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- Volume 13, Issue 2, 2005
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 13, Issue 2, 2005
Volumes & issues
Volume 13, Issue 2, 2005
Impact of Total Quality Management (TQM), Activity Based Costing (ABC), and Just-in-Time (JIT) on corporate financial performance : an empirical analysis on the Turkish textile industrySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 1 –8 (2005)More Less
This article investigates whether the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC), Just-in-Time (JIT), and Total Quality Management (TQM) as strategic initiatives lead to improved financial performance in the Turkish textile industry. Strong evidence emerged that there is a strong positive association between using ABC, JIT or TQM and improvement in financial performance. This result confirms the previous results in terms of the relationship between the using of strategic initiatives and improvement in financial performance.
Exploratory study on the acceptance of the visual impaired and hearing impaired and mentally retarded to participate in mainstreaming programmes in GhanaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 9 –21 (2005)More Less
The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which students with Mental Retardation, Visual Impairment and Hearing Impairment would accept the idea of mainstreaming programmes in Ghana. In carrying out the study, 90 students were selected randomly from three of the country's special schools. A-15 item questionnaire designed in the Likert scale format was used to collect data. The major findings were that majority of the students rejected the mainstreaming programme. It came out that disability by type is independent of their acceptance of their placement. No significant difference was realised in the acceptance scores among the students.
Impact of self-esteem, locus of control and gender on attitude towards child adoption and adoptive parents among some adults in Ibadan MetropolisSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 22 –37 (2005)More Less
Past research have shown evidence that most Nigerians, especially the Yorubas possess negative attitude towards child adoption and adoptive parents. There is however paucity of literature on psychological and social factors responsible for the observed negative attitudes. This study examined the influence of self esteem, locus of control and gender on attitude towards child adoption and adoptive parents of 300 adult males (N=150) and females (N=150) randomly drawn from Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted an expost facto design utilizing a survey technique for data collection. The main instrument is a questionnaire consisting of demographics, a self-esteem scale developed by Adanijo and Oyefeso (1986), locus of control scale developed by Craig, Franklin and Andrew (1981) and attitude towards child adoption and adoptive parent questionnaire designed by the researchers. All measures used were psychometrically sound. <BR>Result generated from the study indicated that the most significant psychological factor affecting people's negative attitude towards child adoption and adoptive parents is self-esteem (t = - 3.5; P< .001) with individuals that possess high self esteem expressing more positive attitude towards child adoption and adoptive parent (X = 102.6, N = 140), than individual with low esteem (X = 97.0, N = 160). The interaction of locus of control and self esteem also significantly influenced attitude towards child adoption and adoptive parents (F = 5.4, P<.02). <BR>These results implied that for any attitudinal change programme to be successful, people's personality dispositions have to be considered. It is thus suggested that researchers interested in changing people's attitude towards child adoption policy and adoptive parents need to consider personality factors. The above results have implication for social policy and social work practice in Ibadan community.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 38 –55 (2005)More Less
The quality of childrearing practices is thought to play a crucial role in the development of cognitive spatial skills. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the antecedents of children's social and cognitive competence are more than the provision of stable home environment and care. In this review, the impact of parent-child interactions on development of cognitive spatial skills is examined in the context of psychosocial and biological models. It is argued that early family experiences and parent-child interaction effects should have no particular primacy in determining spatial competence but rather it is the genotype that primarily determines cognitive spatial competence and the environments that are experienced.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 56 –63 (2005)More Less
This study investigated the influence of peer group on the study habit of secondary school adolescents. A sample of two hundred and ninety two (292) students was randomly selected from nine schools in two Local Government Areas of Ogun State. Two instruments were used to collect data. They are: Adolescents' Peer Influence Questionnaire (APIQ) and Students' Study Habit Questionnaire (SSHQ). Data was analysed using Pearson Product- Moment correlation, regression and t-test analyses. Histogram was also used to further explain findings. There was no significant relationship between peer influence and study habit (r=-0.010). Also, peer influence did not significantly predict study habit. Peer influence accounted for 0.0% of the total variance in adolescents' study habit (R Square = 0.000). There was no significant difference between male and female adolescents both in the levels of peer influence and study habit. The low relationship between the two variables was probably due to the fact that most of the interactions among adolescents peer groups are not academic.
Author Bimbola Dupe OludipeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 64 –72 (2005)More Less
This study examined peer Influence on School Learning among students of varying socio-economic backgrounds. One hundred and twenty students (60 males and 60 females) with a mean age 15.1 years were randomly selected from four co-educational Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government area of Ogun State. Two questionnaires were used for data collection. A significant difference among the peer influence on school learning of students from high, moderate and low socio-economic status was found. Other hypotheses were not supported by the results data analysis. A study of this kind serves as an eye-opener to classroom teachers and parents on how peers of varying backgrounds could influence one another's learning at school.
