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- Volume 15, Issue 2, 2007
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 15, Issue 2, 2007
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Volume 15, Issue 2, 2007
Author Samuel Taiwo AkinyeleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 1 –9 (2007)More Less
This study examined how students expect salesperson ability vs. salesperson effort to impact evaluations of salesperson performance. Students reviewed information about either a performance attributed to the salesperson's ability or a performance attributed to the salesperson's effort. The information had purportedly been prepared by the salesperson's supervisor and indicated the level of performance as high or low. Students were asked how they thought the salesperson's supervisor might respond to the performance in terms of rewards (e.g., promotion, pay increases) for high performers and corrective measures (e.g., termination, counseling) for low performers. The results of the study indicated that students expect supervisors to react more punitively toward salespeople with low performances attributed to effort than toward salespeople with low performances attributed to ability. Conversely, students expected nonpunitive (e.g., counseling) actions to be used significantly more for correcting salespeople who performed poorly due to low ability. In contrast, students expected supervisors to grant the "highest" rewards (e.g., promotion) to salespeople with high performances attributed to ability rather than effort. Implications for managers are discussed.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 10 –24 (2007)More Less
As HIV / AIDS continues to ravage sub-Sahara Africa, questions about the Social-Psychological effects of the pandemic affecting social relationship and networks have become pronounced. People's behavioural response to the disease and relationship with victims is often shaped by their beliefs, values and social expectations about appropriate behavioural dispositions. Despite the increasing knowledge and awareness that people have concerning HIV / AIDS and its mode of transmission, discrepancies still exist regarding the attitudinal and behavioural responses of members of the society to HIV / AIDS victims. This paper seek to examine the socio-cultural and psychological dynamics underlying this attitudinal disposition and the consequences it has on the quality of life of victims and their responses to the infection. The paper concludes that the increased stigmatization and discrimination surrounding HIV / AIDS infection is exacerbated by its being the object of intense moral scrutiny which must be redressed by pragmatic legislations.
Comparative effects of "DO IT" creativity and Emotional Mastery techniques in fostering emotional intelligence among adolescents with physical impairments in Oyo State, NigeriaAuthor Sunday G. OlawaleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 25 –34 (2007)More Less
This study investigated the comparative effects of "DO IT" creativity and Emotional Mastery techniques in fostering emotional intelligence among adolescents with physical impairments in Oyo State, Nigeria. There were ninety participants randomly selected from three special institutions in the state, namely: Cheshire High School, Ibadan; Rehabilitation Centre for the Disabled, Moniya, Ibadan, and; Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo. A 3 x 3 experimental design was used for this study. The age range of the participants was between 13 - 21 with a mean age of 18.5 years. The self Concept Scale (Section A) of the Adolescent Personal Data Inventory(APDI) was used to classify the participants into self concept categories (low, moderate and high). The criterion measure was Emotional Intelligence test. One major hypothesis, with a sub- hypothesis, was tested in the study at 0.05 level of significance . The results showed that the Emotional Intelligence test scores of treated participants significantly improved over their counterparts in the control group. It was also found that participants in the "DO IT" group benefited more from the treatment programme than those in the Emotional Mastery group. Based or this, suggestions were advanced towards making persons with physical impairments emotionally intelligence
Author Karen PfefferSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 35 –52 (2007)More Less
This paper considers the cultural context of children's unintentional injuries using Super and Harkness' developmental niche theory as a theoretical framework. Examples are drawn from a review of research in Nigeria and Britain. The 'developmental niche' comprises three major subsystems that function together and interact with each other. These are (1) the physical and social setting in which the child lives, (2) the psychology of the caretakers and (3) customs of child-care. Risk and protective factors in the physical and social setting are discussed in relation to family characteristics, family income and the physical environment of the home. Caretaker psychology is discussed with examples of parental beliefs about children's responsibilities, capabilities and risks, as well as attributions of responsibility for injury. Customs of child-care in Nigeria and Britain are discussed in relation to domestic and pedestrian injury. Age and sex differences in injury rates in Nigeria and Britain are discussed in relation to the adaptation of the developmental niche for children as they develop and the limitations to such adaptations. It is concluded that the development niche theory provides a useful framework for studying and explaining children's unintentional injuries in cultural context.
