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- Volume 14, Issue 1, 2006
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 14, Issue 1, 2006
Volumes & issues
Volume 14, Issue 1, 2006
Author P.F. OmoluabiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 1 –14 (2006)More Less
The need to introduce objectivity and cultural relevance into vocational screening/ selection/ placement and the measurement of intelligence prompted the development of Perafom Integrated Aptitude Test (PIAT). Following the due psychometric process of item selection, PIAT comprises 40 items derived from several sources in a manner that retained the merits and eliminated the demerits of the sources, hence it is said to be integrated. The four subscales of PIAT, with 10 items each, are: Abstract reasoning ability, quantitative ability, verbal ability and spatial orientation. The test was administered to a sample of 668 participants; in the age range 9-27 (mean = 15.44) years, randomly selected from educational institutions in Lagos metropolis. The results obtained include: norms-males = 13.01, females = 12.06, 5- day test - retest reliability coefficient = .193, discriminant validity coefficient with DST = - .052. To enhance the interpretation of the results, percentiles and age-related norms were also computed. Separate psychometric properties were obtained for each of the four subscales in order to facilitate the process of vocational screening.
Author D.O. OloyedeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 15 –25 (2006)More Less
The study investigated the relationship among work-induced stress, job performance, psychological well-being and productivity of workers in banking industry in Nigeria. The study adopted survey research design. A Total number of 250 respondents were selected from old and new generation Banks using proportionate stratified sampling technique. The major instrument used in the study was a set of questionnaires titled work-induced stress and productivity scale (WISP). Four hypotheses were generated for the study. The finding of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between work-induced stress and perceived workers' productivity. Also there was a significant relationship between work-induced stress and psychological welfare of the workers. A significant difference was not found in the perception of male and female respondents on the effect of work-related stress on psychological welfare. Finally, there was a significant difference found between the old and young respondents' perception of the effect of work-related stress on their productivity. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that organizational support system that could combat the physical, social and psychological effects of work-related stress on workers' productivity should be provided at workplace. Also, industrial counseling services need to be introduced in all work organizations in order to provide therapeutic services that tend to reduce effects of work-related stress on workers' health and welfare.
Author Robert HinsonSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 26 –39 (2006)More Less
Sales strategies which firms adopt to enter, penetrate and grow in export markets is an issue pertinent to the export business and yet this has received little empirical attention in management literature. This study sought to investigate the design and implementation of sales management policies and strategies in the non-traditional export sector of Ghana. The study showed that there is a positive relationship between export sales turnover and export sales strategy design and implementation. No relationship was established between the planning of daily sales activities and sales turnover as almost all firms had daily sales plans irrespective of their sales turnover. The older the firm in export business, the more likely it was for management to put in place strategies that will facilitate the growth and profitability of the firm. This might be the case that as firms stay longer in business they are likely to improve on their managerial experience curves and for that matter adopt more pragmatic management strategies that will enhance the success of their businesses. Results show that management of non-traditional export firms in Ghana should be critically concerned with the design and implementation of comprehensive sales management strategies, taking into consideration other factors like internet use and planning of sales presentation in order to achieve enhanced performance results in foreign markets.
Author B.Wondwosen TeshomeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 40 –59 (2006)More Less
Student's migration, like any other migration involves a continuous process of interaction through which members of different social and cultural background come in contact with one another and together, with the new socio-cultural situations. In the University of Pune, students of different social, ethnic, cultural and linguistic backgrounds from different continents and countries come in search for academic knowledge. <br>This paper about African students in Pune city, deals with their perceptions towards the host population and the inter and intra racial relationships and cross-cultural interactions. <br>In this study both qualitative and quantitative data have been used. In order to gather information about the African students' community life: and their national and religious association, a quasi-participant observation technique was employed. In order to cross check the reliability of the observational data, many informants were interviewed. <br>It is found out that due to many pull and push factors African students move to India. The push factors include, the shortage of higher academic institutions in Africa, and a certain extent political instability in African countries. The pull factors include, the relatively affordable educational expenses in India, the fast and less complicated University and College admission procedures in India.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 60 –76 (2006)More Less
The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana and the various legislations on decentralisation articulate the explicit objectives of the policy which includes responsiveness to community needs. The rationale behind Ghana's decentralisation programme and the functions of the District Assemblies (DAs) therefore provide a starting point for investigation into the process. This paper examines the level of responsiveness of the DAs to the needs of the communities. Questionnaires were administered to three thousand five hundred households chosen from forty two communities in eight districts. The chi-square and the logistic regression model were employed in the descriptive and inferential analysis respectively. It was realised that the implementation of the decentralisation programme has brought about some progress in the communities. It was also realised that the DAs have been responsive to the pressing development needs of the communities, in that, a significant relationship was established between community progress and the greatest achievements of assemblies. However, peace/order/security and road/transport/communication which were identified as significant determinants of community progress did not receive the needed attention from the DAs.