Transformational and transactional leadership conceptualization : empirical validation in the Nigerian applied settingsAuthor Oladimeji Jamiu OdetundeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 73 –92 (2005)More Less
The study to revalidated and re-examined the factor structure and the conceptualization of the transformational and transactional leadership for a possible application to the study of leadership in Nigerian applied settings. Data were collected from 212 employees (160 males and 52 females) who rated eight CEOs (4 males and 4 females) of diverse organizations. Results showed that the various conceptualizations of leadership of the MLQ - 1 are useful and relevant in measuring leadership in Nigeria. Principal factor rotation revealed supports for a 5-factor representation on the MLQ-1 in which three factors namely charismatic leadership, individualised consideration and intellectual stimulation were found on the transformational leadership and two factors on the transactional leadership namely contingent reward and management-by-exception. There was a stronger evidence in support of a 2-factor Active-Passive Structure on the MLQ. Needs for further validation and correlation of the conceptualizations with varieties of organizational outcomes as well as executive selection, training and development were suggested.
Author J. Abiola AdemokoyaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 93 –101 (2005)More Less
Inability to speak effectively is a dilemma to anyone. In fact, experiencing difficulty in speech communication can cause some individuals inconceivable frustrations. Abnormal speaking refers to a speech manner that deviates from the normal speech norms of any society. Such an unusual speech can be characterized by stammering, mispronunciation, voice defects and so on. The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of a good speaker partnering with an abnormal speaker for the purpose of improving the latter's poor speech manners. This paper therefore highlights how the two partners will go through some therapeutic procedures and achieve their goals of attaining some good speaking behaviour.
Influence of organisational climate and locus of control on job satisfaction and turnover intentionsAuthor Olukayode Ayooluwa AfolabiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 102 –113 (2005)More Less
This study examined the influence of perceived organisational climate and locus of control on job satisfaction and turnover intentions of commercial bank workers in Benin, Edo State, Nigeria. To determine this, a 2X2 ANOVA was used to analyse the data. Results from a field study of 200 employees of 25 commercial banks randomly selected support the role of perceived organisational climate and locus of control on job satisfaction. The two variables also interacted to influence job satisfaction. However, only perceived organisational climate influenced turnover intentions. The results of this study suggest that when employees perceive that their organisational climate is favourable, their job satisfaction is increased. This may explain why bank employees have lower intention to quit as a result of their belief that their organisations value and consider them very important.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 114 –137 (2005)More Less
The educational literature suggests that there is mounting pressure on tertiary institutions from customers of higher education to close the widening gap between their expectations of institutional performance and actual performance (Brigham, 1994). This study was the first part of a two-part service quality study of Ghana's first executive MBA program. The authors of the paper needed to ascertain in an exploratory context what the current service delivery experiences of the students were. Half of the respondents did not believe that the physical facilities on the EMBA were appealing. They cited worn out furnishing and fittings and unattractive looking air conditioners as some of the reasons why they thought the facilities were unappealing. Just over half (57.7%) of the respondents believed that lecturers had the knowledge to answer their questions. They were of the opinion that some lecturers were too steeped in the theoretical aspects of the course they lectured in, without showing an expansive enough appreciation of the practical ramifications of the theory both locally and internationally. 20% of the respondents would not recommend the program to friends or family because they perceived the service quality on the program was not high enough; felt competitor programs like the GIMPA EMBA had better service quality and they felt the distance learning programs like the Leicester Distance Learning EMBA offered more flexibility. This is an initial exploratory study and therefore the results are not conclusive; but rather reflective. The key areas of reflection for the program managers of the LEGON EMBA would include a look at reformulating the program content, including seasoned guest lecturers as part of the program, a look at consolidating their strengths and improve their weak areas of the teaching faculty. An EMBA student representative must also be nominated to serve on the EMBA governing Council.
Author Ronald E. HallSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 138 –149 (2005)More Less
The denigration of dark skin in Western civilization is an evolution of African pathology in the post-modern era. At the dawn of civilization depiction of Africans was in fact quite favorable to dark skin. Following the Atlantic slave trade the West utilized science and religion to justify exploitation of African peoples vis-à-vis denigration of dark skin. To the extent of Western influence persons of African descent in the modern era have internalized Western ideals. In the aftermath are skin bleaching and various other manifestations of pathology. Psychologists who engage persons of African descent must address the skin color issue to enable the therapeutic process.
Author Mathias AkotiaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 150 –163 (2005)More Less
In today's globalised marketplace the new marketing battle for tourism, exports, and inward investment is intensifying as brands have become more and more the vehicles for communication. Country branding which is about employing strategic marketing to promote a country's identity has become a strategic tool of a country's competitiveness. However, only few developing countries have articulated and implemented a branding strategy. Clarifying what a country brand and country branding encompasses, this paper examines the competitive advantage a country brand engenders for developing countries. Furthermore, emphasising country branding as a social construction, this paper argues that for developing countries entrenched in the poverty cycle there is more than persuasive rationale for country branding strategy to direct the full range of political, economic, cultural and social development.