"Distance education in Ghana and the place of counselling : issues, initiatives, implications for the Counsellor"Author Eric Nyanko-SampsonSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 53 –70 (2007)More Less
The quest for knowledge especially at the tertiary level in the world today has led to an increase in the numbers that apply to the various institutions of higher learning. This quest, not matched by corresponding infrastructural development in these institutions of higher learning, and empolyers' lukewarm attitude in releasing employees for full time study programmes even though they prefer working with employees who have upgraded their knowledge, have made the need for distance education as very important as relevant. Distance education has evolved over the years, and has been run on different models and themes. Distance education involves learning apart (physically separated) from a teacher by means of communications through print, mechanical, or electronic devices. It indicates a distance between learner and teacher which is not merely geographic but educational and psychological as well. Various initiatives in distance education have been undertaken in Europe, Africa and specifically in Ghana. Designing appropriate counselling programmes will help distance education students to bring out better results by proper utilization of their potentialities and realize the aim of education.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 71 –81 (2007)More Less
Meseron therapy is a psychological treatment approach of African origin that consists of a direct and holistic counter-attack on undesirable conditions. It derives from an African custom of rejecting the negative while accepting the positive circumstances of life. Based on the philosophy of "I can", and the concept of man as a striving creature, it seeks to "mobilze" the patient / client to re-assess his "perceptive capacity" as well as his "appraisal mechanism' and then positively and jointly employ his "operating facilities": thoughts, words and actions. The Meseron view of the nature of man is that man is a striving creature whose ultimate goal is ennoblement. For the purpose of striving he is endowed with appropriate psychological instruments, which develop in given socio- cultural and physical environments. With these aids, man can alter himself and environment and so over come.
Author Mary Basil NwokeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 82 –102 (2007)More Less
Perception on the relationship, between Poverty and Emotional adjustment of Street children was investigated. One hundred adults, fifty males and fifty females; one hundred and thirty Psychology students, sixty five males and sixty -five females participated in generating items for the questionnaire. Then three hundred Staff of the University of Nigeria, 150 academic and 150 non-academic, 75 males and 75 females respectively; three hundred students of the Faculty of the Social Sciences; 150 males and 150 females, participated in the study. The findings showed that some factors pushed the growing individuals into the life in the Street and among these, poverty is prominent. Also it was discovered that in the contemporary society, people of different developmental stages are found in the streets' not only children as a result economic crunch and poor living conditions.
Evaluating the management styles of intergroup conflicts in the ivory towers : a comparative analysis of selected Southwestern universities in Nigeria.Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 103 –123 (2007)More Less
This study examined intergroup conflicts in selected universities in Southwestern Nigeria. This was with a view to evaluate management strategies adopted by university administration in resolving intergroup conflicts using ownership of institution as a critical variable in exploring these management styles. The study utilized primary and secondary data. Six universities consisting of two each of federal, state and private were purposively selected for the study, namely: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Lagos State University, Ojoo, University of Ado-Ekiti,Ekiti, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo and Covenant University, Ota. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis of quantitative data, while content analysis technique was used for the qualitative data. Regarding their use of intergroup conflict management style, there was no significant difference across universities in their use of structural strategy (F=0.25, P>0.05). There was however variation among them in their use of communication strategy (F-12.79, P<0.05), process strategy (F = 37.56, P<0.05) and formal dispute style (F=8.96, P <0.05). The study showed that State universities adopted more than others, the, process and communication strategies, while the private Universities employed the use of structural strategy. The Federal Universities were more disposed to the use of formal dispute strategy. The study concluded in the selected universities, strategies engaged by university administrators differed significantly across universities based on the form of ownership.
Impact of government poverty alleviation programmes on the socio- economic status of youths in Ibadan Metropolis, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 124 –131 (2007)More Less
Positive transformation of the socio-economic life of the citizenry is one of the major challenges of developing nations of the world. One of the causes of this problem is low level of investment in income generating ventures. In Nigeria, various economic empowerment programmes have been adopted to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the people. Despite these programmes, poverty still exists among Nigerians especially the youth. This study therefore examines the impact of government poverty alleviation programmes on the youth. The population of the study comprised of all youths who have benefited from government poverty alleviation programmes. The Random Sampling Technique was used to select a sample of two hundred from the population. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analysed with the chi-square statistics. The findings revealed that a significant relationship exist between government poverty alleviation programmes and socio-economic status of youths in Nigeria. It is therefore concluded that access to poverty alleviation programmes improve income level of the youths and promote economic independence. This study then suggested that government should broaden the scope of its poverty alleviation programmes to accommodate more beneficiaries.
