quality service. The pattern of results obtained in this study highlight the importance of delivery of quality service and the danger of holding complacent attitude by banks.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 148 –159 (2003)More Less
This research was carried out to find out the effects of self-esteem and illness vulnerability on perception of quality of water packaged in cellophane bags, popularly known in Nigeria as "pure water". The interest in "pure water" stemmed from the increase in the packaging, marketing, and consumption of the commodity in Nigeria and the health implications for millions of the nation's citizens and residents who consume pure water. <br>Participants in the research, whose design was ex post facto, were drawn from the general student population of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. They were two hundred in number consisted of one hundred males and one hundred females aged between 17 to 32 years. All participants were resident on the campus of the University of Ibadan. <br>In all, four hypotheses were tested using t-test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics. Findings in respect of hypothesis one revealed a significant difference between the mean scores of people with high self -esteem and the mean score of those with low self esteem in their perception of the quality of pure water. Thus, the hypothesis was supported (<I>t</I> =3.50, <I> df</I> =198, <I> P</I><.05). <br>In hypothesis two, findings indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of people with high self-esteem and the mean scores of people with low self esteem in their perception of the quality of bottled water (<I>t</I>-=0.66, <I>df</I> =198, <I> p</I>> .05). Thus the hypothesis was not supported. <br>With regards to hypothesis three, results showed that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of people with high illness vulnerability and the mean scores of people with low illness vulnerability as regards their perception of the quality of pure water. Similarly, the hypothesis was not supported. <br>Lastly in hypothesis four, results showed that although there was a significant independent effect of self-esteem on the perception of the quality of pure water, the interaction of self-esteem and illness vulnerability did not produce significant effect on people's perception of the quality of pure water. Thus, hypothesis four was only partially supported. <br>It was suggested that since self-esteem and illness vulnerability individually affected people's perception of the quality of pure water, it will be advisable for producers of pure water to improve on the quality and packaging of their products towards wider market coverage, maximum profitability, and consumer health.
Author Francis Eric AmuquandohSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 160 –177 (2003)More Less
The paper examines tourist information search effort prior to the visit to a selected destination. The focus was on identifying the key variables that influence the information search effort of Ghana's international visitors from the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Germany. <br>The Dummy Multiple Regression Statistic (DMR) was employed to examine the nature relationships between tourist information search effort and a set of socio-demographic and trip variables. The results indicated that there is a pattern of stable behaviour in tourist information search effort. It was noted that on the average tourists visiting Ghana from the three countries depend on two information sources to plan their trip. Next, "age", "income", "distance" and purpose of visit were positively correlated with visitors information search effort whilst " "educational level", "marital status" "number of previous visits" and outcome of previous visit had negative relationship with visitors information search effort. Generally, it was observed that irrespective tourist country of origin; information search behaviour was better explained by socio-demographic variables ("age", "marital status", "educational level" and "income") than trip specific variables ("number of visits", "purpose of visit", and "outcome of previous visit") <br>Given the findings, it was concluded that when\n developing strategies for international marketing and promotion of Ghana's tourism, especially in segmenting potential tourists by the information search effort, emphasise must be placed on visitors socio-demographic characteristics than their trip characteristics.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 178 –191 (2003)More Less
As part of a larger study that examines the interface between linguistics and society, this paper investigates and describes the system of address terms as used by members of the University of Cape Coast, an academic setting. Though from intrusive observation of actual usage, interview and introspection, we discovered that nine categories of linguistic form comprised the repertoire of address of the subject, this paper utilizes four namely, titles, personal names, descriptive epithets and slogans. These were dictated generally by social indices such as interpersonal relationship, gender, status, and age within "a network of bonds and obligations" (Firth 1937:113). We also recognized the role of psychological factors such as self esteem, social respect, sense of achievement and identification in the use of the selected terms of address. The findings from this work have implications, among other things, for verbal behaviour among residents in an academic settings.
Author Y.A. AlukoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 192 –213 (2003)More Less
The study examined the experiences of working women in Ibadan metropolis and its impact on family stability. A total of 156 working women, both in the formal and informal sectors of the economy, participated in the study. Since the majority of Nigerian women are engaged in the informal sector, a larger proportion of women from the informal sector were sampled (i.e 101 respondents ), while 55 respondents were for the formal sector. Results indicated that most women with dependent children go out to work for financial reasons, that is, to augment family income. Also, regardless of the sector of the economy a woman worked, her working responsibility does not prevent her from performing her primary role in the family. The findings indicate that a woman has to put in extra effort to cope with housework and work outside the home, more especially w hen the husband is not really helpful in this regard. It was also observed that the basic factor inhibiting women's entry into the formal labor force is their low educational background. Finally, it was established that family stability or instability is not a result of women working outside homes or not. Rather, it is a function of understanding between couples. Other factors might have aided or contributed to family instability, such as: cultural differences, barrenness, family influences, amongst others.