Author Tekyiwa Amua-Sekyi EkuaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 164 –182 (2005)More Less
Recent anxiety over low performance in English of students and graduates of the country's educational institutions expressed by the populace and the print and electronic media led to a cabinet directive that the mother tongue policy medium in the first three years of primary education should give way to a straight-for- English medium policy of instruction and communication at all levels of education in Ghana. This cabinet directive sparked off a language policy debate. <BR>This paper examines issues surrounding the use of the English language as a medium of instruction in education in Ghana and the debate over change in education language policy. In considering, particularly, the viability of the mother tongue medium in primary education, a survey of 404 teachers in basic schools in 6 out of the 10 regions of Ghana was conducted to find out about their perceived classroom communication practice and language preference. Responses from teachers sampled indicate that a minority of teachers use the mother tongue exclusively during the teaching / learning process; bilingual code-switching as a communication strategy was commonly used; but the majority of teachers use the English language though more than half of the teachers sampled did not consider themselves proficient in the English language. It is argued that descriptions of classroom communication practice are necessary to inform effective education language planning. The discussion links up with the communicative needs of teachers and learners and implications for teacher training and education.
Author Abeeb Olufemi SalaamSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 183 –195 (2005)More Less
addictive drugs such as opiate can produce physical dependence after a very small number of doses. consequently, to stave off or alleviate the withdrawal distress precipitated by dependence, the addicted person resort to self- drug administration. however, the withdrawal relief theory of drug addiction posits that an aversive condition is terminated by drug administration. this model explains the negative reinforcement processes of addiction. concisely, the present review examined the major tenets of negative reinforcement theories of addiction and the way the tenets contribute to compulsive drug use. this is supported by a body of theoretical and empirical evidence substantiating the contribution of negative reinforcement processes in drug motivation.
Author Felix A. OluwatelureSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 196 –203 (2005)More Less
This paper reports the development of a 34-item-4-point rating scale for the measurement of attitude of Nigerians to the donation of egg / sperm to needy infertile couples. A 44-item questionnaire was initially developed through a pilot study that involved 10 physicians (5 of who worked with clinics that practice in-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. For further validity study, an item-total correlation was carried out, with the administration of the questionnaire to 139 subjects. Items that correlated with total at 0.01 level (34 of them) were selected for the final test. A further validity study was carried out with the administration of the 34- item instrument to 60 subjects. A split-half reliability study to determine internal consistency of the test yielded a co-efficient of 0.73, with the reliability of the entire test being 0.84. A further analysis using coefficient alpha yielded a coefficient of 0.87. The 34-item instrument was subjected to factor analysis, and yielded 12 factors which ranged from generalized fear about egg/sperm donation, religious / cultural attitude, to remuneration to donors. A test-rested reliability of the test over a 21-day period involving 35 subjects yielded a coefficient of 0.35 (P#05). To determine the cutoff for positive / negative attitude, the mean score (87) of 110 subjects were taken. Fifty-three subjects (48.2%) and 57 subjects (51.8%) fell into the positive and negative attitude categories respectively.
Further observations on study difficulty among Nigerian students : psychological aspects and psychosocial correlatesAuthor F.O. FatoyeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 204 –218 (2005)More Less
To investigate how study difficulty is associated with psychiatric morbidity, personality and psychosocial factors, the University College London Study Questionnaire (UCLSQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and a schedule on psychosocial variables were administered on 2600 randomly selected undergraduates in a Nigerian university. The results from the 2508 analysed questionnaires show that the neuroticism factor of the EPQ had significant positive relationship with disturbance on all seven subscales of the UCLSQ. Anxiety (ANX), Obsessionality (OBS), Depression (DEP), Distractability (DIS), Low motivation (L.MOT), Somatic (SOM) and Work satisfaction (W.SAT). Similarly, psychoticism was significantly associated with disturbance on all aspects except work satisfaction. However, the extroversion factor was observed to be significantly associated with disturbance on only 3 aspects (ANX, OBS and SOM), to be protective on one aspect (W.SAT) and to be unrelated to 3 aspects (DEP, DIS and L.MOT). In addition, GHQ-30 scores were significantly associated with 5 aspects of study difficulty: OBS, DEP, DIS, L.MOT and SOM. This pattern indicates that study difficulty was associated with psychopathology and commoner amongst students who were relatively high scorers on neuroticism and psychoticism. The results also show that self-reported academic problems, financial strain, polygamous family background, strained relationship between respondents parents, self-reported poor mental and physical health were significantly associated with study difficulty. These findings suggest an interplay of personality and psychosocial factors in the development of study difficulty and may be useful in the planning of preventive and psychotherapeutic strategies.
Author Alaba SimpsonSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 13, pp 219 –228 (2005)More Less
Early anthropological reportage on adolescence in developing countries was largely concentrated on research and reports relating to rites and celebrations of puberty. Present day occurrences in the Nigerian socio-cultural and global terrain have however called attention to the importance of sexual attitudes and behaviours in fostering knowledge about the adolescent girl in Nigeria. The paper notes that contemporary advocates of adolescents have largely based their intervention patterns on reproductive health care programmes which greatly undermine the subject of blood flow in the female individual especially as experienced from the subjective perspective of adolescent girls. Information derived from researching cultural information on menstruation and other forms of blood flow in adolescent girls in Nigeria can contribute extensively to existing knowledge about the female world in general and on adolescent girls in particular. This will further encourage ongoing advocacy programmes in channeling the development of adolescent girls in Nigeria towards an effective sustenance of adult life.