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- Volume 14, Issue 2, 2006
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 14, Issue 2, 2006
Volumes & issues
Volume 14, Issue 2, 2006
Author Wisdom Harrison K. HordziSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 1 –15 (2006)More Less
The introduction of Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) delivered through distance learning appears to be a major way out to upgrade a teaming mass of certificate 'A" teachers at the basic level of teaching in Ghana. However indications are that many of them are finding it difficult to sail through successfully. To help the learners there is the need to find out the root cause of the problem. Hence, 119 levels 300 Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) distance learners of the Winneba study centre of the University of Education, Winneba were sampled to find out the causes of the problems and how to solve them. The results showed that majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 and 49 years (approximately 80.67%); 56.30% of them were males whilst 43.70% were females. The major problems that prevented majority of them from entering the university before the introduction of the distance learning programme are financial problem, family problems, failed attempts and lack of the required grades, etc. Some of the challenges or problems the distance education students face are difficulty in combining teaching and learning due to lack of time, financial problems leading to inability to pay fees, family and marital problems, etc, and these result in poor academic performance. In all 68.91% of respondents find the courses being offered on the DBE programme to be too many and they proposed that the number is reduced. Forty-two respondents (35.29%) rated the science course being offered as too difficult and the methodology too theoretical (42.86%). They suggested the use of more practical methods of teaching the science and at a slower pace.
Author Joseph Kwesi OgahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 16 –35 (2006)More Less
The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the concept of teacher efficacy in order to expose its application in educational practice. Selected literature was reviewed to determine the meaning, types, measurement and application of teacher efficacy. Teacher efficacy or teaching efficacy is defined as teachers' belief in their ability to bring about positive educational outcomes in the children they teach. Teaching efficacy emerged mainly from selfefficacy, a construct derived from Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT). General teaching efficacy (GTE) and personal teaching efficacy (PTE) have been identified. General teaching efficacy is defined as the belief that teaching can impact student learning in spite of external constraints, and PTE as a teacher's perceived ability to positively impact student learning. Other types of teacher efficacy include subject teaching efficacy and collective teaching efficacy. The literature shows that there is a positive correlation between teacher efficacy and positive student outcomes. As most studies on teacher efficacy were conducted in the United States, it was suggested that researchers should vigorously study the construct in the African context in order to apply it in improving educational practices.
Author Francis Eric AmuquandohSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 36 –55 (2006)More Less
As part of the tourism trade, destinations are required to provide adequate information on their tourism products and facilities to the potential tourist at the market. The paper assesses the availability of tourism related information on the Ghana's tourism to visitors' from the UK, the USA and Germany. The discrepancy approach which relates the expected (basic information to make effective travel decisions) to the actual situation (actual travel information available for planning a trip) was adopted to help identify information gaps with regard to Ghana tourism industry <br>Although, visitors from both the UK, the USA and Germany indicated that there is reliable information on Ghana's climate, clothing requirements and visa requirement in their various countries, they pointed out that there is dearth of information on Ghana's major tourism products (major museums, fee charged at attractions, major festivals, customs and tradition of the people) in the key markets, a phenomenon described in the communication equation model as <i>gap to be filled</i>
Study habits among senior secondary school students in some selected districts in Central Region, Ghana.Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 56 –69 (2006)More Less
This study sought to find out the nature of senior secondary school students' study habits in some selected districts in the Central Region of Ghana. Five hypotheses were tested at p<0.05, using the chi square. The descriptive sample survey design was used. Five hundred (500) students constituted the sample size. The findings indicated, among others, that (i) no significant differences existed between the study habits of male and female students; (ii) no significant differences existed between the study habits of SSS forms 1 and 3 students; (iii) no significant differences existed between the study habits of boarding and day students; and (iv) study habits of students from high socio-economic homes did not differ significantly from students from low socio-economic homes. The recommendations made include (i) the need to teach study skills to senior secondary school students so that they can all cultivate good and effective study habits; and (ii) equal opportunities for studying should be provided to all students irrespective of sex.