Author C.O. AjidahunSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 77 –94 (2006)More Less
The study examined the leisure reading habits among the undergraduates of the Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria. A total of 756 undergraduates randomly selected from the existing four faculties of the University were used as research subjects. The subjects were exposed to a "Students Reading for Recreation Instrument" (SRRI). Three hypotheses were postulated. The data was analysed using percentages and chi-square statistics. Results showed that all the research subjects read mostly pornographic and sexual materials during their leisure hours. Results also showed that gender and students' faculty of study were significantly related to the materials the students read for leisure. Besides, there was no significant relationship between the students' sex and the pornographic materials read for leisure. Recommendations that could enhance leisure reading habits were provided.
Engendering a high performing organisational culture through internal branding in African organisationsAuthor Mathias AkotiaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 95 –108 (2006)More Less
Inattention to the deliberate creation of high performing cultures is robbing African organisations of much energy, guiding frameworks and, cultural cohesion and harmony. This paper examines the association between organisational culture and performance in relation to poorly performing African organisational cultures. Concluding that Africa's poor organisational performances are attributable to some inadequacies in the cultural foundations of countries and organisations, this paper argues for internal branding as the way forward for African organisations. Through internal branding an African organization can use a systematic and comprehensive approach that takes into view factors impacting organisational performance with the required attention to people who must deliver the corporate brand promise. This paper demonstrates that internal branding of African organisations will enable the purposeful development of organisational cultures that engender high performance.
A survey of teachers' unethical practices sustaining examination malpractice in South -Western NigeriaAuthor Abiodun M. GesindeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 109 –132 (2006)More Less
This survey study investigated teachers' professional misconduct sustaining examination malpractice. Participants were four hundred post primary and secondary school teachers randomly drawn from all the senatorial districts of three of the South Western part of Nigeria (male= 221 and female= 179). A self constructed questionnaire was used to gather data. The descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were employed to test the three research questions formulated while t- test statistics was utilised to confirm the three null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. Findings indicated at 2.5 decision level the respondents agreed that thirty- nine out of the fifty-two items sustained examination malpractice. Inability to give prompt punishment to exam cheats was top on the list of the items at (x = 2.86).This was closely followed by the failure of teachers to properly supervise or monitor examination materials at (x = 2.78) and teachers' behaviour of ignoring examination malpractice acts perpetrated by their favourites at (x = 2.77).The results further showed that there were no significant differences in the perception of : male and female teachers (t = 1.71; df=398, P >0.05); teachers with less than ten years of working experience and teachers with ten and above working years of experience (t = .32; df=398, P>0.05); while there was significant difference in the perception of post primary and post secondary teachers (t = -3.22; df=389, P <0.05). On the premise of these findings the implications on counselling profession was discussed and it was suggested among others that examination monitoring board/ marshal should be established in all the local government of the federation.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 133 –144 (2006)More Less
Reading is one of life's greatest pleasures and opens the door to culture, knowledge and independence. It can be very therapeutic. This study examines the effect of bibliotherapy on aging phobia among Covenant University academic and senior staff. The result shows that reading of books has influenced positively their perception and attitude towards aging. And that books especially the bible, internet and friends are major sources of information to ameliorate any fear of aging.
The state of support services and effect of class size in mainstreamed schools : implication for inclusive education in GhanaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 145 –157 (2006)More Less
The study was conducted primarily to find the state of support services and the effect of class size in mainstreamed schools and its implication for the inclusive drive. The study became necessary due to the importance of these two factors in the provision of holistic inclusive programmes in Ghana. The samples for the study were ten head teachers and fifty teachers, making a total of 60 respondents. The respondents were selected from ten schools in the Cape Coast Municipality. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. Frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the responses got. The result of the study has established that generally, professional support services are not available in inclusive schools in the Cape Coast Municipality. Also that currently, class sizes in mainstreamed classrooms are too large for effective teaching and learning. The respondents there fore recommended an ideal class size of between 20-30 pupils. Based on the result of the study it was recommended that every school or at least every district education office in the country must have support personnel to offer assistance to the exceptional pupils and advice to teachers on how to handle children with specific disabilities. Secondly the Ministry of Education should come out with a policy on the stipulated number of exceptional pupils to be included in each class. Lastly the Ministry of Education and the Ghana Education Service should come out with a policy on class size in inclusive classrooms. The recommended class size should be between 20-30 pupils.
Lecturer and student sensitivity to academic dishonesty intervention approaches in a federal university in NigeriaAuthor Olabisi Olasehinde-WilliamsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 158 –182 (2006)More Less
This paper presents the report of a survey of staff and students' expression of preference for, and willingness to engage, in three approaches to curbing the menace of academic dishonesty in a Nigerian university. The study also explored the possible connections between gender and the respondents' responses. Eighty-seven staff and two hundred and thirty-two final year undergraduate students, randomly selected from five faculties in the university, constituted the study sample; and data was collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire patterned after Hinman's (2000) "Police, Virtues and Prevention" approaches to curbing academic dishonesty. The Chi-square statistic was employed in establishing the significance of observed differences between staff and students on the variables of preference and, engagement for each approach. Findings of the study showed that while the Police approach was the most preferred by staff, the students expressed preference mostly for the Virtues approach. However, only small proportions of staff and students expressed high willingness to engage in activities required to actualize the objectives of any of the approaches. The implications of the findings for integrated approach to curbing academic dishonesty and for instituting academic integrity policy in Nigerian universities are highlighted.
Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records management personnel in Nigerian State UniversitiesAuthor S.O. PopoolaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 183 –197 (2006)More Less
This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational commitment scale developed by Ellemer , Gilder and Heuvel (1998) with (a = 0.79) reliability coefficient was used for data gathering. Six hypotheses were tested in the study. The Z-Score and X<sup>2</sup> tests statistic, as well as simple correlation analysis were utilized. The results showed that sex, age, marital status, length of service, and level of education affect the organizational commitment of the subjects. The study advocated for improved conditions of service to enhance organizational commitment of the records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria.
Social science research : a critique of quantitative and qualitative methods and proposal for an eclectic approachAuthor Folorunso S. AlukoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 198 –210 (2006)More Less
The ongoing argument over the relative merits of what are generally referred to as qualitative and quantitative research is clouded by two problems: 1) beatification and glorification of a particular method over the other, and 2) the focus of most discussions on methods instead of on the basic assumptions of these two approaches. I believe that the second problem is at the root of the confusion and the first is a manifestation of it. Specific methods, particularly data gathering methods, are not necessarily linked with one set of assumptions as opposed to another. The question underlying differences of research stances (or paradigms) should be their ontological and epistemological assumptions.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 211 –221 (2006)More Less
Many scholars have discussed issues relating to conflicts particularly gender violence as they affect the home. The family system in African culture bestows certain rights to women gender. Women inherited the life style of pampering but subjected to men domination particularly in political, social, economical and psychological controls. These have caused a lot of confusion and perhaps conflicts to the identity of women and the society. The women have right of keeping the home and the children. However in the primitive economic buoyancy these rights were managed in a balance between men and women. As the political, social and economical situations grow, this behaviour dwindles in terms of conflicts. Women suddenly became aware of their rights which are been eroded among spouses which posed crisis to the family. These routes of gender conflicts against women and children are increasing and are unbearable to peaceful coexistence. This study examined both the causative and strategic factors of crisis management in Nigeria family system. Rahim (1985) conflict causative and management scale was adapted for the study. With this instrument, six hundred households were surveyed in towns and villages of Ondo state. Three hundred and twenty four questionnaires were found to be suitable for analysis and were subjected to t-test for independent groups and Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. Psychological and political factors were found to be the most two causative factors of conflicts in the family while integrating and obliging factors were found to be most effective strategies of crisis management in the family. Significant sex differences were observed in the levels of both the causative and the strategic management factors. Results were discussed in line with the existing previous findings and the current socio-economic and prevailing cultural values in Nigeria family system.
Wage employment and gender differences in work-family role conflict among industrial workers in South-Western NigeriaAuthor D.I. AkintayoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 222 –239 (2006)More Less
The study investigated the influence of men and women involvement in wage employment on work-family role conflict among industrial workers in South-Western Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the variation in the value attached to life roles and determine the gender difference in the importance assigned to family and work roles with implications on work- family role conflict among workers in work organizations in Nigeria. The study adopted survey research design. A total of 375 respondents were selected for the study using proportionate sampling technique. The hypotheses generated for the study were tested at .05 alpha levels using Pearson product Moment Correlation, Chi-Square, Multivariate Analysis and t test statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that men and women involvement in wage employment has significantly influenced work-family role conflict. Also, men were found to be higher than women on work value, while women were rated higher than men in family value. The finding further showed that there was a significant difference between the three groups on the importance assigned to life roles. Women are higher than men in their levels of work-family role conflict. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the employers of labour should organize organizational support system in terms of incentives, which could cushion the effect of work-family role conflict on the part of the workers. More so, workers education programmes that could incorporate management strategies for work-family role conflict should be introduced in work organizations in order to afford the workers acquiring the skills required for coping with challenges arising from work-family role responsibilities.
Author B.O. AjidahunSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 240 –249 (2006)More Less
The study examined student's perception of examination malpractices in the University of Ado - Ekiti, Ekiti State. A total number of 360 students randomly selected from eight faculties of the University were used as research subjects. The subjects were exposed to "Examination Malpractices Questionnaire" (EMQ) consisting of 16 items. Three hypotheses were postulated. The data were analysed using Chi - square statistics. Result showed that personal characteristics and students' moral judgement were significantly related to students' involvement in examination malpractices
Author Michael O. EzenwaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 250 –264 (2006)More Less
The study examined the incidence of sexual anxiety among a sample of students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki. Final year medical students that constituted the experimental group were compared with final year students of English on one hand and History and International Relations on the other hand on sexual anxiety using sexual anxiety inventory. <br>Result showed significant mean difference by gender between the student participants with male students having more sexual anxiety report than female counterparts (36.81 <20.97 at p < .05) but no significant mean difference between male and female medical students. <br>Both English students and History and International Relations students were found to show greater significant mean difference in report of sexual anxiety than medical students. (40.72 and 41.34 > 14.82 at p<.05). <br>The observations in the light of the above were discussed.