Effectiveness of Six Thinking Hats Training in improving the psychological well being of prison inmates in Ilorin Central PrisonAuthor Mary Ogechi EsereSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 132 –142 (2007)More Less
This study investigated the effectiveness of Six Thinking Hats Training in improving the psychological well- being of prisoners. The study consisted of 24 convicted prisoners whose ages ranged from 19- 60 years with a mean of 22.50 years. A 2x2 experimental group design was adopted, and subjects were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. A validated instrument titled "Psychological Well-being Scale" was administered to the two groups before and after the experimental programme. The programme was packaged into 8 weekly workshop sessions. Analysis of Covariance was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Results showed that the treatment package (Six Thinking Hats Training) was effective in improving the psychological well-being of the prisoners, their age notwithstanding. Based on this finding, it was recommended that prisoners should always seek counsleling to enable them face the daunting challenges of incarceration and that Counsellors in Nigeria should diversify their services to non-school settings like the prisons.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 143 –163 (2007)More Less
This paper seek to argue that the underlie maxim behind any reform in any given social structure is to provide a sound collective framework that will lead to improvements in the social welfare of the aggregate people in the society. Thus, the role of the state as constituting the engine of growth and development of the country in this regard cannot be overemphasized. States like social system is an entity made up of interconnected and interrelated parts, be it political, economic, cultural, family, educational etc, in which each part affect the other in some way and the system as a whole. It therefore follows that if the state must survive and be an active catalyst in driving development, its various parts must have some degree of fit or compatibility on the basis of value consensus, where every members of society agree on certain definable ethos of individual liberty, freedom, discipline, probity, accountability etc enshrined in the various parts of the social structure of the society to shape and guide our collective behaviours, attitude and motivation. The paper further emphasizes that development that is sustainable can only arise when there is a revolutionary change in the institutions of society and economy that brings about change in attitudes and behaviours of the state in promoting and protecting the public good and not one bent on regulating the status-quo. The paper finally concludes on the premise that for development to thrive, a nation must be driven by a philosophy of internalized, pragmatic collective values that is highly supportive of hard-work and enterprise and a developmental state that is manned by a highly skilled technocratic bureaucracy and a close cooperation between major economic groupings such as agriculture, business and labour, and not values that reflect goals and aspirations formulated by the governing class for society at large.
Academic qualification and school type differentials in Nigerian higher institutions' secretaries performance in automated officesAuthor Alaba O. AgbatogunSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 164 –178 (2007)More Less
This study x-rayed the academic qualifications and school type differentials in higher institutions' secretaries' performance and productivity in automated office. The study was based on two Nigerian polytechnic and three Nigerian universities. 335 respondents served as the sample for the study. The Higher Institutions Secretary's Productivity Assessment Form with cronbach coefficient alpha of 0.81 was used in the collection of data that was analysed with Analysis of Variance at 0.05 significant level. Academic qualifications of Nigerian higher institutions' secretaries and school type were found to have significant impact on their performance. It was however suggested that Nigerian higher institutions' secretaries should be encouraged to acquire higher degrees. Secretaries' skills should be improved through seminars workshops and in-service training, while Nigerian higher institutions (polytechnic and universities) should be equally equipped. And that state government owned higher institutions should be made to enjoy financial reinforcement from the federal government.
Assessing the influence of stress, work and age on coping behaviour pattern of selected breast-feeding mothers in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.Author Anthony Ehon IdialuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 179 –189 (2007)More Less
This study investigated the influence of stress, age and work on the coping behaviour of breast-feeding mothers. A total of three hundred breast-feeding mothers with age ranged between 17-40 years, mean age 23.6 years and SD 11.2 were randomly selected from five different maternity clinics in Ekpoma metropolis and its environs. Two major psychological instruments, Breast-Feeding Associated Distress scale (BFDS) and Coping Behaviour Inventory (CBI) designed by the researcher were administered on the respondents. Results show that breast-feeding mothers with low distress coped better than mothers with high distress F =49.3, (P>.05). Old nursing mothers coped less than younger mothers, F =4.17, (P<.05). Working mothers coped better than non-working mothers, F =5.43, (P<.05). There was no interaction effect between stress, age and work on coping among breast-feeding mothers (P>. 05). The implication of the study is that there is need to reduce stress associated with breast-feeding. Also mothers should be encouraged, educated and properly enlightened to breastfeed their babies adequately, on demand, effectively and regularly to improve maternal and child health.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 190 –197 (2007)More Less
In the present article, we are trying to put some light on the mystery of our world labeled as "reincarnation". In this effort we discus the meaning of reincarnation and trying to understand the religious importance and belief of it. A combination of previous and current researches, which are based on true cases of that type among all over the world, is, to marched special evidences to prove it. Though many people still don't believe on the concept of reincarnation. In conclusion, it's a matter of individual's belief and disbelief about the particular concept. Which one can agree or disagree on one's own thinking
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 198 –211 (2007)More Less
The study identified causes of industrial conflicts in the teaching service of Osun State, Nigeria. It also determined the effects of industrial conflicts on the public secondary school educational sector of Osun State. Primary and secondary data were collected for the study. Primary data were collected through questionnaires and in-depth oral interview. Secondary data were collected from official publications of both the ministry of Education, Osogbo and the Nigerian Union of Teachers, Osun Sstate wing. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze the data collected.
