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- Volume 16, Issue 2, 2008
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 16, Issue 2, 2008
Volumes & issues
Volume 16, Issue 2, 2008
Author A.A. OlowuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 1 –22 (2008)More Less
The basic essence of this book project is to make the world a better and safer place to live in. In our little way to achieving this, a team of very bright minds have been invited to put pen to paper to enlighten the world on the history, philosophy, psychology and business implications of xenophobia in today's world that includes Africa.
Some of the writers have even made suggestions on how to stem the malice that has plagued co-existence of mankind for a very long time! Mankind should stop going on that route as much as possible. We should stop mankind's inhumanity to man.
Psychology is the science of behaviour and experiences. Since, we are always behaving and experiencing, psychology is the science of life and living. Psychology is what scientists and philosophers of various persuasions have created to fulfill the need to understanding the minds and behaviour of various organisms from the most primitive to the most complex. Hence it is about many things. It is an attempt to understand what has so far pretty much escaped understanding.
Author A.A. OsuntokunSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 23 –38 (2008)More Less
The last few months in South Africa have witnessed a worrying phenomenon of unprovoked attacks on black foreigners by poor South Africans. The ostensible reasons for these attacks are that the foreigners are responsible for the rising wave of crime particularly in the favelas around the industrial and financial city of Johannesburg. These attacks have also spread to other poor areas surrounding the major cities of South Africa. These attacks have led to questions being asked about precedences or historical examples in other parts of the world for these kind of attacks. Examples abound in almost all continents of the world about this phenomenon rooted in fear of and hatred for foreigners or people considered different from one's own kind. The English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes had once said man and fear are twins and in craving for security man would kill in a war of all against all if there was no powerful sovereign to assure him of his safety. In other words fear is innate in man.
Author A. OlukojuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 39 –51 (2008)More Less
The recent outburst of xenophobic attacks on nationals of other African countries betrayed the pent-up anger or frustration of citizens of the Republic of South Africa and called into question the much trumpeted notion of "African brotherhood," founded on skin pigmentation and a common experience of colonial servitude from as early as the seventeenth century. The South African incident stretched the bond of fraternity to breaking point, especially as the scale and virulence of the attacks surpassed previous incidents of xenophobic attacks in Africa. To be sure, such incidents occurred with varying frequency in colonial and post-colonial Africa and this chapter places them in historical perspective. However, the discussion focuses on the post-independence period, roughly since 1960, when inter-state relations among African peoples were conducted in the framework of the territorial entities bequeathed by various European colonizers. It adopts the post-independence state as the unit of analysis of intra-African relations.
Author P.F. OmoluabiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 53 –71 (2008)More Less
Xenophobia is a multidimensional and multifaceted concept that cuts across many disciplines like Psychopathology, Social Psychology, Psychobiology, Sociology, Anthropology, Race & Racism, Nationalism, Human Geography, History, International Relations, Law, Economics and others. Each of these disciplines has its own special perspective on xenophobia. The aim of this chapter is to focus on the psychological perspective of xenophobia.
The chapter will also examine those areas where the psychological perspective overlaps with the perspectives of some of these other disciplines. This chapter will therefore be devoted to highlighting the psychological concepts, characteristics, theories, causes, effects, assessment, clinical management and prevention of xenophobia. The policy implication of studying xenophobia will also receive attention.
Author A.I. AlarapeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 72 –84 (2008)More Less
Economic development is enhanced by international trade when a country's exports drive its economic growth. Many countries grow far more quickly than they would otherwise have done because of the opening up of international trade. Millions of people are better off in some Asian countries as a result of export-led growth that was the centerpiece of their industrial policy. The forces of globalization have brought rapid sociopolitical change to many parts of the world. The sense of isolation felt in much of the developing world has been reduced by globalization which has given many people in the developing countries access to knowledge well beyond what they can attain alone.
Author O. SoyomboSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 85 –104 (2008)More Less
This chapter examines the problem of xenophobia from a sociological perspective. The chapter discusses the problematique of xenophobia as a subject of study and includes an assessment of the incidence / prevalence of xenophobia in contemporary society, as well as indicators of xenophobia. The chapter also provides historical illustrations of incidences of xenophobia and includes an explanation for the persistence of xenophobia in contemporary society, in spite of the promises of globalization. The chapter concludes with suggestions on the control of xenophobia in contemporary society. The chapter draws from African and Nigerian experiences to illustrate the problem of xenophobia.
Author I.B. OloyedeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 105 –121 (2008)More Less
Although xenophobia is typically defined as a "hatred or fear of foreigners" (South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 1994) or a "strong fear or dislike of people from other countries" (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Edition, 2003), the concept goes beyond this. Research evidences have established xenophobia as a feeling of dislike and hatred by locals which often results in "intense tension and violence against its foreigner-victims (Kollapan, 1999; Tshitereke, 1999; and Harris, 2002).