Impact of instructor expressiveness and some students' personal characteristics on students' attitude towards BiologyAuthor B.J. OgunkolaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 214 –228 (2003)More Less
This study investigated the effects of Instructor Expressiveness (a teaching behaviour), Students' Locus of Control (LOC), gender and cognitive entry behaviour (CEB) on secondary school students' attitude towards biology. After determining the LOC, CEB, gender and attitude towards biology of the study sample, the students were divided into two groups that were exposed to lessons taught by expressive and conventional instructors respectively. Six weeks later, the students responded to a post-lecture Attitude Towards Biology Scale. Results revealed that there were significant main effects of both the treatment and locus of control on students' attitude towards biology. Students exposed to expressive teaching behaviour were found to have better attitude towards biology than the students of conventional teaching behaviour. Moreover, the internal locus of control students had a better attitude towards biology than the external locus of control students.
Author A.C. Mundy-CastleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 229 –236 (2003)More Less
I have addressed scientists at Harvard in America, professors at Oxford and Cambridge Universities in England, a gathering of thousands of psychologists in Sydney, Australia, delivered a keynote address at a regional African conference in Nairobi, but I have never addressed a gathering of advertisers, here or anywhere else in the world. <br>This is a new experience for me, and as a psychologist and an existentialist, I believe that all experience is good. So I am happy to be here and I hope that some of what I say about cross-cultural psychology and its implications for advertising will be of help to you or even simply of some interest to you.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 239 –255 (2003)More Less
The purpose of this study was to identify the causes of poverty among rural women and seek recommendations from the respondents as to how poverty could be alleviated. <br>Several theoretical perspectives have been used to explain the existence of rural poverty. Among them are the individualistic theory, the physical ecology theory and the political economy theory. The theoretical perspective that was found to be suitable for the study was the political economy theory. <br>In conducting the study, a sample size of 220 was used. A multiple sample technique was adopted for selecting the sample size. Both primary data and secondary information were used. Interviews with the help of structured questionnaires and non-participant observation were used for the study. <br>The findings of the study, which included gender inequalities in terms of access to land, credit and education, supported the political economy theory, which attributed poverty to unequal distribution of wealth and power and the urban bias of the government, district assemblies, policy makers and local elites. <br>Based on the results of the study, it was recommended that to alleviate rural women's poverty, there should be a fairer system of distribution of wealth and power among the people and greater access of women to education.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 256 –270 (2003)More Less
Rural Poverty is one of the greatest social problems confronting the world today. The problem is more pronounced in the developing countries. Ghana is no exception to this global problem of rural poverty. Ghana as a nation has adopted a lot of measures to address poverty. From the early 1980's to 2002, the country has seen Economic Recovery Programme Structural Adjustment Programme, Vision 2020 and Emergency Social Relief Fund just to alleviate poverty. But a little has been achieved in this direction. It is believed that the rate of population growth (large family size) is thwarting the efforts at alleviating poverty. It was therefore the aim of the study to establish the impact of large family size on the socio- economic well being of the rural people. It was identify that large families were unable to provide adequately the social and economic needs of their members (example education and health), high level of consumption resulting in no savings and investment due to high dependency ratios and inadequate access to land to increase production, hence most rural large families are poor.
Author Osiki Jonathan OhiorenuanSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 11, pp 271 –288 (2003)More Less
The identification of young persons who have been to school but had left at various stages of the education cycle was part of the focus of this investigation. The study also found out the factors predicating school dropout with a concomitant discussion on some possible ways for ameliorating the phenomena Three research methodologies which are interviews, focus group discussion and opinion survey were conducted using 827 participants purposively sampled from University of Ibadan community, Eleyele, Agbowo, and Sango areas. The participants age range was between 15 and 38 years while their mean age was 25.87 years. The study revealed that approximately thirty-eight (37.6%) of all the youths attended and finished secondary school education. Sixty-five percent and 84.94% indicated that they were neither happy nor satisfied with their present status. Since school dropout creates mental agonies, psychological traumatization and self-esteem difficulties for the youths, part of the recommendation was that the provision of education to children of ages 1-18 years should be the direct responsibility of the Federal government , and should not be politicized. The junior second school (JSS) curriculum should be made functional and practical.