The study revealed that the major causes of industrial conflicts included: poor conditions of service (28.23%) breach of agreement by government (25%); Unlawful retirement and retrenchment of teachers (23.54%) and poor remuneration (21.13%). Industrial conflicts had affected the performance of public secondary school's students in WAEC and NECO, negatively. Also it has reduced the enrolment figure in the public secondary schools in Osun State and has lowered the morale of public secondary school teachers in the state. The study concluded that the causes of industrial conflicts should be addressed in order to restore the past glory of public secondary schools in the state in particular and the country in general.
Religiosity and perceived family support as correlate of Nigerian university undergraduates self-esteemAuthor A. Adeyemi AdediwuraSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 212 –225 (2007)More Less
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of religiosity and perceived family support on self-esteem levels of undergraduate students in a Nigerian university.
The participants were purposively selected from all faculties and student's non-denominational religion associations in one Federal University in Nigeria.
500 participants filled out a questionnaire of four sections. The result of the analyses shows that the relationship between undergraduate religiosity ratings and self-esteem ratings is not significant (r = 0.09) also, the influence of religiosity level on self-esteem level is not significant (x2 = 2.61, p > .05). More so, the difference in the self-esteem levels of Christian and Muslim undergraduates is not significant (F = 0.22, p > .05). However there is a significant influence of level of perceived family support on self-esteem level (x2 = 92.68, p < .05). This is supported by the significant difference in the self-esteem ratings of undergraduates from monogamous and polygamous families (t = 8.98, p < .05). It therefore implies that perceived family support influences self-esteem. Thus, increasing the amount of family support an undergraduate receives and perceives will increase their self-esteem.
Author N.B. YusuffSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 226 –235 (2007)More Less
The Nigerian society has become sophisticated and need a variety of information to carry out its activities successfully. This paper emphasis the role of National Library as the only institution backed by legal deposit decree to act as the National Bibliographic Agency of Nigeria. This paper highlights the supposed role of National Library in the area of Bibliographic control as collection of both published and unpublished materials print and non-print including papers presented at seminars, conference of learned associations, research institutes, universities and ministries.
The paper also brings to focus the subjects' coverage in National Bibliography of Nigeria between 2001 and 2005. Also discusses the factors responsible for the poor state of Bibliographic control and those attempts made to correct the situation. A call for the establishment of an automated bibliographic control system needed to solve the present bibliographic problem in Nigeria.
Author Carlos Antonio LaranjeiraSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 236 –245 (2007)More Less
There is a great diversity of studies and research work on human and social sciences showing how conduct problems involving the young are associated with complex social consequences.
The frequency and dissemination of social discourses confirm an ever-growing number of offences practised by the young, the emergence of which is classified as Juvenile Delinquency.
The following objectives were defined: to debate some of the questions underlying the core of such a phenomenon, in the light of sociological and psychological interpretations, and to investigate the scientific literature published in periodicals indexed by the Medline and Lilacs databases between 1990 and 2004 on the subject of Juvenile Delinquency. In the context of this debate, the scientific literature analysed brought out four thematic focuses: Enigmatic adolescence; Sociological Analysis; Psychological Analysis; from vulnerability to protection.
To include the aforementioned fact in the wide range of adolescence-related questions will be part of our goal, referring to some arguments concerned with its aetiology, prevention and treatment. Proposals to further investigation will also be advanced.
Author Adeboye T. AyindeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 15, pp 246 –260 (2007)More Less