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 122 –134 (2008)More Less
One of the agents of socialization universally accepted and acclaimed for its role in shaping the thoughts, views, attitudes and behaviors of man is the mass media. The mass media over the years have been able to shape the thoughts, attitudes and behaviors of man because they are purveyors of information as well as instrument of communication. As purveyors of information and instrument of communication, the mass media is one major contributor of what the world is today. There is no doubt that human life depends on communication to make meanings. This underscores the hard fact as stated by an anonymous author thus : "we communicate to live, we live to communicate, the day we cease communicating is the day we give up the ghost".
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 136 –147 (2008)More Less
Tourism has grown to be a major social and economic force in the world today. Tourism majorly contributes to the balance of payment of a nation and also an earner of foreign exchange. Tourism serves a multiplier of income and a generator of employment in the world today.
However one of the major impediments to tourism achieving its economic and social roles is Xenophobia. Safety has always been an important prerequisite for the altraction of international tourists.
Xenophobic attacks puts tourism is a difficult trading environment as it scares tourist away. As tourism aids in building nation's image, this is damaged easily by xenophobic attacks, and also international relation is impeded. Xenophobia destroys the nation's economy structure that tourism might have built, reduces socio-economic benefits accrued to community residents through tourism enterprises. As the world is a global society several tiers of government should take vivid stands against several causes of xenophobia in the society. This would be a stand to stop further decline of economy of social standard of the world society.
Author R.B. AsagbaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 148 –165 (2008)More Less
This paper looks at the logotherapeutic view of xenophobia in South Africa. The author would like to express displeasure at how many Nigerians had quickly reacted by condemning the action and narrated how many countries, especially Nigeria, had given South Africa assistance to gain freedom from the apartheid regime. This was in virtually all dailies in Nigeria. We have not shown maturity in this regard. We need to show maturity like the way the President; Umaru Yar'Adua handled the case by visiting South Africa to discuss with President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa. However, the author personally condemns the barbaric act of xenophobic violence in South Africa.
Author O.T. ArogundadeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 167 –172 (2008)More Less
Man is a social being, whose behaviour is influenced by nature (biological forces) and nurture (societal forces). The biological forces are the inherited traits from the parental genes that promote transmission of behavioural patterns from one generation to the other while the societal forces instill the social norms, values and belief system into individuals that enable him or her to live and behave in an acceptable and appropriate social pattern.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 173 –179 (2008)More Less
In very recent years, there are ample proofs to the fact that the world has indeed become a global village as it were. This phenomenon which is called globalization describes the enhancement of world wide interdependence and the general awareness of deepening global connections.
Globalization entails the growing integration of economies and societies and sometimes referred to as economic globalization. It is the growth of worldwide networks of interdependence which include the large scale operation of finance and business in world scale irrespective of national borders.
Author Ferim ValerySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 180 –188 (2008)More Less
This paper sets out to examine the impediments to South Africa's hegemony in Africa and further recommends on policies and actions, which could be implemented by the country to strengthen its case as a leading and dominant power in the continent. While acknowledging the need for a pilot state in Africa, this paper outlines the features that qualify South Africa as a hegemon in the continent. These include landmass, purchasing power parity, industrial output, military power and international status. The paper then analyses the factors thwarting South Africa's leadership in the continent. These factors circulate around issues related to lack of will power, poverty, income disparity, crime and xenophobia. In the last section, suggestions are made on policy options necessary in bringing the country to the helm of affairs in the continent.
Author A. A. OjomoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 190 –198 (2008)More Less
The Republic of South Africa is the largest and most powerful of the nations situated in the southernmost part of Africa . It came into existence in 1910 through the union of the two British colonies of Cape of Good Hope and Natal and the two former Africaner (Boer) republics of Orange Free State and South African Republic of Transversal.
In May 31 1961 these former loose states became the republic of South Africa. The Republic is made of racially and ethnically diversified population, Blacks, including those in black ethnic homelands make up 72.2% of the population. Coloured that is those of mixed racial origin is 9.1%, the Asians make up 2.8% while the white population is 15.9%, this is divided on linguistic and political lines between the Afrikaners mainly persons of Dutch descent and the English speakers mainly descendants of British settlers. The black population consists of nine main ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Zulu and Xhosa.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 199 –206 (2008)More Less
Quote' keep on loving each other as brothers and sisters. Don't forget to show hospitality to strangers, for some who have done this have entertained angels without realizing it. Remember those in prison as if you were there yourself". Heb 13 : 1-3 Holy Bible New living translation. Second Edition
Author A. HammedSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 208 –224 (2008)More Less
This paper attempts to look at the position of Islamic religion to a vexing and current issue called Xenophobia.
We therefore made spirited effort at explaining what Xenophobia is, and the position of Islam to racism, intolerance and any other inhuman act. We also try to show some of the teachings of prophet Muhammed (SAW) on social relations, the ethics of Islam and lastly, we examine the issue of social justice in Islam. All these were to convince people that Islam exalts brotherhood and detest racism on all its ramifications.