Missionsfrau Rosine Widmann : Gold Coast (Ghana) encounters. Nineteenth Century Ethnographical ObservationsAuthor Seth QuarteySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 70 –99 (2006)More Less
Missionsfrau [en] as a concept defines the dialectic of the white male dominance in the colonial agenda and the status of their female counterparts in this process of change. Yet, in this specific historical situation, and more importantly within the Gold Coast context, the literature gives very little attention to the Missionsfrau for implementing change, let alone the larger body of writings that documents their observations and discourse of the colonial encounter. Drawing from the diary of the German Missionsfrau Rosine Widmann (1826-1908) who lived and worked in the British Settlement on the Gold Coast (West Africa) in the nineteenth century, this article rather than exploring Widmann in terms of the embracing category of cultural change, examines her literary construction of racialized bodies during her encounter with the locals. The analysis shall show that Widmann's diary is not only a means of following the discursive construction of black bodies on the Gold Coast but also a means of finding explanation for her experiences.
Enhancing teaching and assessment practices in affective objectives of social studies in Teacher Training Colleges in GhanaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 100 –116 (2006)More Less
The purpose of the study was to find the extent to which social studies tutors in the teacher training colleges (TTC) of Ghana teach in the affective domain and assess the affective objectives of teaching. A sample of thirty-five (35) social studies tutors, purposively selected from twenty-six TTC in all the ten (10) regions of Ghana, was used for the study. <br>A 38 - item questionnaire, observational checklist and an instrument for the analysis of test items in the affective domain were used to collect data. <br>The results of the study indicate that social studies tutors in the TTCs seldom teach in the affective domain because they have little knowledge about the taxonomic levels of internalisation of the affective domain. Similarly, the tutors hardly assess the affective outcomes and ineffectively too because of lack of adequate knowledge of the affective domain and appropriate assessment instruments.
Author Daniel Eseme Idowu GberevbieSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 117 –141 (2006)More Less
The sources from which organizations decide to select personnel from are central to its ability to survive, adapt, and grow (Noe et al, 2004:171). The paper examines a case study of recruitment and selection of quality academic staff into Covenant University. The paper addresses the factors that could affect recruitment sources and the advantages of identification of such sources. The study used the primary data by means of discussion with the human resource department (Registry) of Covenant University and secondary data by means of information from relevant journals, covenant university records and textbooks. The paper suggested ways of proper identification of quality academic staff recruitment sources and recommended that organizations such as universities should be proactive in the area of sourcing for competent academic staff to achieve the goals of the university. This it could do by identifying labour sources like unemployed graduates, the industries, and institutions of higher learning, retired senior academics and the provision of resources in terms of finance to hire them.
Efficacy of psychometric instruments of WISC-R and SIT in the identification of gifted and talented childrenAuthor O.A. FakoladeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 142 –150 (2006)More Less
This article described the use of WISC-R and SIT in identifying children that are gifted and talented in Nigeria. The problems associated with the batteries especially as it has to do with same antitest sentiments and cultural biasness in relation to issues of inaccessibility, rigidity and fairness of the test items. The test batteries were found to be relevant in identifying gifted and talented Nigerian students only if there is the elimination of the culture loaded items, which will enhance the performance of the pupils. On the basis of this finding, it was suggested that WISC-R and SIT are properly accultured and renormed and more intelligence tests indigenous to Nigerians should be constructed.
Author Zahir VallySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 151 –165 (2006)More Less
Cybertherapy, the provision of mental health services via e-mail, video conferencing, virtual reality or chat technology (Manhal-Banguas, 2001) is, as yet undiscovered territory in South African mental health. However, the exponential growth of computerized technology may very well serve as a worthy answer in meeting and possibly alleviating the counselling and mental health needs of South African society. Consequently, familiarity with the unique and particular methods of online therapy is essential. The development of explicit guidelines and rules of conduct is also needed so that practitioners and clients may monitor the ethical status of the services that are provided and received. Professional bodies have a role to play in developing these guidelines, communicating them to the relevant parties and then monitoring its implementation. The dynamics involved in 'cyber-practice' should also be incorporated as part of all graduate psychology programs.
The role of HIV / AIDS within a low income urban household setting in Botswana : changing dynamics of gender and personal space contractsAuthor Thando D. GwebuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 166 –188 (2006)More Less
The aim of the study was to analyse the dynamics of gender and space utilization, within low income urban households in Gaborone, the capital city of Botswana, in the context of care giving for people living with HIV, and guardianship for HIV / AIDS orphan children. The study relied on a qualitative methodology. The selection of key informants was based on convenience sampling whereas the choice of household respondents was based on purposive sampling and snowballing techniques. An interview guide was used for in-depths interviews. Observations were made about the indoor and outdoor living conditions of the household respondents. Results show that care giving is gendered. First, the traditional gendered utilization of space is constantly being negotiated, in response to the requirements of HIV patients and those of HIV / AIDS orphan children. Secondly, the proliferating female HIV / AIDS patient care-giving and orphan children guardianship appear to be threatening the central and pivotal position of the father figure within the patriarchal household setting.