'And believe in what I have revealed, verifying that which is with you, and be not the first to deny it, neither take a mean rice in exchange for my communication; and Me, Me alone should you fear" (Quran 2 : 41) The Holy Quran advises humans to fear only Allah. Fear itself is actually one of the most prevalent ailments in today society. The Anxiety Network International reports that fear and anxiety disorders are the largest health problem in world today. (Richards)
Immigrant - host relationship : a review of anti-Lebanese attitudes in twentieth century West AfricaAuthor I.U. ObiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 226 –241 (2008)More Less
This chapter provides a historical insight into anti-Lebanese attitudes in twentieth century West Africa. In doing this, the present chapter explores the dynamics of relationships between host populations, particularly local African populations and the Lebanese immigrants which provided room for prejudice and hostility towards the Lebanese communities in select countries of West Africa within the period of study.
Author E.S. IdemudiaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 242 –260 (2008)More Less
Objective : The aim of this paper is to describe how male and female African migrants in Germany perceive general life experiences and how this perception affects their wellbeing.
Method : This paper is part of a large cross sectional study of African migrants in Germany. Data was collected from seventy nine (79) African migrants consisting of 58 (73%) males and 21 (26%) females with age in years ranging from 15 to 46 with a mean age of 31.6 (SD) =7.34. Through the snowballing approach participants were reached in the following cities : Bremen, Hamburg, Bonn, Düsseldorf, Köln, Bayreuth, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, and Munich.
Results : Results showed that males experienced more racism and reported more negative life experiences than females. However, females reported more psychological dysfunctions than males on the following measures : anxiety, depression, bizarre mentation, self esteem and negative treatment. There were no significant difference for males and females on health concerns, anger, social discomfort, family problems and work interface.
Conclusion : These results have far reaching implication for mental health potential of migrants and international migration. The results were discussed within the framework of male-female vulnerability and recommendations made in accordance with findings of the study.
Author E.I. OnahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 261 –273 (2008)More Less
The recent anti-immigrant violence that erupted in South Africa in May 2008 did not only shake that country to its roots, but also shocked the rest of the world. Before that ugly incident, South Africa was often referred to as the 'rainbow nation', a term originally coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the country's revered cleric and Nobel laureate, to describe the country's heritage as a land of diverse cultures. In the aftermaths of this latest violence in South Africa, the country has acquired a new reputation as one where xenophobia holds sway.
Xenophobia refers to "the strong feeling of dislike or fear of people from other countries". It is the citizen's disapproval of foreigners living in one's own country or earning a living in one's country. From this viewpoint, it is obvious that the events of May 2008 in South Africa were clearly xenophobic violence. It must be noted however that those events were not the first of its kind as xenophobia has a particularly long history, even in Africa. In the 1980s, Nigeria was awash with anti-immigrant feelings that ultimately culminated in the expulsion of Ghanaians from the country. In the 1990s, it was the turn of Nigerians to be expelled from Equatorial Guinea amid tales of violence and intimidation.
Further back in history, xenophobia has always been a topical issue. Rome had experienced severe stresses after non-Roman members of the empire settled in the capital, and on many occasions, anti-immigrant actions were undertaken by citizens to curtail the influx and influence of foreigners. Between the 17th and 19th centuries, Japan had isolated itself from the outside world in order to prevent the infiltration of foreign ideas into the fatherland. And in the 19th and early 20th centuries, America was the setting for so much ill-will against the influx of Irish, Italian, and Jewish immigrants, this providing the basis for landmark racist laws in the country's past.
Author O.O. IlesanmiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 16, pp 274 –295 (2008)More Less
Escalation of xenophobic attacks and other violence and its impact on world peace is a relevant and contemporary issue in South Africa's democratic history. Safeguarding world peace and promoting the common development of mankind constitute the two cardinal tasks endowed by the United Nations' "Charter. Basically, Article one (1) of the human rights laws state that 'all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood" (Banning, Sepúlveda, Gudmundsdottir & Chamoun, 2004). Hence, the need to search for stable peace and development in the world. Stable peace is the type of peace that brings development, security and happiness to the citizens of the world. However, this is being threatened globally due to various forms of conflict and violence such as the xenophobic attacks in South Africa. The search for stable global peace in this millennium implies serious attempt to eliminate the grinding poverty and ignorance among others. Stable peace and security can only be achieved by people and groups if they do not deprive others of it; this can be achieved if security is conceived as a process of emancipation (Wheeler and Booth in Baylis, 2001, p 300). This is also noted in Article three (3) of the Human Rights Laws :
"Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person."
This paper is interested therefore in showing xenophobic attacks and other violence in South Africa as barriers or obstacles to achieving peace in the world. It recommended religious preaching and psychotherapy amongst other things for stemming the sadistic tide that is spreading across South Africa against migrant workers from neighbouring African countries and the rest of the world.