Management training programmes : the influence of managerial status, gender and age on learning effectivenessAuthor D.I. AkintayoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 189 –204 (2006)More Less
This study investigated the influence of managerial status, gender and age on learning effectiveness of managers in work organizations. The ex-post-facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of 110 respondents participated in the study. The data for the study were collected using a set of questionnaire titled Managerial Status and Behavioural Scale (MSBS) and Learning Effectiveness Scale (LES). The findings of the study revealed that managerial status had significantly influenced learning effectiveness. Also, old managers learn more than the young manager on psychological issues, such as stress management, workers motivation and career development. Male managers were found to be more responsive to learning in management training programmes. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that management training programmes that gear towards occupational stress, conflict management, and other managerial skills should be organized for all levels of workers on continuous basis in order to enable them adapt to environmental changes that tend to impact organization. Also, old managers should be retained since they possesses a wealth of knowledge required for mentoring of junior workers and are receptive to learning the very aspect of leadership that tend to enhance effectiveness of modern organizations.
Religious orientation, health locus of control and percieved stress among hospital workers in Abuja NigeriaAuthor Victor Y.D. AdamuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 205 –224 (2006)More Less
The influence of religion on the lives of people cannot be overemphasized. A Cursory observation of our society shows that religion plays a central role in our daily lives and functioning. There also seems to be a breakaway from orthodox / traditional religious groups, to those that offer financial independence, fullness of health e.t.c. The popularity of new spiritual groups offering a variety of pathways to transcendence calls for a new perspective on the part of observers attempting to discern guidelines for continuing healthy psychological development through life (Vaughan, 1983)
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 225 –244 (2006)More Less
Surveys were carried out in Ghana into principals' and teachers' attitudes toward and knowledge of inclusive education. <br>Data provided information on the influence of principals' and teachers' background variables on attitudes toward and knowledge of inclusive education. The sample of 128 educators (20 principals and 108 teachers) was drawn from 20 primary schools in two districts. <br>Employing t-tests and Multiple Regression Analyses, the results showed that principals and teachers held relatively positive attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities into regular classrooms, but had limited knowledge of inclusive education. <br>Though background variables such as training, experience working with students with disabilities and class-size were found to be related to principal's and teacher's attitudes and knowledge of inclusive education, the background variables that were most predictive of their attitudes and knowledge were the presence of students with disabilities in the classroom and training in special education / inclusion.
Author Friday Asiazobor EboiyehiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 245 –262 (2006)More Less
The study investigated life in retirement among Nigerian pensioners against the backdrop of economic strain and non-payment of pensions and gratuities. The study relied on both primary and secondary data generated from the pensioners themselves and information from newspapers, magazines, academic journals and books. The participants consisted of 32 pensioners selected from three local governments in Ibadan metropolis, namely, Ibadan North, Ibadan North East and Ibadan North West. There was no rigid sampling process. Interviews were conducted as pensioners or retirees were found and consented to participating in the study. The study also utilized the snowball sampling approach, whereby a retiree volunteered information leading to the identification of retirees. The study adopts content analysis for data sorting and each key comment is illustrated with selected verbatim quotes from the study participants which represent the views that were expressed by the respondents. Findings show that pensioners are passing through psychological trauma in Nigeria due to non-payment of their pensions and gratuities. Consequently, some of them have died of hunger, depression and preventable ailment. In attempt to avoid untimely death, some of the pensioners have engaged in all kinds of odd jobs such as alms begging, night guards, petty trading and small scale farming. The policy implication of the study is also discussed.
Author Adekunle Anthony AdegokeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 14, pp 263 –294 (2006)More Less
Various techniques of behaviour modification as related to health behaviours were examined in this paper. Modification of health behaviour is based on the fact that most of the twenty first century illnesses and diseases are preventable, hence the need for the adoption of health enhancing behaviour and modification of health compromising behaviour. Several approaches were examined, which included the use of attitude and belief change, in the form of fear and information appeal, role of theory in behaviour modification and cognitive behavioural approaches to health behaviour change. <br>Self-directed behaviour change techniques, and broad spectrum multimode procedures were also discussed. The preventive methods that could be useful in guiding against relapse and appropriate venue for health-habit modification were also considered.